ALIGARH MUSLIM UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY
Topic- Rural Development:Its Programmes
BA GEOGRAPHY (Arts)
Rural –Rural is an area , where the people are engaged in primary industry
in the sense that they produce things directly for the first time in
cooperation with nature as stated by Srivastava (1961)
Rural Areas – Rural Areas are sparsely settled places away from the
influence of cities and towns. Such areas are distinct from more intensively
settled urban and suburban areas, and also from unsettled lands such as
out back or wildness. Rural areas can have an agricultural Characterized by
an economy based on logging, mining, oil and gas exploration, or tourism.
Development- Development is process that creates growth, progress,
positive change or the addition of physical, economic , environmental
social and demographic components.
Development is a process that creates ,brings in progress and positive
. It is a strategy designed to improve the economic and social life of rural
. It is all about bringing change in rural community from the traditional
way of living to progressive way living . It is also expressed as a movement
Objectives of the study of Rural
. To Analyse what is Rural Development
. To Discuss governmental programs
. To discuss governmental policies
. To suggest Remedial measures
. To improve productivity and wages of rural people
. To provide the basic needs: elementary education, healthcare, clean drinking
water, rural roads, etc.
Rural Development Programmes
1 . Programmes for self and wage employment
2. Rural infrastructure and basic minimum needs
3. Natural resource management
4. Social security
(a)MANREGA- Guaranteeing wage employment
. August 25, 2005
. Employment guarantee act designed to provide job
guarantee for at least 100 days in rural parts of the
country through this scheme , all the adult members
(at least 18 years of age) of the any family in rural part
of the country are given non-skilled work.
1 . Programmes for self and wage
2. PROGRAMMES FOR RURAL INFRASTRUCTURE AND MINIMUM
(a). Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
. 25 DEC 2000 – ADAL BIHARI VAJPAYEE
. To provide good all weather road connectivity to eligible unconnected habitations
in rural areas with population of 500 persons above in plain areas.
. It is managed by national rural roads development.
. 4,22,031 Km – Completed length.
(b). PRADHAN MANTRI GRAMODAYA YOJANA
.Aim- reducing the shortage of houses for BPL families in rural
areas and also assist in the healthy development of habitat in
3. PROGRAMMES FOR NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
(a).INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME
. To restore the ecological balance by harnessing conserving , and
developing degraded natural resources such as soil, vegetations and
. Outcome- prevention of soil erosion, regeneration of natural
Vegetation , rain water harvesting and recharging of ground water
4.PROGRAMMES FOR SOCIAL SECURITY
(a). NATIONAL FAMILY BENEFIT SCHEME
. In the event of death of bread winner of a house old the
Family will receive lump sum assistance of rs. 20,000.
. Bread winner should have been between 18-60.
(b) . ANNAPOORNA
. Provide food security
. 10 kg of free rice provided every month to beneficiaries
(c). ANTYODAYA ANNA YOJANA
. 25 dec2000
. Food security
. 35 kg of rice and wheat @ rs. 3 and rs .2 respectively.
1. Labour Intensive Techniques: As there is disguised unemployment in
our agriculture sector, labour intensive techniques should be adopted in
rural industrial units.
2. Government Role: Government should take steps to provide
infrastructure, warehousing facilities, offer assistance to marketing and to
export the goods of rural entrepreneurs to foreign countries.
3. Exploitation of Village resources: For example where ever there is
scope for wind and solar energy, can be fully exploited for rural
Apart from strengthening the agricultural sector, rural entrepreneurship plays a vital role
in the economic development of India, particularly in the rural economy. It helps in
generating employment opportunities in the rural areas with low capital, raising the real
income of the people, contributing to the development of agriculture by reducing
disguised unemployment, under employment, unemployment, poverty, migration and
economic disparity. Government should go for appraisal of various rural development
schemes and programmes in order to uplift rural areas. Rural development and rural
entrepreneurship is the way of converting developing country into developed nation.