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Biogiochemical cycle ppt

  2. Biogeochemical Cycle Whenever some nutrient are transfer in living organism as well as in their non-living environment that is called biogeochemical cycle. Bio is related to living organism geo is related to earth. Chemical news chemical compound we can say some nutrient which are use for plants as well as for animals which may be nitrogen, carbon , sulpher , oxygen. And cycle is related to circulation. Biogeochemical cycle can be present in two ways :-
  3. I. Gaseous cycle In gaseous cycle we will discuss about nitrogen cycle , carbon cycle II. Sedimentary cycle Phosphorus cycle Sulphur cycle
  4. Carbon Cycle  The carbon cycle is the process is which carbon travels from the atmosphere into organism and the earth and then back into the atmosphere.  The Biological Carbon Cycle Carbon enters all food webs, both terrestrial and aquatic through autotrophic .  Autorophs captures co2 from the air water and use to wake organic compound such as glucose.  Heterotrophs Humans , consume the organic molecules and the organic carbon is passed through food chain and webs.
  5. The geological carbon cycle  It is longer pathway takes millions of year , carbon returned through geological pathway. Carbon are strode is ocean sediments soil ,rocks , fossil fuels
  6. What is the carbon ?  An element : 6 protons , 6 neutrons.  The basic of life of earth .  Found in all earth system . Carbon Cycle :- The same carbon atoms are used repeatedly on earth. The cycle between the atmosphere , hydrosphere , geosphere and biosphere.
  7. Process that transfer carbon. • photosynthesis • Respiration • Consumption • Decomposition • Combustion • Weathering of rock • Vaporization
  8. Animal consume and release carbon • When organism eat plants or other organism .They take in the carbon and source of it becomes part of their own bodies. • When they berth , They release carbon
  9. Plants And Animals Die • When plants and animals die , most of their bodies are decomposed and carbon atoms are returned to the atmosphere. • Some are not decomposed fully and end up in geosphere deposits underground or at the bottom of ocean.
  10. Natural Combustion • Forest and grass fires are a natural and release carbon into atmosphere . • Fire return carbon to the soil.
  11. Carbon in ocean • Oceans store large amount of carbon • Largest amount of carbon is exchange by carbon cycle through the process of vaporization. • Many animals pull carbon from water to use in the shells etc.When these animals die, The carbon substances are deposited at the bottom of ocean.
  12. Carbon Cycle Carbon in ocean water Carbon in atmosphere Carbon in rock Evaporation Dissolution Weathering Tectonics Plants Soil marine sediment Fossil fuels Consumption Lithification Decomposition Respiration
  13. • Photosynthesis‘ gain carbon in the form of CO2 for making food . • Cellular respiration , Combustion and erosion of limestone return. • Carbon to the water and atmosphere of the biotic environment.
  14. Why carbon cycle is important ? • Through Photosynthesis and respiration , it is the way the earth produces food and other renewable resources. • Carbon plays central role in combustion. • Through decomposition ,it serves as the earth’s waste disposal system.
  15. Why carbon is bad for humans ? Carbon dioxide becomes a poisonous gas when there is too much of it in the air you breath. Besides the effects it can have on the planet and the atmosphere, carbon dioxide poisoning can lead to central nervous system damage and respiratory deterioration in humans and other breathing creatures.
  16. Human impacts on the carbon cycle  When fossils fuels are burned , co2 is released into the air , increasing use of fossils fuels has led to elevated levels of atmospheric co2 . Deforestation  The cutting down of contributor to increasing co2 . Levels trees and other parts of a forest ecosystem sequester carbon and much of the carbon is release as co2. if the forest is cleared.  Some of the extra co2 is produced by human activities is taken up by plants or absorbed by the ocean , but this process is not enough . So atmospheric co2 is risen day by day.
  17. Nitrogen Cycle The nitrogen cycle is the process by which nitrogen is converted between its various chemical forms . This transformation can be carried out through both biological and physical process.
  18. Forms of Nitrogen a) Organic nitrogen as - • Ammonium (NH4-) • Nitrite (NO2-) • Nitrate ( NO3-) • Nitrous Oxide (N2O) • Nitric Oxide (NO) b) Inorganic nitrogen as - • Nitrogen gas (N2)
  19. Steps 1) Nitrogen Fixation 2) Nitrogen assimilation 3) Ammonification 4) Nitrification 5) Denitrification 6) Sedimentation
  20. 1) Nitrogen fixation Conversion of free nitrogen into nitrogenous compounds. a) Biological nitrogen fixation Symbiotic bacteria , blue – green algae can fix nitrogen to the soil. E.g. – Rhizobium . b) Non-biological nitrogen fixation Atmospheric nitrogen combines with oxygen during lighting and produce nitrogen oxides. N2 + 2(O) 2NO + 2(O) 2NO 2NO2
  21. c) Industrial nitrogen fixation Under high pressure and temp. , hydrogen and atmospheric nitrogen combine is the form of ammonia (NH3).
  22. 2) Nitrogen assimilation Inorganic nitrogen in the form of nitrates , nitrites and ammonia is absorbed by the green plants , it is converted into nitrogenous organic compounds. 3) Ammonification It is the process of releasing ammonium by certain micro organism utilizing organic compounds derived from dead organic plants and animals.
  23. 4) Nitrification Nitrification is a process of enzymatic oxidation of a ammonia to nitrate by certain micro organisms in soil and ocean. 5) Denitrification Denitrification is the reduction of nitrates back into the largely inert nitrogen gas (N2).
  24. 6) Sedimentation Nitrates of soil are locked up in the rock while they are washed down to the sea or leached deeply into the earth along with water.
  25. Nitrogen Cycle Atmospheric Nitrogen Nitrogen fixing bacteria and blue green algae fix nitrogen Bactria turn compounds of nitrogen into gaseous nitrogen Lighting fixes Nitrogen Bactria turn fix nitrogen into nitrogenous compounds Compounds of nitrogen in the soil Nitrogenous Waste Uptake by plants Animals eat plants
  26. Human impact on the nitrogen cycle Excessive use of fertilizers has added lots of nitrates (NO3 -1 ) to the soil, leading to: Eutrophication :-  Nitrates travel in the spring runoff and cause algae to grow rapidly in lakes and ponds.  Bactria that decompose dead algae consume oxygen , causing less oxygen to be available for aquatic organisms death