A learning disability is a neurological disorder.
In simple terms, a learning disability results from a
difference in the way a person's brain is "wired.“
Children with learning disabilities are as smart as or
smarter than their peers. But
They may have difficulty in reading, writing, spelling,
and reasoning, recalling and/or organizing information.
(Fletcher et al, 2001)
3. FIVE COMMON LDs INCLUDE
Visual processing Disorder &
Non verbal Learning Disorder.
4. ETIOLOGY OF LEARNING DISABILITIES.
There are likely to be different causes but in most cases, the
cause (Etiology) of a child’s learning disability is unknown.
Four suspected causal factors are
(Myers & Hammill, 1990)
5. ETIOLOGY OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
Brain Damage or Dysfunction
Some professionals believe that all children with learning
disabilities suffer from some type of brain injury or
dysfunction of the central nervous system
Learning disorders are presumed to be due to central
nervous system dysfunction.
6. ETIOLOGY OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
The actual structure of the brain of some children with
reading disabilities is slightly different from that of children
Individuals with certain genetic syndromes may have an
increased risk of manifesting a particular type of learning
7. ETIOLOGY OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
Research into these syndromes has revealed that girls with
Turner syndrome and fragile X syndrome and boys with
Klinefelter syndrome tend to have visual-perceptual
There is growing evidence that genetics may account for at
least some family links with dyslexia
8. ETIOLOGY OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
Biochemical disturbances within a child’s body may also be
a cause of learning disabilities.
It is also suggested that learning disabilities can be caused
by the inability of a child’s bloodstream to synthesize a
normal amount of vitamins.
9. ETIOLOGY OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
Today, most professionals in learning disabilities give
little credence to biochemical imbalance as a
significant cause of children’s learning problems
Impoverished living conditions early in a child’s life can
contribute to LDs (Malnutrition).
10. ETIOLOGY OF LEARNING DISABILITIES
Another environmental variable that is likely to contribute
to children’s learning problems is the quality of instruction
Infants and toddlers who received infrequent
communication exchanges with their parents were more
likely to show deficits in vocabulary, language use, and
intellectual development before entering school
11. Students with learning disabilities may suffer from
Emotional problems/Depression, and/or low Self-esteem.
This may cause students to withdraw
These same students may turn to drugs or alcohol for
relief from feelings of low self-worth.
COMMON ISSUES RELATED TO IDs
12. COMMON ISSUES RELATED TO IDs
As many as 35% of students with learning disorders,
drop out of High School (Girod, 2001).
“Teenagers with dyslexia …[are] more likely to…think
about and to attempt suicide than other young people their
age” (Landau, 2004).
13. ISSUES RELATED TO PARENTS/TEACHERS &
PUBLIC IN GENERAL
Parents do not pay proper attention to this malady in their
They are snubbed/ignore by their teachers and
concequently they bunk and eventually they leave school.
In general these students with learning disabilities are
considered as dunces.