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# HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING Unit 1 introduction

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Dear Students/Faculties,
I am uploading detailed notes on HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING (10EE73) -UNIT 1 for meeting the requirement of VTU, Belagavi syllabus.
Best Regards
Vineeth Kumar P K
Assistant Professor
Dept. of E&E
SDM Institute of Technology, Ujire, D.K, Karnataka, India

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### HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING Unit 1 introduction

1. 1. [PART-A] Unit 1 INTRODUCTION Prepared by Vineeth Nambiar Assistant professor Dept of EEE SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 7/21/2017 1Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka
2. 2. Syllabus Introduction to HV technology, need for generating high voltages in laboratory. Industrial applications of high voltage, Electrostatic precipitation, separation, painting and printing. 6Hours 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 2
3. 3. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 3 Courtesy- Wikipedia What is high voltage….? Definition
4. 4. What is high voltage…? • The term high voltage (HV) usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to cause harm on living organisms. • In electric power transmission engineering, high voltage is usually considered any voltage over approximately 35,000 volts. • In electric power transmission engineering, voltage more than 3,45,000 volts between conductors is termed as Extra high voltage (EHV). 7/21/2017 4Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka
5. 5. What is high voltage….? •Accidental contact with high voltage supplying sufficient energy may result in severe injury or death. • This can occur as a person's body provides a path for current flow, causing tissue damage and heart failure. Other injuries can include burns from the arc generated by the accidental contact. •Low-energy exposure to high voltage may be harmless 7/21/2017 5Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka
6. 6. Introduction to HV Technology • HV technologies uses at power systems, industries & Research labs. • In the area of power systems especially for bulk power transmission High voltage power transmission is required. • In industries the following equipments like electrostatic precipitators (EPS) , X ray equipments, auto mobile ignition coil etc. are commonly using. • Research labs using HV for doing nuclear research, particle accelerators (Van de Graff generators). 7/21/2017 6Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka
7. 7. • Optimum design of insulation is required for HV technologies. • Dielectric strength, corona discharge etc are considered for optimum design of insulation. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 7 Introduction to HV Technology
8. 8. What is happening now….??? Any new technologies other than HV power transmission…? - STATCOM & HVDC are the alternative bulk power transfer system. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 8 Introduction to HV Technology
9. 9. Deliver a brief talk on 1. STATCOM 2. HVDC Power transmission 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 9 Introduction to HV Technology
10. 10. Need for generating HV in laboratory • To test the equipments such as transformers, bushing of transformers, cable, capacitors & switch gears. • To confirm the reliability & efficiency of the equipments or products. • To study the insulation behavior under high voltage. • To Determine the safety factor. The ratio of puncture strength to flashover voltage is known as safety factor. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 10
11. 11. • To determine the working margin. • Testing of equipments for HVDC application • Testing of power apparatus rated for extra high transmission voltage. • Simulate the over voltage that occur in power system due to lighting or switching surges. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 11 Need for generating HV in laboratory Continued………
12. 12. Need for high voltage transmission line • HV lines are used for transmitting electric power for a long distance • Let ‘P’ be the power to be transmitted, Resistance of transmission line will be ‘R’ Power P =V*I We have the equation for power loss P Loss = I^2* R = (P/V) ^2 * R P Loss α 1/ (V^2) • ‘P’ and ‘R’ are fixed in the conductor, less power will be lost if high voltage ‘V’ are used & efficiency will be improved. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 12
13. 13. Applications of High Voltage • Electrostatic precipitator-Air pollution control • Electrostatic copying • Electrostatic printing • Electrostatic separation • Plasma based application • Cosmology study of space • Jet propulsion laboratory • High voltage or current pulse generator • Electrostatic coating of material • Electrostatic Painting 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 13
14. 14. Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS) What is Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS) …..? • An electrostatic precipitator (EPS) is a filtration device that removes fine particles, like dust and smoke, from a flowing gas using the force of an induced electrostatic charge minimally impeding the flow of gases through the unit. (Electrostatic attraction) • It is based on law of electrostatics. • EPS is working based on High Voltage 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 14
15. 15. • Electrical equipment for producing high voltage supply is necessary for the ESP. • A high voltage transformer( to step up line voltage) & rectifier (ac-dc) provide power necessary for the precipitation process. • It is widely used to control particulate emission from boiler & industrial process. • It uses electrical force to capture particle from the incoming gas. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 15 Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS)
16. 16. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 16 Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS) + - Positive electrode Negative electrodeElectric field Gas flows Clean gas exit • Particles are attracted to Collector electrodes And forming dust layer. •High voltage supply is required in between collector electrodes Schematic Diagram (Discharge Electrode) (Collection Electrode)
17. 17. Basic block diagram 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 17 Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS) Interconnect AC supply to control scheme
18. 18. • Applications of Electrostatic precipitator - Solid waste incinerators - Basic oxygen furnace - Glass furnace - Electric arc furnace - Coal fired boiler - cement kilns - Ash handling unit in steam thermal power station 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 18 Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS)
19. 19. Classification of Electrostatic precipitator 7/21/2017 Dept. of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 19 Flat plate electrostatic precipitator Plate wire electrostatic precipitator Tabular electrostatic precipitator Wet electrostatic precipitator Dry precipitators Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS)
20. 20. Classification of Electrostatic precipitator Plate wire collectors • Maintain the gas flow in between two parallel wires • Weighted and long wires • HV supply is provided by step up transformer, high voltage rectifier & filter • Possible to adjust the voltage 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 20 Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS) For further reading purpose….
21. 21. Classification of Electrostatic precipitator Plate wire collectors • Maintain the distance between two wires such a way that it should free from corona 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 21 Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS)
22. 22. Classification of Electrostatic precipitator Flat plate precipitator • It has high surface area • Average electric field is high • It is suitable for collecting particle having high resistivity , small & medium diameter Eg. Fly ash can be collected by using flat plate precipitator. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 22 Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS)
23. 23. Classification of Electrostatic precipitator Flat plate precipitator 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 23 Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS)
24. 24. Classification of Electrostatic precipitator Tabular precipitator • Tubular structure • Tubes may be circular or hexagonal • High voltage electrode running in the axis of the tube • Many tubes can operate parallel for increased gas flows. • Used when the particulate (pollutant) having wet or sticky nature. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 24 Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS)
25. 25. Classification of Electrostatic precipitator Wet electrostatic precipitator 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 25 Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS) •Available in different shapes like Circular, hexagonal , rectangular Etc
26. 26. Classification of Electrostatic precipitator Wet electrostatic precipitator • The wet electrostatic precipitator mostly works on the same principle as the dry electrostatic precipitator. • It has been specifically developed to realize higher yields for water-soluble aerosols, which are more difficult to separate with a dry electrostatic precipitator. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 26 Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS)
27. 27. Classification of Electrostatic precipitator Wet electrostatic precipitator • The collected dust is removed by using rinsing fluid (rinsing= removal by fluid like soap). • This takes place by periodically spraying the filter or by collecting droplets from the added gas stream. • In both cases, the liquid droplets move, under the influence of the electrical field, to the collector electrode so that a downward-flowing liquid film is created on the electrode. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 27 Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS)
28. 28. Components of Electrostatic precipitator 1. Discharge electrode 2. Collection electrode 3. Rappers 4. Electrical system( Transformer-Rectifier- Filter) 5. Hoppers 6. Shell 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 28 Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS)
29. 29. Components of Electrostatic precipitator 1. Discharge electrode • Impart electrical charge to the particles • Having small diameter 2. Collection electrode • To collect the charged particle • Different shapes- tubes, flat plate etc • Charge opposite to that of discharge electrode 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 29 Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS)
30. 30. Components of Electrostatic precipitator 3. Electrical system • Consists of transformer- Rectifier- Filter • Control the strength of electric field between discharge & collection electrodes. 4. Rappers • Mechanism for providing vibration or shock to both collector & discharge electrodes. • Vibration or shock causes the particle attracted towards the electrodes. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 30 Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS)
31. 31. 5. Hoppers • Used to collect & temporarily store the particle removed during rapping. • Hoppers located at the bottom of an ESP • A few particle settled by gravity 6. Shell • Encloses the electrodes • Support ESP components • Maintain proper electrode configuration • Shell covered with insulation to conserve the heat & prevent corrosion. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 31 Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS)
32. 32. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 32 Rappers Flue gas inFresh gas out Construction Discharge & Collection Electrodes Hopper Electrostatic Precipitator (EPS)
33. 33. • It is also called as Electrostatic Separator • It has two electrodes • It works on the principle of corona discharge • The high voltage is used to separate the ionized particles Areas of application:- (a) Pollution Control Usually these are used in power plants where the harmful gases coming out of the chimneys are first treated using electrostatic separator. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 33 Separation Using High Voltage
34. 34. • It has positive electrodes & negative electrodes. • Positive ions from the pollutant particle attracted towards negative electrode & vice versa. (b) Chemical engineering:- • It is possible to separate biodiesel from glycerin or Animal oil or Vegetable oil using electrolysis. • Increase the efficiency of chemical process 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 34 Separation Using High Voltage
35. 35. Features of high voltage paint • High quality • High paint flow capability ie 700mL/min • Increased paint performance • Excellent finish • Maximum transfer efficiency of paint • Superior colour change performance • Reduced cycle time 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 35 High Voltage Paint
36. 36. How…..? • High Voltage painting can be done by using a device called as “High Speed Rotating Atomizer”. • Example for “High Speed Rotating Atomizer” is “ECOBELL2”. • “ECOBELL2” has a pipe like structure which support for uniform paint by using HV. Maximum voltage required is 100kV . 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 36 High Voltage Paint
37. 37. Present scenario of HV painting technology….? • ECOBELL3 is implemented. • Based on Robotic control. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 37 High Voltage Paint
38. 38. How does it work……? • Paint droplets can give by using high speed rotating atomizer. • The attraction force between paint droplet & the part being painted are caused by a difference in polarity. • The surface which is to be painted directly connected to the ground. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 38 High Voltage Paint
39. 39. Block Diagram 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 39 High Voltage Paint Voltage block Or Voltage Generator Grounded gun mover Surface need to be done painting Paint
40. 40. HIGH VOLTAGE PRINTING • The use of electrical discharge as means of creating images in a photographic media is termed as high voltage printing. • HV PCB design is one of the example for HV Printing. • Glassy poxed PCB is suitable for HV printing application. • Rapidly produces high quality text • Retinal Pigment Epithelium is used for making HV images. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 40
41. 41. • High voltage printing requires the voltage ranges in between 3000V to 100kV 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 41 HIGH VOLTAGE PRINTING
42. 42. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 42 HIGH VOLTAGE PRINTING High Voltage Power Source - - - - - Drum •Drum used to rotate continuously •Drum select the charged toner particle •Transfer the image to the paper •Which heated permanently •Fixed the image - - - - - - Toner particle + + + + + Stepper Motor
43. 43. Advantages & Disadvantages of HV power transmission Advantages • Reduced transmission line losses • Better efficiency • Improvement in voltage regulation. Disadvantages • Increased insulation level • With increase in the voltage of transmission, more clearance is required between conductors and ground. Hence higher towers are required. 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 43
44. 44. Review Questions Q1. What are the advantages of transmitting electrical power at high voltage? What are the applications of high voltages ? 10 Marks (Dec 2013/Jan 2014, December 2011, June/ July 2011, Dec 2009, May/ June 2009, June/july 2015) 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 44
45. 45. Q2. List the advantages of high voltage power transmission. 06 Marks (June/July 2013, May 2007) 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 45 Review Questions
46. 46. Q3. Explain the need of high voltage in the laboratory. 06 Marks (Dec.2013/Jan 2014, December 2010, June/July 2015) 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 46 Review Questions
47. 47. Q4. Explain the working principle of electrostatic precipitator and electrostatic painting 08 Marks (December 2011) 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 47 Review Questions
48. 48. Q5. What are the industrial applications of high voltages? 08 Marks (June/July 2013) 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 48 Review Questions
49. 49. Assignment Test -1 Max 40 Marks 1. What are the advantages of transmitting electrical power at high voltage? What are the applications of high voltages ? 10 Marks 2. Explain the need of high voltage in the laboratory. 06 Marks 3. Explain the working principle of electrostatic precipitator and electrostatic painting 08 Marks 4. What you meant by High Voltage Printing? 06 Marks 5. Explain the construction of Electrostatic Precipitator. 05 Marks 6. List the applications of High Voltage 05 Marks 7/21/2017 Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka 49
50. 50. 7/21/2017 50Dept.of EEE, SDMIT, Ujire, Karnataka