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# PPT on 33/11 sub-station uppcl

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PPT ON 33/11KV SUBSTATION
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# PPT on 33/11 sub-station uppcl

presentation on 33/11

presentation on 33/11

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### PPT on 33/11 sub-station uppcl

1. 1. RAJKIYA ENGINEERING COLLEGE, AMBEDKAR NAGAR PRESENTATION ON SUMMER TRAINING FROM UPPCL 33/11 KV SUB-STATION BASTI (U.P.) PRESENTED BY : SUBMITTED TO : DIGVIJAY PAL MR. NITISH KR. YADAV ROLL NO.-1473720014 (ASST. PROF. EE DEPT.)
2. 2. CONTENTS  SUBSTATION  SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM  CONCEPT OF BUS  EQUIPMENTS AT BUS STATION  PARTS OF TRANSFORMER  TESTING IN TRANSFORMER  REFERENCES
3. 3. WHAT IS A SUBSTATION ? A substation is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, and distribution system. Substations transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions. Electric power may flow through several substations between generating plant and consumer, and its voltage may change in several steps.
4. 4. SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM Single Line Diagrams do not show the exact electrical connections of the circuits. As the name suggests, SLDs use a single line to represent all three phases. They show the relative electrical interconnections of generators, transformers, transmission and distribution lines, loads, circuit breakers, etc., used in assembling the power system. The amount of information included in an SLD depends on the purpose for which the diagram is used.
5. 5. CONCEPT OF BUS 1. The concept of bus is Same as the concept of a node in an electrical circuit. 2. There is one bus for each phase. 3. Shown in SLDs as lines connecting equipment to the buses. 4. Made of aluminum or copper bars or pipes and can be several meters long. 5. The impedance of buses is very low, practically zero, so electrically the whole bus is at the same potential.
6. 6. EQUIPMENTS AT THE SUBSTATION 1.MAJOR EQUIPMENT: POWER TRANSFORMERS 2.MEASURING INSTRUMENTS: A) CURRENT TRANSFORMER B) POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER 3.PROTECTING DEVICES: A) ISOLATOR B) CIRCUIT BREAKER C) RELAY D) LIGHTNING ARRESTOR
7. 7. 1. Transformer Tank 2.High Voltage Bushing 3. Low Voltage Bushing 4.Cooling Fins/Radiator 5. Cooling Fans 6. Conservator Tank 7. System Ground Terminal 8. Drain Valve 9.Dehydrating breather 10. Oil Temperature/Pressure gauges 11. Bushing Current Transformers 12. Control Panel 13. Surge Arresters PARTS OF THE TRANSFORMER
8. 8. 2. ISOLAOTRS It is just like a switch is used to make sure that an electrical circuit can be completely de- energized for service or maintenance. Difference b/w Isolator and circuit Breaker The major difference between an isolator and a circuit breaker is that an isolator is an off-load device intended to be opened only after current has been interrupted by some other control device.
9. 9. CIRCUIT BREAKER 1.The basic functions of circuit breaker is protection, which is interruption of short-circuit and overload fault currents. 2. High-voltage breakers are nearly always solenoid-operated, with current sensing protective relays operated through current transformers. High-voltage breakers are broadly classified by the medium used to extinguish the arc. 1.Bulk oil 2.Minimum oil 3.Air blast 4.Vacuum 5.SF6 A sulfur hexafluoride circuit breaker uses contacts surrounded by sulfur hexafluoride gas to quench the arc. They are most often used for transmission-level voltages and may be incorporated into compact gas- insulated switchgear. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) high-voltage circuit-breakers
10. 10. RELAY A protective relay is an electromechanical apparatus, often with more than one coil, designed to calculate operating conditions on an electrical circuit and trip circuit breakers when a fault is detected. DISTANCE RELAY The most common form of protection on high voltage transmission systems is distance relay protection. Power lines have set impedance per km. and using this value and comparing voltage and current the distance to a fault can be determined.
11. 11. LIGHTNING ARRESTOR 1. A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power systems to protect the insulation and conductors of the system from the damaging effects of lightning. 2. When a lightning surge travels along the power line to the arrester, the current from the surge is diverted through the arrestor, in most cases to earth.
12. 12. CURRENT TRANSFORMER AND POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER 1. Current transformers, together with potential transformers (PT) are known as instrument transformers. 2. When current in a circuit is too high to directly apply to measuring instruments, a current transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to the current in the circuit, which can be conveniently connected to measuring and recording instruments. Potential Transformer or Voltage Transformer are used in electrical power system for stepping down the system voltage to a safe value which can be fed to low ratings meters and relays. Commercially available relays and meters used for protection and metering, are designed for low voltage.
13. 13. Main components of a transformer are: •Magnetic core •Primary and secondary windings •Insulation of windings •Expansion tank or conservator •Tank , oil , cooling arrangement , temperature gauge, oil gauge •Buchholz relay •Silica gel breather
14. 14. (1) MAGNETIC CORE •Magnetic core consists of an iron core. The core is laminated and made of silicon steel. •Thickness varies from 0.35mm to 0.5mm. •Laminations are insulated from each other by coating then with a thin coat of varnish. •Various types of stampings and laminations employed in the construction of transformers. There are two types of transformer cores ,they are (a) Shell type (b)Core type Shell type – Two windings are carried by central limb. Core is made up of E and I stampings and has three limbs. Has two parallel paths for magnetic flux. Core type- Has two limbs for two windings and is made up of two L-type stampings. Has only one magnetic path.
15. 15. (2) Winding •There are two windings in a transformer. •They are primary and secondary windings. •Made up of copper. (3) Insulating oil •The coil used in transformer protects the paper from dirt and moisture and removes the heat produced in the core and coils, •It also acts as insulating medium. Oil must possess following properties: •High dielectric strength •Free from inorganic acid , alkali and corrosive sulphur. •Low viscosity to provide good heat transfer. • Good resistance to emulsion so that the oil may throw down any moisture entering the tank instead of holding it.
16. 16. REFERENCES  http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/UP- withdraws-1000MW-power-from-central- pool/articleshow  http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/uttar- Pradesh-power-corporation-limited  www.encyclopediadramatica.com/  www.worldbook.com