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Diagnosing Human Relations in Organizations

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Diagnosing Human Relations in Organizations

  1. 1. Review Reviewed Work(s): Diagnosing Human Relations in Organizations by Chris Argyris Review by: Harriet N. Smith Source: The American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 59, No. 12 (Dec., 1959), pp. 1765-1766 Published by: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Stable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3417851 Accessed: 09-12-2022 22:45 UTC JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at https://about.jstor.org/terms Lippincott Williams & Wilkins is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The American Journal of Nursing This content downloaded from 162.245.248.168 on Fri, 09 Dec 2022 22:45:06 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms
  2. 2. pediatric psychiatrist who for 10 years has been a member of the world re- nowned Child Development Research Unit of the Tavistock Clinic and Insti- tute of Human Relations, London, Eng- land. This reviewer would like to recom- mend that Young Children in Hospitals be required reading for everyone work- ing in a children's department or a children's hospital. The main thesis of this book is that "the young child has a primary need of a warm, intimate, and continuous re- lationship to his mother (or permanent mother substitute)" and that it is a serious matter to separate the child under foulr years from his mother. The first part of the book develops the thesis, the second part presents case histories of three young hospital- ized children who exhibit different aspects of emotional trauma, and the third part suggests some implications for improving hospital practice. Dr. Robertson strongly advocates that, whenever possible, mothers re- main with hospitalized children under four years and, when this is not feasible, that unrestricted visiting be permitted for parents or parent substi- tutes. He presents a good argument for the case method of patient assignment in preference to either functional or team nursing, for increased under- standing of normal child growth and developmental needs, and for a 4-week student nurse assignment in a "well- run" nursery school. This thought-provoking book calls for more humane hospital care for children with clear implications that, if hospital personnel do not act soon and favorably, the public will.--BEULAH GAUTEFALD, associate professor, Uni- versity of North Carolina School of Nursing, Chapel Hill. Diagnosing Human Relations in Organizations By Chris Argyris. 120 pages. New Haven, Conn., Yale University, Labor and Management Center, 1956.Price $2. IN RECENT years, investigators in allied fields have shown a great deal of in- terest in the study of hospital person- nel, especially nursing personnel. The interpersonal relationships and social problems inherent in the hospital set- ting provide challenging situations for such studies. In this report on a study of organiza- tional behavior. Chris Argyris recog- nized "two persistent problem areas in our attempt to develop a reliable and valid method of diagnosing human re- lations problems. . . . The first area concerns the conducting of an organiza- tion diagnosis which gives the ad- ministrator an over-all picture of, and at the same time measures the degree of satisfactions of the individual em- ployee. . . . The second problem has to do with helping the management and the employees become more aware of the part that they play in causing the problems that they want to eliminate." In order to analyze these two prob- lem areas, researchers asked both man- agement and nurses what their particu- lar nursing problems were, and what suggestions they had for action. Sixty- eight nurses, including 11 supervisors, 17 head nurses, and 40 staff nurses were asked 24 questions about their jobs, their relationships with others, their attitudes toward their work, and their feelings as persons with regard to nursing and supervision. Important Successful reducin requires the r opera•.sonalchart to b fdateattart odietd in by of both patient and physician. Asp.wnt patient.d otSemum ?rght frbuld, caloriestant:: you need to have your diet spinally adjustd t , of dit, and number of istpound toelostdiet. Specia to yol R edu cingBrochu reduing oased. on r k.Food Exchanges. . Yourphysicianneeds to ha~e objeltc c%,- IVATI .,T--;,le.•i fll in allother inforration, :: ( our progamr .The chart ouAied bdress) i eighing Itisnot desirable to check weight designed to aid both aims c-,erNday. •i): YOUR CHECK-UP CHART 0 * eo - :.*r *0t KNOX 00ELATINE, INC. Professional Service Department Please send me ........ dozen copies of the new KNOX Special Reducing Brochure based on Food Exchanges. (Your Name and Address) This content downloaded from 162.245.248.168 on Fri, 09 Dec 2022 22:45:06 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms
  3. 3. It was found that the nurses needed to feel indispensable both personally and because of their nursing skill but, at the same time, they wanted to main- tain their self-control and their har- monious relations with others. They wished to be independent, not closely supervised. Furthermore, they found satisfaction in caring for patients and did not aspire to supervisory or ad- ministrative positions. Suggestions are given as to how man- agement might develop understanding of the nurses' predispositions and ad- just the organizational pattern to pro- vide greater work satisfactions. There are also implications for nursing edu- cators in planning curriculums for schools of nursing. This report has value for administrators and nurses for two reasons: it reveals and analyzes sources of pressures and tensions within the hospital, and it suggests corrective measures which might be taken to overcome these pressures and tensions. In addition, it describes a research procedure which should be useful in making further studies in this area.-- HARRIET N. SIrTH, assistant professor of nursing, University of Washington, Seattle. Essentials of Pediatrics By Philip C. Jeans, F. Howell Wright, and Florence Blake. 6th ed. 714 pages. Philadelphia, J. B. Lip- pincott Co., 1958.Price $6.00. DESIGNED to acquaint the student with the essentials of pediatric nursing, this scholarly textbook is profusely illus- trated with charts and tables that will prove beneficial to both student and teacher. The general thesis of this book is that the nurse, who is continually dealing with children and parents, necessarily becomes a participant in the cultivation of personalities. Through her understanding she has many opportunities to influence indi- vidual growth and to satisfy family living. To do this she must be well versed in the expected changes of per- sonality growth and the effects which parental attitudes toward health and disease may bear upon such growth. The organization of the material is planned so as to enhance learning situations. Unit I confines itself to the expected growth and development of children, including the requirements for optimal nutrition. Unit II considers the kinds, incidence, and severity of diseases among children, and the meas- ures which can be used to forestall Nurse Authors in Current Periodical Literature These articles, written by nurses, appeared in recent year- books and scientific,general, and professional periodicals (exclud- ing hospital and nursingperiodi- cals and yearbooks). BROWN, AMY FRANCES. The importance of hospital and nurs- ing school librariesto the nursing profession. Bull.Med.LibraryAs- soc. 47:258-263, July 1959. DOUGHERTY, ANNE, AND OTHERS. Hearingresponsesand audiologic screeningin infants.J.Pediat.55: 382-390, Sept. 1959. FREE, MARY LOUISE. Volunteer vision screening in South Caro- lina. Sight-SavingRev. 29:92-95, Summer 1959. FRENCH, CAROLYN, AND OTHERS. Observationson Asian influence on two Alaskan islands. Pub. Health Rep. 74:737-745, August 1959. LAMB, ANNE, AND OTHERS. Twenty-oneyears'experiencewith a public health contraceptive service. Am.J.Pub.Health, 49: 993-1000, Aug. 1959. LEBLANC, DOROTHYR. AND OTHERS. Intrafamilial and inter- familial spread of living vaccine strains of polio virus. J.A.M.A. 170:2039-2047, Aug. 22, 1959. ROBERTSON, ESTHER J. Perina- tal mortality-the problemand its definition. Canad.J.Pub.Health 50:344-346, Aug. 1959. STIERWALT, E. AND OTHERS. Comparative hematologic re- sponse to iron fortificationof a milk formula for infants. Pedi- atrics 24:404-412, Sept. 1959. TIPPLE, DOROTHY C. The fu- ture of school nursing. J.A.M.A. 171:59-62, Sept. 5, 1959. disease. Unit III treats the rudiments of nursing care, with attention to the interpersonal relationships of the nurse, as well as the physical care which she must render. Detailed consideration of disease and the special problems re- lated to the nursing care of the sick infant and child are included in Unit IV which attempts to group together all of the aspects of infant nursing and Unit V which discusses the diseases that occur more frequently in the older child. Each chapter ends with suggestions for further study and a comprehensive bibliography. These will serve as use- ful work activities for the student. The book has a good index. One of the most desirable features of this text is the inclusion, in each chapter, of informa- tion on nutrition. This is truly a modernized, scholarly, comprehensive, concise study in the essentials of pediatrics. It is recom- mended to all interested in this field.- FANNIE H. HARDISON, instructor in pediatric nursing, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee. FILMS The Proud Years 16 mm., black and white, running time 281/2 minutes. Produced in 1956 by George C. Stoney, Potomac Produc- tions, with consultation from Frederic D. Zeman,M.D., and Leo Dobrin, M.D., Home for the Aged and InfirmHebrews of New York, under the sponsorship of Pfizer Laboratories, Brooklyn, N.Y. Distributed for sale by the Center for Mass Communication, Columbia Uni- versity, 1125 Amsterdam Ave., New York 25; for rental, by ANA-NLN Film Library, 267 W. 25th St., New York 1. Rental $5; sale $125. Content.-Filmed in a large home for the aged, this documentary demon- strates the rehabilitation possible for hemiplegics and other disabled per- sons in the later years of life. Factors of permanent damage as well as de- pression are considered seriously, but' emphasis is placed on the importance of prompt physical therapy and of motivation for recovery by building upon the older person's strengths of pride, persistence, and will-power. In- dividual and group interests are illus- trated as vital to maintaining or re- gaining a feeling of usefulness and achievement. Focus is on persons who illustrate various forms of disability and treatment and various personality types. Comment.-This film is recom- mended not only for those who work with older people in homes for the aged, hospitals, nursing homes, and other settings, but also for alerting community groups to the rehabilita- tion possibilities for older people. It should prove stimulating to social planning groups and others interested in initiating or expanding services for the aged, especially when followed by discussion of possible local facilities. A change in attitude toward the hope- fulness of rehabilitation of older per- sons doubtless would be fostered. In several instances, showing the film to older people themselves has proved encouraging to individuals, although 1766 THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NURSING This content downloaded from 162.245.248.168 on Fri, 09 Dec 2022 22:45:06 UTC All use subject to https://about.jstor.org/terms

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