• Fundamentals of individual behavior
• Personality, Types of personality
• Personal effectiveness
• Meaning of Attitudes, Types, Components
• Attitude formation and attitude change
• Meaning & Type of Group Behaviour
• Interpersonal skills
• Transactional Analysis
• Johari Window
4. Organisational Behaviour
• Organisational behaviour is concerned with people's
thoughts, feelings, emotions and actions in setting up a
work. Understanding an individual behaviour is in itself
a challenge, but understanding group behaviour in an
organisational environment is a monumental
• Stephen P. Robbins defines organizational
behavior as "a field of study that investigates the
impact that individuals, groups, and structure have
on behavior within organizations for the purpose of
applying such knowledge toward improving
an organization's effectiveness."
5. INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR
• Human behaviour, which is; considered a
complex phenomenon, is very difficult to define
in absolute terms. It is primarily a combination of
responses to external and internal stimuli. These
responses would reflect psychological structure of
the person and may be results' of the combination
of biological and psychological processes, which
interpret them, respond to them in an appropriate
manner and learn from the result of these
9. 1.1. Biographical Characteristics:
All the human beings have certain characteristics which are
genetic in nature and are inherited. These are the qualities
which the human beings are born with. These are the
characteristics which cannot be changed; at the most, these
can be refined to some extent. If the managers know about
the inherited qualities and limitations of the persons, they
can use their organisational behaviour techniques more
Physical Characteristics & Age
Religion & Marital Status
Experience & Ability
10. 1.2. Learned Characteristics-
Learning is defined as, “a relatively permanent change in
behaviour resulting from interactions with the
environment.” A person is born with biographical
characteristics which are difficult to change or modify.
Therefore, the managers lay much stress on studying,
learning and predicting the learned characteristics.
Abilities are the traits a person learns from the
environment around as well as the traits a person is gifted
with by birth. These traits are broadly classified as −
In order to understand how these affect a person’s behavior, we
need to know what these abilities are.
Intellectual abilities − It personifies a person’s intelligence, verbal
and analytical reasoning abilities, memory as well as verbal
Physical abilities − It personifies a person’s physical strength,
stamina, body coordination as well as motor skills.
Self-awareness abilities − It symbolizes how a person feels about
the task, while a manager’s perception of his abilities decides the
kind of work that needs to be allotted to an individual.
Perception is an intellectual process of transforming sensory stimuli into
meaningful information. It is the process of interpreting something that we
see or hear in our mind and use it later to judge and give a verdict on a
situation, person, group, etc.
It can be divided into six types namely −
Of sound − The ability to receive sound by identifying vibrations.
Of speech − The competence of interpreting and understanding the sounds of
Touch − Identifying objects through patterns of its surface by touching it.
Taste − The ability to detect flavor of substances by tasting it through sensory
organs known as taste buds.
Other senses − Other senses include balance, acceleration, pain, time,
sensation felt in throat and lungs etc.
Of the social world − It permits people to understand other individuals and
groups of their social world.
Attitude is just like perception but with a frame of
reference. It is a tendency to act in a certain way, either
favourably or unfavourably concerning objects, people or
For example, if I say I am satisfied with my job, I am
expressing my attitude towards work. An attitude may be
defined as the way a person feels about something, a
person, a place, a thing, a situation or an idea.
15. II. Environmental Factors:
The external environment is known to have a considerable impact
on a person’s behaviour.
1. Economic Factors.
The behaviour of an individual is affected to a large extent
by the economic environment.
2. Socio-cultural Factors:
The social environment of an individual includes his
relationship with family members, friends, colleagues,
supervisors and subordinates.
The behaviour of other people not with the individual, but in
general, is also a part of his social environment.
Similarly, every individual has a cultural background, which
shapes his values and beliefs. Work ethics achievement need,
effort-reward expectations and values are important cultural
factors having impact on the individual behaviour.
3. Political Factors
Political environment of the country will affect the individual
behaviour not directly, but through several other factors.
The political ideology of a country affects the individual behaviour
through the relative freedom available to its citizens. A country can
have a controlled society or less controlled society.
The relative freedom available to the individuals can affect their
career choice, job design and performance.
18. III. Organisational Factors
1. Physical Facilities:
The physical environment at a work place is the arrangement of
people and things so that is has a positive influence on people.
Some of the factors which influence individual behaviour are noise
level, heat, light, ventilation, cleanliness, nature of job, office
furnishing, number of people working at a given place etc.
2. Organisation Structure and Design:
These are concerned with the way in which different departments
in the organisation are set up.
What is the reporting system?
How are the lines of communication established among different
levels in the organisation.
The behaviour and performance of the individual is influenced by
where that person fits into the organisational hierarchy.
The system of leadership is established by the management to provide
direction, assistance, advice and coaching to individuals. The human
behaviour is influenced to a large extent by the behaviour of the
superiors or leaders.
Behaviour of the leaders is more important than their qualities.
4. Reward System:
The behaviour and performance of the individuals is also influenced
by the reward system established by the organisation to compensate
• Personality come from Latin word “persona” which means
“to speak through” .Personality is sum of the activity that
can be observed over a long enough time to give reliable
information. Personality is a complex, multi-dimensional
construct and there is no simple definition of what
• Maddi defines personality as, “A stable set of characteristics
and tendencies that determine those commonalities and
differences in the psychological behavior and that may not
be easily understood as the sole result of the social and
biological pressures of the moment".
• In the field of organizational behavior,
personality is the aggregate of a person's
feelings, thinking, behaviors and responses
to different situations and people.
25. PERSONALITY FORMATION
Every individual has his own characteristic way of
behaving, responding to emotions, perceiving things
and looking at the world. No two individuals are
Personality also influences what we think, our
beliefs, values and expectations.
26. Determinants of Personality
• Heredity - Heredity refers to factors that are determined once an
individual is born. An individual’s physique, attractiveness, body
type, complexion, body weight depend on his/her parents
• Environment - The environment to which an individual is
subjected to during his growing years plays an important role in
determining his/her personality. The varied cultures in which we
are brought up and our family backgrounds have a crucial role in
shaping our personalities.
• Situation - An individual’s personality also changes with current
circumstances and situations. An individual would behave in a
different way when he has enough savings with him and his
behavior would automatically change when he is bankrupt.
27. Types of personality
The most widely accepted of these traits are
the Big Five-
30. 1. Openness
This trait features characteristics such as imagination
People who are high in this trait also tend to have a
broad range of interests. They are curious about the
world and other people and eager to learn new things
and enjoy new experiences.
33. 2. Conscientiousness
Standard features of this dimension include high levels
of thoughtfulness, good impulse control, and goal-
Highly conscientious people tend to be organized and
mindful of details. They plan ahead, think about how
their behavior affects others, and are mindful of
38. 4. Agreeableness
This personality dimension includes attributes such as
trust, kindness, affection, and other prosocial behaviors.
People who are high in agreeableness tend to be more
cooperative while those low in this trait tend to be more
competitive and sometimes even manipulative.
40. 5. Neuroticism
Neuroticism is a trait characterized by sadness,
moodiness, and emotional instability.
Individuals who are high in this trait tend to experience
mood swings, irritability, and sadness.
42. PERSONALITY FACTORS IN ORGANISATIQN
Steers and Braunstein in 1976 developed a scale for the four
needs of personality that became apparent in the 'work
environment. They are as follows:
• The need for achievement: Those with a high achievement
need engage themselves proactively in work behaviors in order
to feel proud of their achievements and successes.
• The need for affiliation: Those in greater need for affiliation
like to work cooperatively with others.
• The need for autonomy: Those in need for autonomy function
in the best way when not closely supervised.
• The need for dominance: Those high in need for dominance
are very effective while operating in environments where they
can actively enforce their legitimate authority.
43. PERSONALITY FACTORS IN ORGANISATIQN
• Locus of Control.
• Introversion and Extroversion.
• Tolerance for Ambiguity.
• Self-Esteem and Self-Concept.
• Authoritarianism(Dictatorship) and
Dogmatism (Rigidity) .
44. 1. Locus of control
• Locus of control is the degree to which an
individual believes that his or her behavior has
direct impact on the consequences of that
behavior. They are.
–Internal locus of control.
–External locus of control.
46. Type A and B
• Type A persons feel a chronic sense of time urgency, are
highly achievement-oriented, exhibit a competitive drive,
and are impatient when their work is slowed down for any
• Type B persons are easy-going individuals who do not feel
the time urgency, and who do not experience the
• Type A individuals are significantly more flat to heart
attacks than Type B individuals.
• While Type A persons help the organization to move
ahead in a relatively short period of time they may also
suffer health problems, which might be detrimental to
both themselves and the organization in the long run.
47. 2. Introversion and Extroversion
• These two terms are generally associated with the
interpersonal behaviour of an individual and his
• Extroverts are unreserved and sociable individuals
while introverts are shy, quiet and reserved.
• It has been observed that introverts and extroverts
people have different career orientations and require
different organisational environment to maximize
• Extroverts are more suitable for positions that require
considerable interaction with others that is why
managerial positions are dominated by extroverts.
48. 3. Tolerance for Ambiguity
• This personality characteristic indicates the level of
uncertainty that people can tolerate to work efficiently
without experiencing undue stress.
• Managers have to work well under conditions of
extreme uncertainty and insufficient information,
especially when things are rapidly changing in the
organization’s external environment.
49. 4. Self-Esteem and Self-Concept
• Self-esteem denotes the extent to which individuals
consistently regard themselves as capable, successful,
important and worthy individuals.
• Self-esteem is an important personality factor that
determines how managers perceive themselves and
their role in the organization.
• self-concept is a cognitive or descriptive component of
one's self (e.g. "I am a fast runner"), while self-
esteem is evaluative and opinionated (e.g. "I feel good
about being a fast runner").
50. 5. Authoritarianism and Dogmatism
• Authoritarianism is the extent to which an individual
believes that power and status differences are
important within’ hierarchical social systems like
organizations. For example, an employee who is
highly authoritarian may accept directives or orders
from his superior without much questioning.
• Dogmatism is the rigidity of a person’s beliefs and his
or her openness to other viewpoints. For example, a
manager may be unwilling to listen to a new idea
related to doing something more efficiently. He is said
to be a person who is close-minded or highly
• In simple words, an "attitude" is an individual's
point of view or an individual's way of looking
• To be more explicit, an "attitude" may be
explained as the mental state of an individual,
which prepares him to react or make him
behave in a particular pre-determined way.
• An attitude is defined as, "a learned pre-
disposition to respond in a consistently favorable
or unfavorable manner with respect to a given
• Attitudes are evaluation statements either
favorable or unfavorable concerning objects,
people or events. They reflect how one feels about
53. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE
Attitude has three components, which are as follows:
• Cognitive component- based on the information or
• Affective component- based on the feelings.
• Behavioural component- Based on the way we act or
54. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE
• The cognitive component of attitudes refers to the
beliefs, thoughts, and attributes that we would
associate with an object.
• It refers to that part of attitude which is related in
general knowledge of a person.
• Typically these come to light in generalities or
stereotypes, such as ‘all babies are cute’, ‘smoking is
harmful to health’ etc.
55. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE
• The affective component of attitude refers to how we
feel about something.
• It’s often our initial reaction and might be positive or
negative, such as a fear-based reaction or an
Some examples include:
• Being excited about a song because it reminds us of a
• Being repulsed by a smell because we have associated it
with a bad memory.
• Being afraid of a lion because we’ve never seen one
56. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE
• Behavior component of an attitude consists of a person’s
tendencies to behave in a particular way toward an object.
• It refers to that part of attitude which reflects the intention
of a person in the short-run or long run.
• It can be informed by our attitude or cognition. For
example, if we’re afraid of something (our affect), we
might run (our behavior).
58. Characteristics of Attitudes
Attitude are predispositions
• Attitude are predispositions of purpose, interest or
opinion of the person to assess some objects in a
favourable or an unfavourable manner.
Attitude are different from values
• Attitude are different from values: Values are the
ideals, whereas attitudes are narrow, they are our
Attitude are evaluative statement
• Attitude are evaluative statements: either favourable or
unfavourable concerning the objects, people or events.
59. Characteristics of Attitudes
Attitude influence human behavior
• A positive attitude towards a thing will influence
human behavior towards the thing favorably and
Attitude have intensity
• It refers to the strength of the effective component.
For example, we may dislike an individual but the
extent of our disliking would determine the intensity
of our attitude towards the person.
Attitude are learnt
• Attitude is not inborn phenomenon. Attitude are
learnt through social interaction and experience.
60. Functions of Attitude
• Adjustment Function
• Ego-Defensive Function
• Value-Expressive Function
• Knowledge Function
62. Types of Attitude
There are broadly three types of attitude in
term of organizational behavior.
1. Job satisfaction.
2. Job involvement.
3. Organizational commitment.
63. Types of Attitude
• A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an
individual holds toward his or her job.
• A person will hold a positive attitude if had a high level of
satisfaction, while dissatisfied people will generally
display a negative attitude towards life.
• Job involvement refers to the degree to which a person
identifies himself (psychologically) with his job, actively
participates and considers his perceived performance
level important to self-worth. (Robbins)
• Organizational commitment refers to a degree to which an
employee identifies himself with the organizational goals
and wishes to maintain membership in the organization
64. Attitude Formation
• Experiences: Our personal experiences with
people and situations develop our attitude
towards such persons and situations.
Through job experience, people develop
attitudes towards working conditions, salaries,
supervision, group dynamics and so on.
65. Attitude Formation (cont…)
• Perceptual biases: Perception is the result of a
complex interaction of various senses such as feelings,
seeing, hearing and so on and plays an important part
in our attitude and behavioural formation.
• Observation of the other person’s attitude: When we
like someone, we try to emulate that person’s attitude.
66. • Association: Our association with the group we
belong to strongly influences our attitude. Our close
association with a group would encourage us to be
consistent with the attitude of the group.
• Personality: Personality is a set of traits and
characteristics, habit patterns and conditioned
responses to certain stimuli that formulate the
impression that a person makes upon others and this
impression is a function of a person’s attitude.
67. Group Behavior
• The study of group behavior is essential for an
organization to achieve its goals.
• Individual and group behavior vary from each
• In 1920, Elton Mayo and his associates
conducted the Hawthorne experiments and
came to know that the group behavior has
great impact on productivity.
• The importance of group behavior has been
realized from time to time.
69. 4 Phases of Hawthorne Experiments –
• 1. Experiments to determine the effects of
changes in illumination on productivity,
illumination experiments, 1924-27.
• 2. Experiments to determine the effects of
changes in hours and other working conditions
on productivity, relay assembly test room
• 3. Conducting plant-wide interviews to
determine worker attitudes and sentiments,
mass interviewing programme, 1928-30; and
• 4. Determination and analysis of social
organisation at work, bank wiring observation
room experiments, 1931-32.
72. Types of Groups
In an organization, there are three types of groups, which are as
• Functional or formal groups
• Task group or Command groups - cross-functional
• Committees group
• Informal group
73. Formal group
This group is defined by the organizational structure.
After planning, organizations group the activities and
put those under a formal structure, deciding their
goals and objectives and strategies to achieve the
same. Formal group members report to their
superiors and interact with each other to achieve the
74. Command group:
This group is also known as task group. A task is
defined as cross-functional activities, carried
out by group members to accomplish a
common goal. A team represents the nature of
a command group. A command group can be
formed by drawing members from various
formal groups. For example, to achieve success
in new product launches, organizations may
form a command group. Once the task is
achieved, group members may be sent back to
their specific formal groups.
75. Committees group:
• To achieve results, organizations often form
permanent or temporary committees, drawing
members from various formal groups. Committees
also represent the presence of cross-functional
members. While for a command group, goals may
be specific, for committees, it is varied.
• For example, to ensure better transparency and
accuracy in purchase decisions, various members
drawn from the user sections such as, finance,
marketing, HR and s, may represent a Tender
Purchase Committee (TPC), in an organization.
76. Informal group:
• Informal groups are formed within a formal
organizational structure. Informal group
members primarily meet the social or
affiliation needs sharing their commons
interests. Thus informal groups are not
organizationally determined; the members
themselves from such groups to fulfil their
needs for social interaction.
77. Group Cohesiveness
• Group Cohesiveness :- According to Rensis
Likert, "cohesiveness is the attractiveness of
the members towards the group or resistance
of the members leaving it". It refers to the
attachment of members with the group.
78. Interpersonal skills
• Interpersonal skills are the qualities and
behaviors we exhibit while interacting with
other people. They are considered to be one of
the most sought after types of soft skill.
79. Interpersonal skills
• Active listening
• Team work
81. How to improve
• Interact with your colleagues or subordinates
• Conduct as well as attend morning meetings.
• Seek opportunities to build relationships.
• Be thoughtful about ways your interactions
• Observe other positive interpersonal
82. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS
• It was introduced by Eric Berne.
• Transactional analysis is a technique used to help
people better understand their own and other’s
behaviour, especially in interpersonal relationships.
• It is a good method for understanding interpersonal
• It offers a model of personality and the dynamics of
self and its relationship to others that makes possible a
clear and meaningful discussion of behaviour.
83. Transactional analysis is primarily consists with
• Analysis of self awareness
• Analysis of ego states
• Analysis of transactions
• Script analysis
• Games analysis
• Analysis of life positions
84. 1. ANALYSIS OF SELF AWARENESS
• The interpersonal relationships are composed of interself.
• Self is the core of personality pattern which provides integration.
• Self awareness is an important concept, it describes the self in
terms of image, both conscious and unconscious.
• Joseph Luft and Harrington have developed a diagram to look at
one’s personality including behaviours and attitudes that can be
known and unknown to self and known and unknown to others.
• This diagram is known as the JOHARI WINDOW.
• It comprising of 4 parts.
85. JOHARI WINDOW
(known to others and also self)
(unknown to self but known toothers)
(known to self but unknown to others)
(unknown to self and unknownto
86. ANALYSIS OF EGO STATES
• The ego plays an important role in human behaviour.
• People interact with each other in terms of
psycological positions or behavioural patterns known as ego states.
• Ego states are person’s way of thinking, feeling and
behaving at any time.
• There are 3 important ego states.
• Ego states: child, adult and parent.
• A person of any age have these ego states in varyingdegree.
• A healthy person is able to move from one ego state
to another. 86
88. 1. Parent ego state:
The parent ego state means that the values, attitudes
and behaviours of parents an integral part of the
personality of an individual. These people tend to talk to
people and treat others like children. The characteristics of
a person with parent ego state are:
• Rule maker
• Over protective
89. 2. Adult ego state:
The adult ego state is authentic, direct, reality based,
fact seeking and problem solving. They assume that
human beings as equal, worthy and responsible. The
process of adult ego state formation goes through one’s
own experiences and continuously updating attitudes left
over from childhood. People with adult ego state, gather
relevant information, carefully analyse it, generate
alternatives and make logical choices.
3.Child ego state:
The child ego state is characterized by very immature
behaviour. The important features of child ego state are
creativity, anxiety, depression, dependence, fear, joy,
emotional sentimental etc.
90. 3. ANALYSIS OF TRANSACTIONS
• A transaction is a basic unit of social interaction.
• The heart of transactional analysis is the study and
diagramming of the exchanges between two persons.
• Thus where a verbal or non verbal stimulus from one
person is being responded by another person a
• Transactional analysis can help us to determine which
ego state is most heavily influencing our behaviour and
the behaviour of the other people with whom we
91. Depending on the ego states of the persons involved in transactions,
there may be three types of transactions:
Both people are operating from the same ego state. There can be
nine complementary transactions. They are given below:
95. 2.Crossed transactions:
A crossed transaction is one in which the sender sends
message a behaviour on the basis of his ego state, but this
message is reacted to by an unexpected ego state on the
part of the receiver. Crossed communication should be
avoided as far as possible. Whenever such transactions
occur, communication tends to blocked and a satisfactory
transaction is not accomplished.
Two ego states within the same person but one disguises
the other one.
96. 4. SCRIPT ANALYSIS
• In a layman’s view ,a script is the text of play, motion
picture, or a radio or TV programme.
• In transactional analysis a person’s life is compared to a
play and the script is the text of the play.
• According to Eric Berne,” a script is an ongoing
programme, developed in early childhood under parental
influence which directs the individual behaviour in the
most important aspects of his life.
• A script is a complete plan of living, offering
prescriptions, permissions and structure which makes
one winner or loser in life.
97. 5. ANALYSIS OF LIFE POSITIONS
• In the process of growing up people make basic assumptions about
their own self worth as well as about the worth of significant people
in their environment.
• The combination of assumptions about self and the other person
called as life position.
• Transactional analysis constructs the following classifications of
the four possible life positions or psychological positions:
• I am OK,, you are OK.
• I am OK, ,you are not OK.
• I am not OK,, you are OK.
• I an not OK,, you are not OK
98. I am not OK
You are OK
The One-down position
“I wish I could do that as well as
I am OK
You are OK
The Healthy position
“Hey. We’re making good
I am not OK
You are not OK
The Hopeless position
“Oh this is terrible – we’ll never
I am OK
You are not OK
The One-Up position
“You're not doing that right
- Let me show you.”
You are okay with me
You are not okay with me
99. • I am OK, you are OK:
It appears to be an ideal life position. People with this type of life
position have confidence in themselves as well as trust and
confidence in others.
• I am OK, you are not OK:
This is a distrustful psychological positions. This is the attitude of
those people, who think that whatever they do iscorrect.
• :I am not OK, you are OK
This is a common position for those people who feel power less
when they compare themselves to others.
• I am not OK,, you are not OK:
people in this position tend to feel bad about themselves and see
the whole world as miserable. They do not trust others and have no
confidence in themselves. 99
100. 6. STROKING
• Stroking is an important aspects of the transactional
• The term stroke refers to “giving some kind of recognition to
• People need strokes for their sense of survival and well
being on thejob. Lack of stroking can have negative
consequences both on physiological and psychological well being
of a person.
• There are three types of strokes:
101. 1.Positive strokes:
The stroke one feel good, is a positive stroke.
Recognition, approval are some of the examples.
2. Negative strokes:
A stroke one feel bad or not good is a negative stroke.
negative strokes hurt physically or psychologically.
A stroke may be of a mixed type also.
Example :the boss comment to a worker “you did an
excellent job inspite your limited experience.
102. 7. GAMES ANALYSIS
• When people fail to get enough strokes at work they try a variety of
• One of the most important thing is that they play
• A psychological game is a set of transaction with three
The transaction tend to be repeated.
They make sense on superficial or social level.
One or more transactions is ulterior.
103. Types of games:
A first degree game is one which is socially
acceptable in the agent’s circle.
A second degree game is one which more
intimate end up with bad feelings.
A third degree game is one which usually
involve physical injury.