• Concepts of Nuclear Physics
The atom, structure, the nucleus, nuclear structure, atomic
transmutation of elements, detection of radio-activity, particle
accelerator, decay, natural of elements, nucleus interactions, decay
rates, half-life, transuranic elements. (6 hrs)
• Neutorn Interaction
Advantages of using neutron, neutron moderation, fission chain
reaction, thermalisation of neutrons, fast neutrons, prompt and
delayed neutrons, fission products. (4 hrs)
• Energy Release
Mass energy equivalence, mass defect, binding energy, energy
release in fission & fusion, thermonuclear reaction, fusion bomb.
3. • Reactor Materials
Fissile & fertile materials, cladding & shielding materials,
moderators, coolants. (4 hrs)
• Reactor Technology
Basic principles, fuel assembly, neutron balance, reactor
kinetics, reactor coefficients, reactor stability, excess
reactivity, Xenon poisoning, burnable absorbers, reactivity
control, heat balance, production& transfer of heat to the
coolant, structural considerations.
• Nuclear Reactors
Types of nuclear reactors, pressurized water reactors,
boiling water reactors, CANDU type reactors, gas cooled &
liquid metal cooled reactors, fast breeder reactors. (6
4. • Safety Considerations & Waste Disposal
Hazards, plant site selection, safety measures incorporated in;
plant design, accident control, disposal of nuclear waste.
• Health Physics & Radio-isotopes
Radiation: units, hazards, prevention, preparation of radio-
isotopes & their use in medicine, agriculture & industry.
• M. M. El-Wakel, Nuclear Power Engineering, McGraw Hill
• Shultis and Faw, Fundamentals of Nuclear Science and
Engineering, CRC Press
• Stephenson, Introduction to Nuclear Engineering, McGraw Hill
• Murray, R. L., Nuclear Energy, Butterworth-Heinemann
• Vaidyanathan G., Nuclear Reactor Engineering, S Chand
5. Energy: Key to Our Future
• Energy is the single most important
commodity for humanity.
• Without enough energy, production will stop,
economy will fall and the civilization will
• The most widely utilized form of energy for
industry and for domestic use is electricity.
6. Fossil Fuels: Causing Irreversible
Damage to our World
• Everyone agrees that the use of fossil fuels is
causing irreparable and irreversible damage to
• Many modern diseases (such as
Cardiovascular Disorders, Cancer, High Blood
Pressure) are partially caused by Fossil Fuel
Pollution in the Environment.
• With the present consumption of fossil fuels,
the world’s energy needs will not be met
sufficiently in 30 years.
7. Renewable Energy: Inefficient Usage
• Renewable energy sources for electricity are
diverse, from solar, tidal and wave energy to
hydro, geothermal and biomass-based power
• Apart from hydro power in the few places
where it is very plentiful, none of these
renewable energy sources are suitable,
intrinsically or economically, for large-scale
base-load power generation.
8. Nuclear Energy: the Only Feasible
Solution to Our Energy Problems
• Carbon based fuels are diminishing and they
will be finished in 30 – 50 years. Moreover, use
of carbon fuels is damaging the environment
• Renewable Energy Sources are not yet efficient
enough to solve the world’s energy needs.
• Nuclear Energy is the only viable alternative to
produce sufficient electricity for our civilization.
9. What is Nuclear Energy?
• Albert Einstein with his famous law of E= mc2 was
responsible for the idea that mass can be converted
• In essence, Nuclear Energy is the energy obtained
from converting mass to energy through nuclear
10. Radioactivity and Radiation
• Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of
energy or ionizing particles from unstable
• Radiation is energy that comes from a source
and travels through space and may be able to
penetrate various materials. TV signals, cell
phone signals, radio and microwaves are all
types of radiation as well as ionizing forms such
as gamma rays and cosmic rays.
14. How Much Radiation is Safe?
• The current US Atomic Energy Administration
Guidelines state that 5000 millirems of radiation
per year is safe, while for minors it is 500
millirems per year.
• A person on average is exposed to 400 millirems
of radiation annually. This will increase as the
altitude of the city increases.
• Your lifetime exposure should not be more then
your age multiplied by 1000 millirems. For
example, if you are 20 years old, your total
exposure should be 20000 millirems.
15. How is Nuclear Energy Produced?
• Nuclear Energy is produced through two
1) Nuclear Fission of Splitting Atoms
2) Nuclear Fusion of Combining Atoms
16. Power of Fission
• Fission is one of the most powerful sources of
energy in the world. In essence, a molecule of
fissile material is bombarded by neutrons, so that
it separates into two or more articles. During this
process, some mass is converted to pure energy
(expressed as heat)
17. Power of Fusion
• Fusion is the
to make new ones.
amounts of energy
• Sun is the best
• In the sun,
Hydrogen fuses to
18. Nuclear Energy can Be Harnessed
Through Nuclear Reactors
• Currently fission is the only way to feasibly
harness the energy that is available through
• By containing the fission reaction within a
nuclear reactor, it can be possible to harness
the nuclear energy and convert it into
electricity through various means.
• A Nuclear Power Plant is a special type of
power plant in which nuclear fission reaction is
used to generate electricity through various
19. How Does a Nuclear Power Plant
• A nuclear power plant doesn’t just convert
nuclear energy to electrical energy directly.
• Instead a nuclear reaction is simply used as a
heat source to generate steam, which is then run
through a turbine to produce electricity.
20. A Nuclear Power Plant Operates on
the Same Principles
• A nuclear power plant is not really a special
thing. Instead of using fossil fuels to generate
heat, which in turn produces steam; nuclear
reactors produce higher heat through a
contained fission reaction.
21. Components of a Nuclear Reactor
• Components of a Nuclear reactor include:
- Nuclear Fuel
- Control Rods
- Moderator to Slow the Neutrons
- Reflector to Stop Neutrons from Escaping
- Coolant to Cool the Reactor Core
- Shielding to Protect Against Radiation from
Escaping the Reactor
22. Nuclear Fuels
• Nuclear Fuels can be in different forms made
from a fissile material and a decorroser:
- Solid Nuclear Fuels (in form of fuel rods)
- Liquid Nuclear Fuels
- Gaseous Nuclear Fuels
23. Nuclear Reactivity Control
• Nuclear reactivity (the
rate of fission
reaction) is controlled
by control rods.
• These are the most
components in a
nuclear reactor, as
they allow you to
increase or decrease
the rate of the
reaction by absorbing
the neutrons in the
24. Nuclear Fuel and Actinides
• In order to sustain a
nuclear reaction, the
nuclear fuel must be
• Only these actinides
will split in two, when
they are bombarded
which have lost their
speed by lowering
25. Natural Uranium
• The only naturally found
readily fissile material on
Earth is Uranium – 235. It
comprises only of 0.7 % of
natural uranium, which is a
mixture of Uranium-238 and
• Natural Uranium is
abundantly found sometimes
even without mining.
26. Nuclear Fuel Enrichment
• In order to sustain a nuclear reaction, the nuclear fuel must be
uranium-235, plutonium-239 or plutonium-241. However,
Uranium 235 is found only in 0.7 % abundance on Earth.
• Thus, the Uranium mined is usually Uranium 238, which can not
undergo fission when used with natural water as coolant and
moderator. You need to use Heavy Water with Uranium 238 in
order to use less enriched fuel.
27. Heavy Water
• Hence, if you have abundance of Uranium 235, you can
use natural water reactor, which costs less to operate.
• Or you can use Uranium 238 in which case you must
use heavy water (D2O) as moderator. However, heavy
water is expensive to make. Out of every 3200
molecules of water, only one is heavy water in nature.
28. Nuclear Strategy
• On a national level, if you have abundant
sources of Uranium 235, then you can easily
use natural water reactors.
• However, most countries possess Uranium 238
and need to use heavy water or heavy
graphite to moderate the neutrons, so that
they will become slow enough to undergo
29. History of Nuclear Power in India
• In October 1955, an agreement was signed by the United Kingdom
Atomic Energy Authority and the Indian Department of Atomic
Energy, for a pool-type reactor to be designed by India
• Named Apsara, the reactor was housed in a 100 x 50 x 70 concrete
building. India's and Asia's first nuclear reactor, Apsara reached
criticality on 4 August 1956 and was inaugurated by Prime Minister
Nehru on 20 January 1957
• On 28 April 1956, Nehru and the Canadian High Commissioner to
India signed an agreement for a Atomic Reactor Project.
• CIRUS (Canada India Reactor Utility Services) was completed in early
1960 and achieved criticality in July 1960. Construction of a third
research reactor, ZERLINA (Zero Energy Reactor for Lattice
Investigations and New Assemblies) began at Trombay in 1958;
ZERLINA was also commissioned in 1961
• India's first commercial nuclear power plant at Rajasthan, RAPP-1,
was signed in 1963, followed by RAPP-2 in 1966. The 100 MW RAPP-
1 began operation in 1972.
30. • India's domestic uranium reserves are small and the country is
dependent on imports. Since early 1990s, Russia has been a major
supplier of nuclear fuel to India
• Following a waiver from the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) in
September 2008 which allowed it to commence international
nuclear trade, India has signed bilateral deals on civilian nuclear
energy technology cooperation with several other countries,
including France, the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada
and South Korea. India has also uranium supply agreements with
Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Argentina and Namibia.
• In recent years, India has shown increased interest in thorium fuels
and fuel cycles because of large deposits of thorium (518,000
tonnes) in the form of monazite in beach sands as compared to
very modest reserves of low grade uranium (92,000 tonnes).
Nuclear Fuel Reserves in India
31. Nuclear Power Plants in India
• India has 22 nuclear power reactors in 7 nuclear power
plants in operation with installed capacity of 7480 MW.
• 7 other reactors are under construction and are expected
to generate an additional 4300 MW.
• Nuclear power produced a total of 37800 GW.h and
supplied 3.2% of Indian electricity in 2019.
• Total power production in 2019 was 1196309 GW.h
Per capita consumption was 1181 kWh.
• In 1950 , the corresponding figures were 5610 GW.h and
32. Nuclear Power Generation in India
Year Generation (TWh)
33. Power station
State Type Units
Kaiga NPCIL Karnataka PHWR 220 × 4 880
Kakrapar NPCIL Gujarat
220 × 2
700 × 1 1140
NPCIL Tamil Nadu VVER-1000 1000 × 2 2,000
NPCIL Tamil Nadu PHWR 220 × 2 440
PHWR 220 × 2 440
Rajasthan NPCIL Rajasthan PHWR
100 × 1
200 x 1
220 × 4
BWR PHWR 160 x 2
540 × 2
Operational Power Plants in India
34. Under construction plants and reactors
State Type Units
Kakrapar Unit 4 NPCIL Gujarat
Gorakhpur NPCIL Haryana
Rajasthan Unit 7
3,4,5 and 6 NPCIL
35. Planned Projects
Power Plant Location Operator Type
Kaiga Karnataka NPCIL IPHWR-700 1,400
Jaitapur Maharashtra NPCIL EPR 9,900
Kovvada Andhra Pradesh NPCIL AP1000 6,600
Kavali Andhra Pradesh NPCIL VVER 6000
Gorakhpur Haryana NPCIL IPHWR-700 2,800
Mahi Banswara Rajasthan NPCIL IPHWR-700 2,800
Chutka Madhya Pradesh NPCIL IPHWR-700 1,400
Chennai Tamil Nadu BHAVINI FBR 1,200
Tarapur Maharashtra AHWR 300
37. Nuclear Power Plants Don’t Blow Up!!
• The biggest myth about nuclear power plants is
that they blow up.
• Until today, 301 nuclear incidents have occurred
and not once has a nuclear reactor blown up
• Just as a poorly constructed bridge can cause
death and destruction, poorly constructed
nuclear power plants can be dangerous.
• However, the physics of nuclear reactions doesn't
allow for power plants to blow up. A nuclear
reaction will stop immediately if the necessary
conditions are not met.
38. Atomic Explosions can Only Happen
with Nuclear Bombs
• As soon as a nuclear reactor starts going critical,
its nuclear control rods can easily be lowered in
which case the nuclear reaction will stop
immediately. A nuclear fission reaction takes
place only when it is forced.
• Most nuclear reactor designs (fuel rod and
control rod assembly) will stop working
immediately when they overheat.
• The only way a nuclear explosion can take place
is through a nuclear bomb.
39. Nuclear Power Plants Can be
Considered as Green Energy
• Nuclear power plants do not emit any carbon
dioxide, nor any sulphur dioxide or nitrogen
oxides. Their wastes end up as solids and, though
requiring careful handling, are very much less
than the wastes from burning coal.
40. Nuclear Wastes Can Be Managed
• Especially with the new techniques available
today (such as Gas Core Reactors), it is possible
to make the impact of nuclear energy on the
environment virtually non existent.
• A regular checkup of all nuclear waste sites in
the world is mandatory by International Atomic
Energy Agency. (IAEA)
• Nuclear Reactors and properly processed
Nuclear Wastes don’t emit any radiation to the
41. Nuclear Energy can Be Considered as
• Renewable Energy is any
source of energy
a) Naturally Replenished
b) Virtually Inexhaustible
Both of these conditions are
met by Nuclear Energy
42. Nuclear Reactor Power Plants are a
Safe Way to Meet the Energy
Demands of Future
• If they are used and maintained properly, nuclear power
plants are the most efficient way of producing enough
energy to meet the world’s needs.