Se está descargando tu SlideShare. ×

Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Cargando en…3
×

1 de 28 Anuncio

# E0cmACfmg5QNSAFR44.pptx

Eee

Eee

Anuncio
Anuncio

Anuncio

### E0cmACfmg5QNSAFR44.pptx

1. 1. SUBMITTED BY: Vishnu v 20030903 Driving without wheels, Flying without wings
2. 2. INTRODUCTION BASIC PRINCIPLE OF MAGLEV TRAINS TECHNOLOGY AND TYPES MERITS AND DEMERITS STABILITY EVACUATED TUBES POWER AND ENERGY COMPARISON WITH AIRCRAFT AND CONVENTIONAL TRAINS ECONOMICS EXISTING MAGLEV SYSTEMS SUMMARY REFERENCE
3. 3. What is meant by MAGLEV? MAGLEV = MAGNETIC + LEVITATION Any thing which may levitate(raise or float) by means of a magnetic power is simply called as magnetic levitation.
4. 4. LEVITATION : Meaning : • A Latin word meaning lightness. •Process by which an object is suspended by a physical force against gravity, in a stable position without any solid physical contact. Principle : • First a force is required vertically upwards and equal to the gravitational force. •Second for any small displacement of the levitating object a returning force should appear to stabilize it. Major Types : • Electromagnetic levitation • Buoyant levitation • Aerodynamic levitation
5. 5. Magnetic Levitation : Definition: •Magnetic suspension is a method by which an object is suspended with no support other than magnetic field. Principle: •Magnetic pressure is used to counteract the effects of the gravitational and any other activities. Magnetic Field: •A magnetic field is a field of force produced by a magnetic object or particle, or by a changing electrical field. •It is detected by the force it exerts on other magnetic materials and moving electric charges. Magnetic pressure: • Any magnetic field has an associated pressure that is contained by the boundary conditions on the field.
6. 6. Maglev is the system of transportation that uses magnetic levitation to suspend ,guide and propel the vehicles using magnets. First described by Robert Goddard, American Rocket Scientist, 1909 Scientific American. Later in 1937 & 1941 a series of German patents for maglev trains propelled by linear motors awarded to Hermann Kemper . In the 1960s in Britain Eric Laithwaite developed a functional maglev train.
7. 7. Maglev trains have to perform the following functions to operate in high speeds 1.Levitation 2.Propulsion 3.Lateral Guidance Basic principle of Maglev Trains
8. 8. Levitation •The passing of the superconducting magnets through levitation coils on the side of the track induces a current in the coils and creates a magnetic field. This pushes the train upward so that it can levitate 10 cm above the track. •The train does not levitate until it reaches 50 mph, so it is equipped with retractable wheels.
9. 9. Propulsion •An alternating current is ran through electromagnet coils on the guide walls of the guide way. This creates a magnetic field that attracts and repels the superconducting magnets on the train and propels the train forward. •Braking is accomplished by sending an alternating current in the reverse direction so that it is slowed by attractive and repulsive forces.
10. 10. Uses monorail track with linear motor Uses magnets to reach a really high velocity Floats about 1-10cm above the guideway on a magnetic field. Propelled by the guideway Once the train is pulled into the next section the magnetism switches so that the train is pulled on again.
11. 11. There are 2 notable types of maglev technology:- •Electromagnetic suspension(EMS) •Electrodynamic suspension(EDS)
12. 12. Electromagnets attached to the train Has ferromagnetic stators on the track and levitate the train. Has guidance magnets on the sides A computer changes the amount of current to keep the train 1 cm from the track. Max speed -438km/hr Has on-board battery power supply.
13. 13. Super cooled superconducting magnets under the train. Levitate about 10 cm. The field in the train due to superconducting magnets(JR-Maglev) or an array of permanent magnets(Inductrack). The force in the track is created by induced magnetic field in wires or conducting strips in the track. Naturally stable. Requires no feedback control. Requires retractable wheels at low speed , max speed – 522km/hr
14. 14. TECHNOL OGY MERITS DEMERITS EMS •Magnetic fields inside & outside the vehicle are less than EDS. •No wheels or secondary propulsion required •Can attain very high speed.(500km/hr). EDS •Onboard magnets and large separation enable highest recorded speeds(581km/hr) and heavy load capacity. •Naturally stable and hence no feedback control required. •Constant monitoring correction of separation between vehicle & guideway using computer systems essential. •Due to inherent instability and corrections ,vibration issues may occur. •Strong magnetic field makes the train inaccessible to passengers with pacemakers or storage media like hard drives and credit cards. •Vehicle must be wheeled for low speed travel.
15. 15. TECHNOLOGY MERITS DEMERITS INDUCTRACK •Failsafe suspension-No power •Requires wheels SYSTEM (PERMANENT required to activate magnets. •Can generate enough force at low speeds to levitate the train. •The train can slow down on its when the vehicle is stopped •New technology , still under MAGNET EDS) own in case of power failures. •The array of permanent development , no commercial version magnets are cost effective than or full scale system electromagnets. prototype
16. 16. EMS system rely on active electronic stabilisation.. All EDS systems are moving systems. Since these vehicles fly,stabilisation of pitch , roll and sway is required In addition to rotation , surge , sway and or heave can be problematic.
17. 17. Some systems use the use of vac trains-maglev train technology used in evacuated tubes , which removes the air drag. This increases the speed and efficiency greatly . It is a proposed design for super high-speed transportation about 4000-5000 mph. But the passengers may suffer from the risk of cabin depressurization in the event of a train malfunction. Hence require tunnel monitoring system for repressurization
18. 18. Energy is used to make the Maglev train levitate and to stabilise the movement. Main part of the energy used to overcome the air drag. For very short distances the energy for accelerating is considerable. But the power used to overcome the air drag increases with square of velocity and hence dominates at high speed.
19. 19. FEATURE MAGLEV TRAIN CONVENTIONAL TRAIN Speed Allow higher top speeds since they don’t rely on wheels for propulsion. Speed is limited by the use of wheels for propulsion.
20. 20. Maintenance Require insignificant guideway maintenance. Their electronic vehicle maintenance is minimal Hence more reliable All weather operation Unaffected by snow , severe cold , rain or high winds. Can accelerate & decelate regardless of slickness of guideway Efficiency No rolling resistance due to lack of contact between track & vehicle. This improves power efficiency. Rail is subjected to wear & tear due to friction ,increases exponentially with speed. This increases running cost. May encounter problems due to degradation of guideway caused by weather conditions. Efficiency is affected by rolling resistance due to the contact with the track.
21. 21. Many maglev have lift-to-drag ratio that exceed that of aircraft. But jet transport aircraft take advantage of low air density at high altitudes to reduce drag during cruise. Airlines cannot come close to the reliability or performance of maglev trains in all weather conditions. Has significant safety margin as they are designed not to crash into other.
22. 22. The initial investment is similar to other high speed rail roads. (Maglift is \$20-\$40 million per mile and I-279 in Pittsburg cost \$37 million per mile 17 years ago.) Operating expenses are half of that of other railroads. A train is composed of sections that each contain 100 seats, and a train can have between 2 and 10 sections. The linear generators produce electricity for the cabin of the train.
23. 23. TESTING TRACKS 120 m test track of General Atomics at San Diego , USA. Tranrapid , a German maglev company has test track at Emsland , Germany of length 31.5km. JR-Maglev , Japan has a test track that can reach a speed of 581km/hr.
24. 24. IMPORTANT OPERATIONAL SYSTEMS Linimo , Japan – commercially automated urban maglev system commenced on March 2005. Shangai maglev train , China – EMS high speed system started operation on April 2004. HML 03 – The first EMS maglev opened to public at Daejeon South Korea in 1993.
25. 25. UNDER CONSTRUCTION AMT Test Track – Powder Springs, Georgia Applied levitation test track – California. Beiging S1 line. PROPOSED PLANS Penang-Kuala Lampur-Singapore line -Malaysia Melbourne Maglev Proposal Mumbai – Delhi Kochi metro
26. 26. They consume less energy. Require no engine. Move faster than normal trains because they are not affected by ground friction; their rights-of-way, meanwhile, cost about the same to build. Incompatible with existing rail lines, unlike traditional high- speed rail. Initial cost is very high.
27. 27. Wikipedia –”Maglev Trains”  Science reporter magazine October 2014. Heller, Arnie (June 1998). "A New Approach for Magnetically Levitating Trains—and Rockets". Science & Technology Review. Hood, Christopher P.(2006). Shinkansen – From Bullet Train to Symbol of Modern Japan. Routledge. Science journal.’Maglev train’ April 19, 2010, http://science.howstuffworks.com/maglev-train.htm
28. 28. Thank you