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Desalination and water reuse Norredine Ghaffour

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Desalination and water reuse Norredine Ghaffour

  1. 1. Water Desalination & Reuse as Non-Conventional Solution for Water Supply in WANA<br />Noreddine Ghaffour<br />Water Desalination & Reuse Center<br />King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST)<br />WANA Forum Consultation<br />Amman Feb. 22nd 2011<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Water is an essential component of the life support system<br />Middle East region has 5% of the world population but only 1% of the world’s renewable resources<br />Why go for desalination and water reuse? <br /><ul><li> Lack of water resources
  3. 3. Deteriorating quality of fresh water sources
  4. 4. Reduced cost of water produced by desalination
  5. 5. Security of supply</li></ul>2<br />
  6. 6. Water in the WANA Region<br /><ul><li>Future water shortages foreseen, if not now
  7. 7. Additional, reliable, and safe water supply needed for population and industrial growth
  8. 8. Water supply is an issue of economic growth and national sustainability
  9. 9. Water can be a possible source of conflict</li></ul>3<br />
  10. 10. Market Evolution<br />Total capacity:<br />2006: 40M m3/d<br />2010: 64M m3/d<br />2015: 98M m3/d<br />The review indicates it is growing at a compound annual growth rate of 55%.<br />4<br />Source: GWI/IDA, 2011<br />
  11. 11. Relevant Technologies in Use<br />5<br />
  12. 12. Desalination Usage<br />6<br /><ul><li>Current production of seawater corresponds only to the demand of 60 million inhabitants
  13. 13. Desalination is no longer a marginal water resource as some countries such as Qatar and Kuwait rely 100% on desalinated water for domestic and industrial use</li></li></ul><li>Forces Behind the Development Potential of Desalination<br />7<br /><ul><li>Independent of climatic variations
  14. 14. Compared to conventionalresources (civil engineering projects) , desalinationprojects:</li></ul>canbebuiltquickly (2-3 years), close to demand<br />have lessproblematic right of way<br />are lesslikely to meet opposition of local groups <br />are modular and easilyadapt to demandevolution<br />are more susceptible to privatesectorinvestment<br />
  15. 15. Wastewater as a Source<br /><ul><li>The driving force for wastewater becoming a water source has been the advancement in water treatment technologies
  16. 16. Conventional wastewater treatment of primary, secondary and tertiary steps give policy makers a choice in cost versus product and versus use
  17. 17. Available technologies to produce even more superior quality water at a reasonable cost has widened the options for use</li></ul>It is technically and economically possible to produce potable water from wastewater<br />8<br />
  18. 18. Wastewater Reuse in the Region<br /><ul><li>Reuse varies widely, but mostly for agriculture
  19. 19. GCC countries generally treat the wastewater up to tertiary treatment</li></ul>► Major amount dumped into the sea after conventional treatment. <br /> ► Partly used for greening and agriculture <br /> ► Presently there are plans to store the treated wastewater in aquifers<br />9<br />
  20. 20. Sulaibiya Wastewater Treatment Plant<br /> Capacity: 375,000 m3/d<br />RO process: 3 stages. 83 % recovery.<br />
  21. 21. Singapore NEWater Treatment Plant<br />Product water<br />NEWater & Sulaibiya<br />-> WHO drinking water quality standards <br />Capacity: 24,000 m3/d<br />Purpose : High Grade<br />Water Reclamation Plant<br />
  22. 22. Main Pollutants to Remove for Potable Water Production<br /><ul><li>Total Suspended Solids (Turbidity)</li></ul>Clarifier, Membrane<br /><ul><li>Bacteria, viruses …(E Coli, Cryptospridium, Giardia, rotavirus,…)</li></ul>Disinfection, filtration, clarifier, Membrane<br /><ul><li>Organic matter (TOC)</li></ul>Clarifier, PAC, Ozone-GAC, Membrane<br /><ul><li>Refractory compounds (pharmaceuticals, pesticides,…)</li></ul>Oxidation, Adsorption, Membrane<br /><ul><li>Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)</li></ul>Membrane, Distillation, ED, EDI,…<br /><ul><li>Specific Dissolved Species (Mn, Fe, As, Bromate, F, B …)</li></ul>Specific processes based on raw water quality and regulation<br />12<br />
  23. 23. Ex. Fluoride Removal<br />DENTAL<br />FLUOROSIS<br />(F- > 2 mg/L)<br />10 years of exposure to <br />4 mg/L F-, in Fatick,<br /> SENEGAL<br />Regulation (drinking water) : < 1.5 mg/L (WHO, 2006)<br />(Sy M.H., Sene P., Diouf S., Soc. d’Ed. des de l’Assoc. Des Hop. De Paris, 1996 15/2 p.109 )<br />(TRAVI Y. Sciences géologiques, (1993), mémoire 95, ISSN 0302-2684)<br />
  24. 24. Ex. Fluoride Removal (Cont’d)<br />OSSEOUS<br />FLUOROSIS<br />(F- > 4 mg/L)<br />15 years of exposure to 6-10mg/L F-, in Fatick, Senegal<br />Regulation(drinking water) < 1.5 mg/L (WHO, 2006)<br />(Sy M.H., Sene P., Diouf S., Soc. d’Ed. Assoc. Des Hop. De Paris, 1996 15/2 p.109 )<br />6<br />(TRAVI Y. Sciences géologiques, (1993), mémoire 95, ISSN 0302-2684)<br />
  25. 25. Ex. Fluoride Removal (Case Study)<br />THE FIRST DEFLUORIDATION UNIT IN THE WORLD – 2010<br />Lessfluorides in drinking water, <br />betterhealth and dignityrecovering !<br />Thiadiaye, January 2010<br />Maxime PONTIE1, Hanane DACH1,2, Pascal JAOUEN1, Courfia DIAWARA3, Jérôme LEPARC4, <br />Mohamed HAFSI4, Norredine GHAFFOUR5<br />3rd Oxford Water and Membranes Research Event – September 12th - 15th 2010, Lady Margaret Hall, The University of Oxford (UK)<br />
  26. 26. Trends in Water Cost<br />Due to technological maturity and the various developments as well as transparency and competition, produced water from thermal and RO plants has considerably declined in the last 20 years.<br />US cent<br />RO cost is reduced to a level to compete with traditional water supply options<br />16<br />
  27. 27. Introduction to Energy & Desalination<br />Desalination Processes<br /><ul><li>Thermal – needs thermal and electrical energy
  28. 28. Membranes – needs electrical energy only</li></ul>Both are energy intensive, accounting for <br />40-75 % of the operating cost<br />Why reduce energy consumption  cost and CO2 emissions<br />17<br />
  29. 29. 18<br />Energy Consumption<br />
  30. 30. Minimum Energy Required<br />Minimum energy for separation of pure water from saline water at 25 oC<br />19<br />
  31. 31. Renewable Energy & Desalination <br /><ul><li>Attractive to reduce dependence on fossil fuels but capital costs still high
  32. 32. Can be used in remote and rural areas for small scale applications
  33. 33. RE can provide thermal, electrical or mechanical energy </li></ul>20<br />
  34. 34. RE Desalination Sources & Combination <br />Biomass<br />
  35. 35. RE : Power Oriented Technologies<br />(Electricity Production)<br />Power oriented RE technologies are based on three major resources: <br />Solar or wind based solutions are particularly suitable for desalination purposes, given the resource availability in most of the water stressed areas<br />Wave energy is available where sea water is available, which is needed for desalination. The technology is little developed but has a huge potential.<br />
  36. 36. RE : Heat Oriented Technologies<br />(Heat Production)<br />Heat oriented RE technologies are based on three major resources:<br />
  37. 37. What are The Limitations in Using RE?<br /><ul><li>Intermittent, difficult to predict and fluctuant.
  38. 38. Occupy large areas (cases of solar collectors, solar PV fields or wind farms)
  39. 39. Adverse impact on the environment:</li></ul>• Visual impacts,<br />• Affection to marine and aerial life<br />• Noise (Wind for example )<br />
  40. 40. Seawater Greenhouse<br />
  41. 41. Seawater Greenhouse (Oman)<br />Inside the greenhouse <br />26<br />
  42. 42. Sureste SWRO Plant<br /><ul><li>Capacity (small):25,000 m3/d
  43. 43. Photovoltaic cells (rooftop):minor share of RO energy demand
  44. 44. Rest from grid:energy mix includeswind energy</li></li></ul><li>Almeria, Spain<br />Solar MD<br />Solar distillation <br />MSF plant withCSP<br />
  45. 45. The Desert of Tomorrow! Heaven on Earth<br />Ideadevelopedby Dr. Paton,<br /> SWGH, England<br />29<br />
  46. 46. Conclusions<br /><ul><li>Growth of desalination is phenomenal in the region
  47. 47. Water reuse is not widely accepted, can play an important role
  48. 48. Desalination and water reuse technology responds to market needs
  49. 49. Factors constraining growth rate of desalination:</li></ul>Energy consumption can still be reduced<br />Environmental impacts are positive, new guidelines<br />Distribution infrastructures/rehabilitation foreseen<br />Cost is declining, can be further reduced<br /><ul><li>RE systems have proven to be reliable. They are the technologies of the future and will play a role in future scenarios. It has great potential in WANA
  50. 50. Presently solar desalination can be used for small/medium scale applications in remote locations where grid electric power is not available</li></ul>30<br />
  51. 51. 31<br />