TEFL (Direct Method, PPP, CLL)

19 de Sep de 2015

Más contenido relacionado


TEFL (Direct Method, PPP, CLL)

  1. Group 4 Novena Mey Selly S (201310100311135) Rizka Oktaviani P (201310100311165) Nurul Khatimah (201310100311169) Siti Farida (201310100311170) Widya Alfiani (201310100311181)
  2. Popular Teaching Methodologies Part II • Direct method • Presentation, practice and production (ppp) • Community language learning
  3. Direct method • It’s to make up with the Grammar-Translation Method, which emphasizes reading and writing, fixed rules for sentences patterns, and grammar and translation skills. • So, in DM, no translation, no native language but with meaningful context, pictures, visual aids, demonstration and dramatization to help students learn words, preposition, grammar of the target language.
  4. Principle • No translate but demonstrate • Never explain but act • Never make a speech but ask questions • Native speaker to deliver teaching for correct pronunciation, and better oral skills.
  5. Techniques • Reading aloud Take turns reading sections of a passage, play, or whatever teaching materials. The teacher uses gestures, pictures, realia, examples, or other means to make the meaning of the section clear. • Question and answer exercise Students ask and answer questions in full sentences and practice new words and grammatical rules.
  6. • Getting Student to Self-correct : To make students self-corrected by asking them to make a choice between what they said and an alternative answer he supplied. • Conversation practice Teacher asks students some questions in the target language. questions contained a particular grammar structure (T→S; S→S)
  7. • Fill-in-the-blank exercise all the items are in the target language no explicit grammar rules would be applied • Dictation - teacher reads the passage 3 times - normal speed - phrase by phrase with pausing long - normal speed again
  8. • Map drawing: A map with unnamed geographical features. The teacher gives directions and students label the map. Then change the roles. • Paragraph writing: to write a paragraph in their own words by using the teaching materials a model.
  9. Points Let students learn the correct pronunciation and better oral skills because no native language is used and communication is main activity in the class. Whereas, students’ enterprising spirits and the teacher speaking the target language fluently are required.
  10. Advantages • It makes the learning of English interesting • It is an activity method facilitating alertness and participation of the pupils. • According to Macnee, "It is the quickest way of getting started". In a few months over 500 of the commonest English words can be learnt and used in sentences. This serves as a strong foundation of further learning.
  11. • Students are able to understand what they learn, think about it and then express their own ideas. • This method can be usefully employed from the lowest to the highest class. • Fluency of speech, good pronunciation and power of expression.
  12. Disadvantages • Students may be afraid of asking questions. • It’s hard to practice the methods in a class with more than 20 students. It needs a great amount of teachers • It’s hard to explain abstract words. • It takes much time for teacher to explain the words that might be trivial.
  13. PPP (Presentation, Practice, Production) • Presentation, Practice and Production Commonly referred to as PPP, is a kind of instructional sequence, that is a model of lesson planning.
  14. Presentation  It is an stage where teachers will introduce the topic, and students will start to build their personal understanding about the given topic by the teacher  For a good presentation, the teacher can use : gestures, movements, pictures, sounds, and oral clues
  15. Ways to present • Meaningful • Memorable • Realistic
  16. Practice  This stage which is also called “over-done” is based on the student’s performance, in the way that students develop all the concepts related  The goal is to help the children use the new language  The teacher can ask the children to produce sentences or answer question to demonstrate they understand how to use the language correctly.
  17. Practice activities • Chain pair-work • Closed pair-work • Open pair-work
  18. Production  This final stage which is considered the most important aspect, determine the level of student’s comprehension, as well as the results which will demonstrate the student’s capabilities to produce more personalized language  This stage can help motivate children to communicate meaning with new language  Children should have the opportunity to experiment with the language
  19. Productive activities • Situational role-plays • Debates • Discussions • Problem-solving
  20. Alternatives to PPP  ESA : Engage, Study, and Active (Longman 1998) Jeremy Harmer Engage : the point is that unless students are engaged emotionally with what is going on, their learning will be less effective. Study : The model of study based on form and how something works and it is formed. Active : Any stage at which students are encouraged to use the target language. Communicative Task.
  21. Community language learning • (CLL) is the name of a method developed by Charles A. Curran and his associates. • (CLL) represents the use of Counseling- Learning theory to teach languages.
  22. Definition • Community language learning (CLL) is an approach in which students work together to develop what aspects of a language they would like to learn.
  23. Principles 1. Building a relationship among students. 2. The teacher should be sensitive to students’ level of confidence and give them just what they need to be successful. 3. The teacher and students are whole persons. 4. The teacher “councels” the student. 5. The teacher encourages student initiative and independence.
  24. Teacher’s and Students’ Role 1) The teacher: The teacher’s initial role is primarily that of a counselor. 2) The students: Initially the learners are very dependent upon the teacher.
  25. Techniques • Recording : Students record conversations in the target language. • Transcription :Students transcribe utterances and conversations they have recorded for practice and analysis of linguistic forms. • Reflection on experience : Learners reflect and report on their experience of the class, as a class or in groups. This usually consists of expressions of feelings - sense of one another, reactions to silence, concern for something to say, etc.
  26. • Listening: Students listen to a monologue by the teacher involving elements they might have elicited or overheard in class interactions. • human computer: Students engage in ´free conversation with' the teacher or with other learners. The teacher following the student’s lead, repeat the phrase as often as the student wants to practice it.
  27. • Small Group Tasks: Learners may engage in various group tasks, such as small-group discussion of a topic, preparing a conversation, preparing a summary of a topic for presentation to another group, preparing a story that will be presented to the teacher and the rest of the class.
  28. Advantages • The counselor allow the learners to determine type of conversation and to analyze the language inductively, • The student centered nature of the method can provide extrinsic motivation and capitalized an intrinsic motivation.
  29. Disadvantages • The counselor- teacher can become too nondirective. Students often need direction. • Translation is an intricate and difficult task. The success of the method relies largely on the translation expertise of the counselor.
  30. Summary (Charles Curran, 1972) A counseling-learning model in which non- defensive learning is achieved with six elements (security, aggression, attention, reflection, retention, and discrimination) and learners are considered “whole persons.” It aims at building a supportive community of Students to interact in an interpersonal relationship, to lower defenses, and to meet learner needs.
  31. THANK YOU 