• It’s to make up with the Grammar-Translation
Method, which emphasizes reading and
writing, fixed rules for sentences patterns,
and grammar and translation skills.
• So, in DM, no translation, no native language
but with meaningful context, pictures, visual
aids, demonstration and dramatization to help
students learn words, preposition, grammar
of the target language.
• No translate but demonstrate
• Never explain but act
• Never make a speech but ask questions
• Native speaker to deliver teaching for correct
pronunciation, and better oral skills.
• Reading aloud
Take turns reading sections of a passage, play,
or whatever teaching materials. The teacher
uses gestures, pictures, realia, examples, or
other means to make the meaning of the
• Question and answer exercise
Students ask and answer questions in full
sentences and practice new words and
• Getting Student to Self-correct :
To make students self-corrected by asking them to
make a choice between what they said and an
alternative answer he supplied.
• Conversation practice
Teacher asks students some questions in the
questions contained a particular grammar
structure (T→S; S→S)
• Fill-in-the-blank exercise
all the items are in the target language
no explicit grammar rules would be applied
- teacher reads the passage 3 times
- normal speed
- phrase by phrase with pausing long
- normal speed again
• Map drawing: A map with unnamed
geographical features. The teacher gives
directions and students label the map. Then
change the roles.
• Paragraph writing: to write a paragraph in
their own words by using the teaching
materials a model.
Let students learn the correct pronunciation
and better oral skills because no native
language is used and communication is
main activity in the class. Whereas, students’
enterprising spirits and the teacher speaking
the target language fluently are required.
• It makes the learning of English interesting
• It is an activity method facilitating alertness
and participation of the pupils.
• According to Macnee, "It is the quickest way
of getting started". In a few months over 500
of the commonest English words can be learnt
and used in sentences. This serves as a strong
foundation of further learning.
• Students are able to understand what they learn,
think about it and then express their own ideas.
• This method can be usefully employed from the
lowest to the highest class.
• Fluency of speech, good pronunciation and
power of expression.
• Students may be afraid of asking questions.
• It’s hard to practice the methods in a class with
more than 20 students. It needs a great amount
• It’s hard to explain abstract words.
• It takes much time for teacher to explain the
words that might be trivial.
It is an stage where teachers will introduce the
topic, and students will start to build their personal
understanding about the given topic by the teacher
For a good presentation, the teacher can use :
gestures, movements, pictures, sounds, and oral
This stage which is also called “over-done” is
based on the student’s performance, in the way
that students develop all the concepts related
The goal is to help the children use the new language
The teacher can ask the children to produce sentences or
answer question to demonstrate they understand how to use
the language correctly.
This final stage which is considered the most important
aspect, determine the level of student’s comprehension,
as well as the results which will demonstrate the
student’s capabilities to produce more personalized
This stage can help motivate children to communicate
meaning with new language
Children should have the opportunity to experiment
with the language
Alternatives to PPP
ESA : Engage, Study, and Active (Longman 1998) Jeremy Harmer
Engage : the point is that unless students are engaged emotionally with
what is going on, their learning will be less effective.
Study : The model of study based on form and how something works
and it is formed.
Active : Any stage at which students are encouraged to use the target
language. Communicative Task.
Community language learning
• (CLL) is the name of a method developed by
Charles A. Curran and his associates.
• (CLL) represents the use of Counseling-
Learning theory to teach languages.
1. Building a relationship among students.
2. The teacher should be sensitive to
students’ level of confidence and give
them just what they need to be successful.
3. The teacher and students are whole
4. The teacher “councels” the student.
5. The teacher encourages student initiative
Teacher’s and Students’ Role
1) The teacher: The teacher’s initial role is
primarily that of a counselor.
2) The students: Initially the learners are very
dependent upon the teacher.
• Recording : Students record conversations in
the target language.
• Transcription :Students transcribe utterances
and conversations they have recorded for
practice and analysis of linguistic forms.
• Reflection on experience : Learners reflect and
report on their experience of the class, as a class
or in groups. This usually consists of expressions
of feelings - sense of one another, reactions to
silence, concern for something to say, etc.
• Listening: Students listen to a monologue by the
teacher involving elements they might have elicited
or overheard in class interactions.
• human computer: Students engage in ´free
conversation with' the teacher or with other
learners. The teacher following the student’s lead,
repeat the phrase as often as the student wants to
• Small Group Tasks: Learners may engage in
various group tasks, such as small-group discussion
of a topic, preparing a conversation, preparing a
summary of a topic for presentation to another
group, preparing a story that will be presented to
the teacher and the rest of the class.
• The counselor allow the learners to determine
type of conversation and to analyze the
• The student centered nature of the method
can provide extrinsic motivation and
capitalized an intrinsic motivation.
• The counselor- teacher can become too
nondirective. Students often need direction.
• Translation is an intricate and difficult task.
The success of the method relies largely on
the translation expertise of the counselor.
Summary (Charles Curran, 1972)
A counseling-learning model in which non-
defensive learning is achieved with six
elements (security, aggression, attention,
reflection, retention, and discrimination) and
learners are considered “whole persons.” It
aims at building a supportive community of
Students to interact in an interpersonal
relationship, to lower defenses, and to meet