LinkedIn emplea cookies para mejorar la funcionalidad y el rendimiento de nuestro sitio web, así como para ofrecer publicidad relevante. Si continúas navegando por ese sitio web, aceptas el uso de cookies. Consulta nuestras Condiciones de uso y nuestra Política de privacidad para más información.
LinkedIn emplea cookies para mejorar la funcionalidad y el rendimiento de nuestro sitio web, así como para ofrecer publicidad relevante. Si continúas navegando por ese sitio web, aceptas el uso de cookies. Consulta nuestra Política de privacidad y nuestras Condiciones de uso para más información.
Assessment of the Safety of Food Additives
In Malaysia the approval of any food additives under the
Food Regulations 1985 is determined by MOH
At the international level, the approval is carried out by Joint
Expert Committee on Food Additive (JECFA) FAO/WHO
based on the following information or data :
a) Adequate long and short-term toxicology studies, at least
on 2 type of animals
b) Adequate information on how the additive is absorb in the
body, or its metabolic pathway.
After assessing all these information only the safety level of
the additives is determined.
The safety level of an additive is measured by ADI
(Acceptable Daily Intake), the amount of the additive that
can be ingested each day for life without any risk.
The ADI value is determined with consideration safety
factor100 time less than the maximum level that can be
eaten by lab animals without any harm.
The ADI value given by JECFA for any chemical is
classified base on the assessment carried out as follows:
a. Full or unconditional (FU) ADI : The assessment is
b. Temporary ADI (TE) : Given for a period of time only
as further information is still needed. However, the
toxicology data is sufficient to ensure that the material
is safe for the grace period. ADI given can be
withdrawn if additional information is not provided
within the grace period.
c. ADI not specified (NS) or not limited (NL): Normally
the material is presence in food and the toxic level is
d. Conditional ADI or Unconditional ADI : Pending re-
e. No ADI allocated (NO): Inadequate information to
determined the safety of the material or specification
for the identification and originality is insufficient.
Approval for Food Additive
Application for the approval of food additive requires
detailed particulars on the following aspects:
• Information on toxicology and pharmacology tests
conducted under the criteria set by WHO
• Proof that the same objective can be obtained by using
• The daily intake limit in the diet
• The purity standard set by the authorized agencies
• The benefits to the consumer
• The current status of the additive internationally and
countries that have approved it.
• Type of analysis available to determine the additive
level in raw food, during processing and the final
• Method to determine the presence of by-product with
Risk Factors of Additives
As a result of
- reaction with other chemical/material resulting in risks
- the weaknesses of the assessment on the safety of the
- the purity of the additive itself
FDA – the danger of additives in food is placed 5th
FP (bacterial), malnutrition, mycotoxin and natural toxin
Chemical substances produced by certain species of
microorganisms (bacteria, Fungi, Actinomycetes) that
suppress the growth of other microorganisms and may
eventually destroy them.
Under Regulation 40, Food Regulations 1985
No one is allowed to import or sell milk, meat or meat
products and other foods for human consumption which
contain antibiotics or their degraded products
- Chlortetracycline – preservations of poultry
- Oxytetracycline – ice water to preserve fresh fish
- Nisin – cheese and canned food
FOOD Regulations (Amendment) 1998 – around 50 types of
antibiotics are allowed.
Use of antibiotics in animals
- Prevention, treatment and control of diseases
Administration via water, feed and injection
Poultry Diseases (Salmonellosis, fowls cholera, etc)
Swine Diseases (Colibacillosis, Dysentery, enteritis, etc.)
Ruminant Diseases (Diarrhoea, Liver abscesses,
As feed additives or water additives, normally at a
concentration of 20 ppm in feeds is adequate for
promotion of growth.
mainly used for poultry and pig.
Commonly used antibiotics in livestock industry
- Oxolinic acid
- Furazolidone BEFORE 1996
Classification (chemical points of view):
i. Glycoproteins (includes peptide, protein, or glycoprotein
ii. Steroids (includes gonadal and adrenal cortical hormones)
Hormones used in livestock
- In the US, the use of hormones for growth promotion
and treatment of infertility is regulated.
- In EU countries, the use of hormones is not allowed.
- In Malaysia, the use of hormones for growth promotion
is not a common practice. Normally use for treatment of
Common hormones use in livestock
- Somatotrophin (growth promotion)
- Body growth (bone, muscle, organs)
- protein synthesis
- carbohydrate metabolism
- regulation of renal functions & water metabolism
- 17B-Oestradiol (treatment of infertility)
- Progesterone (treatment of infertility))
Impact of uses of antibiotics and hormones
- accumulation of parent drug and its metabolites within
cells, tissues or organs due to improper use or
ignorance of withdrawal periods
- tainting of the aquatic environment and non targeted fish
species in water and sediments around aquaculture
- public health concern, potential carcinogenic, allergic or
nephrotoxic when consumed over a long time span
2. Super germ : antibiotic resistant microorganism
As a result of mutation or transfer of resistance (R) plasmids
from one bacteria to the other e.g. Sal. Typhimurium and E.
Coli are proficient donors of (R) plasmids.
- emergence of cancomycin resistant enterococci (CRE)
in human suspected from the use of avoparcin in
- MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staph. Aureus)
- VIRSA/GIRSA (Vancomycin or other glycopeptude
intermediately resistant Staph. Aureus)
3. Abuse of usage
E.g. coenobitical, subatomic and ablution
Use in pig farming as growth promoter
(β-Aden receptors cardiac stimulation and lipolysis)
Use in treatment of asthma (β-adenoreceptors
smooth muscle relaxation)
A withdrawal period for a product is the period of time
before slaughter during which antibiotics or hormones
must not be given to the animal.
This period allows for the chemical to clear the
animal’s system by metabolism, passing through the
digestive system or by excretion or a combination of
- a group of synthetic chemical produced from
- consist the basic structure 5-nitrofuraldehyde
- 3 used in veterinary medicine
- a stable compound and soluble in water
- used in small dosage in chicken feed (<100
- it reduces bacterial infection in chicken intestines
and acts as a growth enhancer
The toxic effect of Nitrofuran
• No concrete evidence to show that it is safe
• Information on the metabolites of nitrofuran is not
• Studies conducted in 1988 found that nitrofuran
caused cancer in the uterus of rats
• Furalidone is found to increase abortion in rats
• Damage of bacterial cells and caused mutation
Residues in Food
– Due to insufficient information, CODEX or The
International Food Standards System do not fix any
MRL and ADI
– The EU recommended MRL of 1 – 2 microgram/kg
– Under the Food Regulations 1985 no residue is
Uses on human
– as medication for treating wound, burns, ulcers and skin
– however, there are side effects such as headache,
dizziness, vomiting and allergic reactions.
The banning of Nitrofuran
– banned in the US, Canada, the EU, and Japan for
– Australia withdrew the usage in animal feed since Dec
– Canada banned the usage on animals an no residue is
to be found in meat, eggs and milk
– Malaysia, action taken since 1996
Pesticides play pivotal role in pest and disease control in
FAO estimates 25-40% crop loss to pests, diseases and
weeds plus 10-20% to post-harvest losses.
Farmers depend on arsenal of pesticides to combat these
However, the safety of the usage of pesticides will
depend on the residues on the crops.
Origin of pesticide residues
A residue will result when a crop or food animal
(commodity) or medium of environment (air, water, soils
wildlife, etc.) is treated with a chemical, or exposed
unintentionally to it by drift, in irrigation water, in feed or by
The chemical will typically be detectable in the commodity
at the time of treatment or exposure and also for some
period of time afterward.
The magnitude of the residue at any one point in time will
depend on the treatment or exposure level and on the rate
at which the residue dissipates from the commodity.
1. Volatilization to the atmosphere (influenced by the
insecticide's volatility or vapor pressure and the
temperature and wind movement in the farm).
2. Washing off by rainfall or overhead irrigation (a
function of the chemical's water solubility and the
frequency and intensity of waterfall)
3. Chemical degradation (influenced by molecular
makeup of the insecticide and by such factors as
sunlight, moisture, and temperature).
An insecticide sprayed to protect crops may dissipate by a
number of processes, including
5. Metabolism and/or excretion in the case of animals and
some plants. The parent chemical may be converted to
one or more degradation products that will then constitute
the components of the remaining residue.
4. Growth dilution (e.g.. as apples become larger, the
chemical residue concentration will decrease even
without physical or chemical dissipation or residue from
Residues in vegetables (Malaysia.)
1. Methamidophos contaminated kai lan (>MRL 1mg/kg in
Dec.1988),100 people affected in S'pore
2. 2,4-D in bean sprouts (taugeh) for root restriction found
in most major towns
3. Rice-contamination more during storage /post harvest
treatment however persistent pesticides, lindane found
Washing prior to cooking destroy 80% of residue.
Legislation for the control of Pesticides in Malaysia are :
1. The Pesticides Act 1974 - The Pesticide Board
2. The Food Regulations 1985 (Amended 1995)
3. The Environment Quality Act 1974
4. The Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994
5. The Hydrogen Cyanide Fumigation Act 1953