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Waste	
  on	
  Water
The	
  Case	
  of	
  Chhnok	
  Tru	
  Commune,	
  Kampong	
  Chh...
Where,	
  What	
  &	
  Why	
  
Tonle	
  Sap	
  Lake	
  
The	
  Tonle	
  (large	
  river)	
  Sap	
  (fresh)	
  Lake	
  is	
...
Chhnok	
  Tru	
  Commune	
  and	
  its	
  Waste	
  Problem
	
  
Photo	
  1:	
  Chnnok	
  Tru	
  Commune
	
  
Chhnok	
  Tru...
Photo	
  2:	
  Waste	
  Situation	
  in	
  Chhnok	
  Tru
	
  
While	
  there	
  have	
  been	
  studies	
  done	
  on	
  t...
relocation,	
  rematerialization	
  and	
  its	
  associated	
  impacts	
  (Shaw	
  and	
  Hesse,	
  2010).	
  Therefore,	...
Dipping	
  into	
  the	
  Wastes
The	
  starting	
  point	
  of	
  the	
  research	
  is	
  to	
  understand	
  waste,	
  ...
Environment	
  Agency	
  (NEA)	
  in	
  2001	
  (NEA,	
  2016;	
  figure	
  2).	
  This	
  framework	
  has	
  since	
  pl...
Photo	
  4:	
  Ice	
  flask	
  used	
  by	
  villagers
Reuse
Waste	
  was	
  ‘reused’	
  through	
  collecting	
  plastic	...
Photo	
  6:	
  Host’s	
  boy	
  using	
  styrofoam	
  as	
  float
Photo	
  7:	
  Plastic	
  used	
  to	
  fuel	
  to	
  bu...
To	
  ‘recycle’	
  the	
  waste	
  produced,	
  practices	
  includes	
  recycling	
  beer	
  cans	
  (photo	
  8),	
  iro...
2 Plastic	
  Bottles 100
3 Iron 200
4 Leaked	
  Oil 15,000	
  -­‐	
  30,000	
  (dependant	
  on	
  quality)
Table	
  1.	
 ...
Figure	
  3:	
  Spatial	
  Difference	
  between	
  Wet	
  and	
  Dry	
  Season	
  in	
  Chhnok	
  Tru
Photo	
  10:	
  	
 ...
11).	
  However,	
  the	
  same	
  amount	
  of	
  bacteria	
  would	
  be	
  hazardous	
  during	
  the	
  dry	
  season,...
Two	
   anthropogenic	
   impacts	
   have	
   been	
   identified.	
   First,	
   water	
   pollution	
   has	
   worsene...
the	
   wet	
   season,	
   such	
   issues	
   are	
   likely	
   to	
   worsen	
   further	
   threatening	
   the	
   l...
More	
  importantly,	
  the	
  lake	
  is	
  the	
  only	
  place	
  that	
  they	
  could	
  dispose	
  of	
  their	
  wa...
waste	
   collection,	
   but	
   this	
   only	
   lasted	
   for	
   a	
   period	
   of	
   two	
   months	
   (Chhnok	...
mobile	
  and	
  stable,	
  they	
  are	
  often	
  small	
  in	
  size	
  resulting	
  in	
  space	
  constraints	
  with...
play	
  important	
  in	
  the	
  households	
  and	
  are	
  frequently	
  in	
  contact	
  with	
  waste,	
  they	
  oft...
References	
  
Agyeman,	
  J.	
  (1990).	
  ‘Black	
  People	
  in	
  a	
  White	
  Landscape:	
  Social	
  and	
  Environ...
 
Leang,	
  P.	
  (2003).	
  Sub-­‐Area	
  Analysis,	
  The	
  Tonle	
  Sap	
  Sub-­‐Area.	
  Report	
  for	
  the	
  Basi...
Yen,	
  N.	
  T.	
  H.,	
  Sunda,	
  K.,	
  Oishi,	
  S.,	
  and	
  Ikejima,	
  K.	
  (2007).	
  Tonle	
  Sap	
  ecosystem...
Annex	
  A
List	
  of	
  Interviewees	
  (Semi-­‐Structured	
  Interviews)	
  
S/N Interviewee Remarks
1 Fishing	
  Author...
Kellie’s	
  host
15 Household	
  6
(Vann	
  Ros,	
  54)
Community	
  Chief
Próxima SlideShare
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Waste on Water - Preliminary Research Paper

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Waste on Water - Preliminary Research Paper

  1. 1.                 Waste  on  Water The  Case  of  Chhnok  Tru  Commune,  Kampong  Chhnang  Province,  Cambodia ____________________________________________________ Hong  Li  Wee,  Low  Yi  Yun    and  Noun  Chandany  (Our  Cambodian  Buddy)
  2. 2. Where,  What  &  Why   Tonle  Sap  Lake   The  Tonle  (large  river)  Sap  (fresh)  Lake  is  the  largest  lake  in  Southeast  Asia.  The  lake  is  affected   by  the  seasonal  changes  in  hydrological  regime  of  the  Mekong  Basin  resulting  in  dry  and  wet   seasons  (Campbell  et  al.,  2006).    During  the  dry  season  (November  to  May),  the  lake  size  is   around  2,500  km2  and  expands  to  15,000km2  in  the  wet  season  (June  to  October)  (MRC,  2003).   Due  to  its  sheer  size  and  changing  hydrological  regime,  the  lake  is  one  of  the  most  productive   fisheries  in  the  world  that  supports  the  livelihood  of  more  than  a  million  people  (van  Zalinge  et   al.,  2000).    Not  only  is  the  lake  valuable  to  the  population,  it  is  also  important  to  the  greater   Mekong   system   due   to   its   rich   biodiversity   and   complex   interacting   physical,   biological   and   human   systems,   making   it   a   key   element   in   the   ecology   of   the   system   (Bonheur   and   Lane,   2002).   With   the   thriving   fisheries   and   abundance   resources,   the   lake   attracts   a   large   population   to   reside  along  the  catchment  of  and  on  the  lake  itself  (Keskinen  and  Sithirith,  2009).  This  results   in  an  estimated  population  of  4.5  million  people  that  is  still  growing  at  a  rapid  rate  of  4.8%   (Leang,  2003).  With  increasing  population  on  these  floating  villages,  there  is  a  risk  of  increasing   waste   production.   Thus,   without   proper   waste   management   system,   there   would   be   environmental  and  human  impacts  which  can  be  detrimental  to  the  lake  system  and  livelihoods   of   people.   In   particular,   this   report   seeks   to   look   into   the   issue   of   waste   (referring   to   non-­‐ human  waste)  on  water-­‐based  villages  through  the  case  of  Chnok  Tru  Commune  in  Kampong   Chhnang  province.  
  3. 3. Chhnok  Tru  Commune  and  its  Waste  Problem   Photo  1:  Chnnok  Tru  Commune   Chhnok  Tru  Commune  (photo  1)  is  one  of  6  water-­‐based  fishing  villages  in  Kampong  Chhnang   province  (Sithirith,  2014)  located  near  the  mouth  of  the  lake  connecting  to  Tonle  Sap  River.  The   commune   has   a   total   of   1,761   households   (Khmer   Village   Chief,   2016).   Through   our   field   interviews,  we  discovered  that  there  is  a  lack  of  waste  management  system  in  the  commune.   Our  findings  suggest  that  a  household  throws  around  1  kilograms  of  waste  a  day  amounting  up   to  approximately  1.761  tonnes  of  waste  a  day  and  642.765  tonnes  of  waste  a  year  just  by  the   commune.   The   large   amount   of   waste   thrown   freely   into   the   lake,   and   the   resultant   accumulation,   would   become   a   concern   to   the   long-­‐term   management   of   the   Tonle   Sap,   as   other  floating  villages  may  have  similar  practices.  Therefore,  our  group  decided  to  embark  on   this  project  to  detail  the  waste  issue,  the  impacts  and  possible  solutions  that  we  can  propose.
  4. 4. Photo  2:  Waste  Situation  in  Chhnok  Tru   While  there  have  been  studies  done  on  the  various  threats  to  the  lake,  most  focus  on  human   waste  issues  (see  Brown,  2010),  resources  and  fisheries  management  and  usage  (see  Thuok  and   Nuov,   1996;   Sithirith,   2014;   Yen   et   al.,   2007)   and   water   quality   issues   (see   Sien,   2001).   Conversely,  there  are  limited  studies  relating  to  non-­‐human  waste  and  the  associated  impacts.   Therefore,   using   the   case   of   Chhnok   Tru   Commune,   this   report   seeks   to   bring   to   light   the   pressing  issue  of  waste  on  water  (photo  2)  through  an  empirical  approach  anchoring  on  post-­‐ consumption  geographies  in  exploring  spatial  and  temporal  relations.  We  also  seek  to  propose   a  more  environmentally  just  approach  to  addressing  this  issue  in  the  future.   Why  Waste? “[A]ll  societies  both  throw  things  away  and  abandon  them”  (Gregson  et  al.,  2007:  697) During  our  research  process,  we  recognized  the  importance  of  studying  waste  as  waste  is  not   simply  passive  matter  -­‐  which  most  works  tend  to  assume  -­‐    but  rather  an  active  agent  that  is   not  characterised  by  fixity  and  is  powerful  (Davies,  2012;  Bennett,  2004).  Rather  than  the  ‘end’,   waste  disposal  should  be  considered  the  beginning,  characterised  by  processes  such  as  waste  
  5. 5. relocation,  rematerialization  and  its  associated  impacts  (Shaw  and  Hesse,  2010).  Therefore,  in   this  report,  we  focus  on  tracing  the  processes  and  highlight  the  possible  impacts  that  resulted   from  waste  disposal. Tracing  the  Waste A  multi-­‐method  approach  was  adopted,  including  15  semi-­‐structured  interviews  (Annex  A),  3   households  interview  through  fellow  researchers,  participant  observation  and  waste  collection   (photo   3).   In   tracing   the   path   of   waste   and   identifying   impacts,   we   conducted   participant   observation  and  collected  waste  for  documenting  purposes.   Photo  3:  Collection  of  waste  with  the  help  of  host’s  children Given   the   unique   geography   of   the   floating   village,   our   research   was   conducted   through   assistance  from  gatekeepers  and  fellow  researchers  in  the  field.  In  particular,  our  host  was  very   resourceful   and   had   directed   us   to   numerous   interviewees   that   our   research   demands.   However,  during  the  research  process,  we  faced  a  few  challenges.  What  strikes  us  the  most  was   when  we  encountered  false  information.  We  managed  to  overcome  this  by  conversing  with  our   host  and  experienced  researchers  as  they  were  able  to  provide  as  with  the  actual  information   based  on  their  expertise  and  experiences.  
  6. 6. Dipping  into  the  Wastes The  starting  point  of  the  research  is  to  understand  waste,  in  particular,  what  types  of  waste  are   produced  by  the  villagers?  We  observed  and  collected  some  wastes  and  categorised  them  into     organic   and   inorganic   waste   (figure   1).   Organic   waste   refers   to   biodegradable   material   originating  from  plants  and  animals  (Zimring  and  Rathje,  2012).  Inorganic  waste  refers  to  non-­‐ biodegradable  materials  that  are  often  of  mineral  origins  (EEA,  2016).   Figure  1:  Classification  of  waste  found  in  Chhnok  Tru  Commune   Just  Throwing?   More  than  just  the  disposal  of  waste  directly  into  the  lake,  the  villagers  adopt  waste  practices   that   reflect   the   “Reduce,   Reuse   and   Recycle”   framework   proposed   by   Singapore’s   National  
  7. 7. Environment  Agency  (NEA)  in  2001  (NEA,  2016;  figure  2).  This  framework  has  since  played  an   important   role   in   the   preventing   the   accumulation   of   waste   and   promoting   sustainability   in   Singapore.  Below  describes  how  the  villagers  of  Chhnok  Tru  Commune  practice  the  3Rs. Figure  2:    Singapore’s  3  Rs  framework  (Source:  NEA) Reduce To  ‘reduce’  the  amount  of  waste  produced,  villagers  have  a  ice  flask  (photo  4)  in  their  homes  to   store  the  drinks  they  purchased.  This  avoids  the  production  of  more  waste  in  the  form  of  plastic   cups  or  bags,  that  ultimately  gets  thrown  into  the  lake.  
  8. 8. Photo  4:  Ice  flask  used  by  villagers Reuse Waste  was  ‘reused’  through  collecting  plastic  bottles  to  use  as  floats  for  their  houses,  fuels  or   to  store  clean  water  for  drinking.  Another  example  is  how  styrofoam  are  converted  into  useful   objects  for  the  children  such  as  toys  (photo  5)  or  floats  (photo  6).  Plastics  were  also  used  as   burning  fuel  to  cook  and  properly  dispose  of  medical  waste  (photo  7)  (Tay,  Doctor  at  Public   Health  Centre,  2016)  . Photo  5.:  A  toy  created  by  children  using  waste  picked  up  from  the  lake
  9. 9. Photo  6:  Host’s  boy  using  styrofoam  as  float Photo  7:  Plastic  used  to  fuel  to  burn  medical  waste Recycle
  10. 10. To  ‘recycle’  the  waste  produced,  practices  includes  recycling  beer  cans  (photo  8),  iron  (photo  9)   and  leaked  oil,  and  are  exchanged  for  money  in  the  village  (Table  1).   Photo  8:  Beer  cans Photo  9:  Iron   S/N ITEM AMOUNT  RECEIVED  (RIEL) 1 Beer  Cans 200
  11. 11. 2 Plastic  Bottles 100 3 Iron 200 4 Leaked  Oil 15,000  -­‐  30,000  (dependant  on  quality) Table  1.  Amount  received  for  recyclable  goods. Despite   highlighting   the   above-­‐mentioned   examples   the   3   Rs   in   Chhnok   Tru   Commune,   it   is   difficult   to   ascertain   whether   is   such   policy   transfer   applicable   from   a   modern   city   like   Singapore  to  a  down-­‐to-­‐earth  floating  village  like  Chhnok  Tru  Commune  .  These  restrictions  may   take   in   the   form   of   cultural   practices,   lack   of   education,   and   the   resistant   to   change.   From   which,  there  is  a  need  for  more  research  to  be  done  to  find  out  the  transferability  of  urban-­‐to-­‐ rural  policies. Possible  Impacts  from  Waste   Through  our  observations  and  conversations  with  the  villagers,  we  identified  several  impacts   (not  exhaustive)  -­‐  classified  into  environmental  and  human  -­‐  that  resulted  from  waste  disposal.   Environment The  environmental  impacts  caused  by  waste  is  vast  and  complicated,  and  we  decided  to  look   specifically   into   seasonal   and   temporal   impacts,   along   with   deeper   considerations   for   scalar   impacts. Chhnok  Tru  Commune  is  a  water-­‐based  village  that  experiences  both  the  dry  and  wet  seasons.   Between  these  two  seasons,  the  impact  of  waste  was  found  to  be  different.  FIgure  3  shows  us   spatial  difference  in  the  water  bodies  between  the  wet  and  dry  season,  taking  note  to  the  rise   in  area  of  water  bodies  during  the  wet  season.  Imagine,  all  the  trash  floating  around  on  the   river   during   the   wet   season   (photo   10),   what   would   then   happen   in   the   dry   season?   Our   observation   concluded   that   waste   would   congregate   together,   forming   ‘rubbish   islands’   and   either  be  deposited  on  dry  lands  or  move  with  the  village.
  12. 12. Figure  3:  Spatial  Difference  between  Wet  and  Dry  Season  in  Chhnok  Tru Photo  10:    ‘Rubbish  islands’   Temporally,  in  the  short  run,  we  find  that  these  waste  would  continue  to  be  ignored  by  the   local  communities.  This  is  because  the  amount  of  bacteria  contributed  by  these  waste  are  not   hazardous   (visible)   enough   to   affect   their   livelihoods,   especially   during   the   wet   seasons.   Similarly,  waste  are  often  trapped  amongst  the  water  hyacinth,  and  are  thus  ‘invisible’  (Photo  
  13. 13. 11).  However,  the  same  amount  of  bacteria  would  be  hazardous  during  the  dry  season,  due  to   its  increased  concentration  when  the  water  volume  has  decreased.  It  was  revealed  that  during   the  dry  season,  there  was  a  period  of  3  months  when  they  rely  on  the  purchase  of  clean  water   for  their  survival  as  it  was  when  the  water  is  dirty  and  polluted  (Fishing  authority,  2016;  OM   Kong,  Household  2,  2016).   Therefore,   assuming   that   no   intervention   was   made   to   the   current   waste   problem,   we   can   foresee  how  waste  continues  to  accumulate  till  they  become  even  more  ‘visible’  even  during   the   wet   season.   We   can   only   lament   on   how   the   waters   might   become   more   polluted,   drastically  affecting  their  livelihoods  in  the  long  run.   Photo  11:  Rubbished  trapped  amongst  Vegetation Lastly,  we  need  to  account  for  the  scalar  impact  of  the  waste  the  local  communities  throw  into   the  river.  The  waste  produced  by  them  are  harmful  as  a  collective  whole,  not  just  within  their   own  living  spaces,  but  also  to  neighbouring  villagers  and  the  lower  Mekong  River.  Hence,  such  a   problem   has   to   be   studied   beyond   the   boundaries   of   the   village,   to   assess   the   impacts   of   localised  waste  on  the  wider  ecosystem. Human  
  14. 14. Two   anthropogenic   impacts   have   been   identified.   First,   water   pollution   has   worsened   the   quality  of  water  around  the  commune  and  this  has  impacts  on  human  health.  It  is  understood   that  villagers  use  the  water  straight  from  the  lake  for  purposes  such  as  drinking,  washing  and   cooking.  These  may  result  in  unintended  health  impacts  such  as  diarrhea  (Thea,  Household  3,   2016)  and  rashes  (Srey,  Provision  Shop  Owner,  2016;  photo  12).  Furthermore,  these  conditions   tend  to  worsen  in  the  dry  season  when  water  level  is  lower  (Mr  Wong,  Household  1,  2016).   Often  times,  villagers  resort  to  buying  clean  drinking  water  for  use.   Photo  12:  Rashes  developed  from  showering  in  the  lake Another  issue  identified  is  effects  on  livelihoods  of  villagers,  especially  during  the  dry  season.   Water  level  falls  and  the  outcrop  of  water  hyacinth  (photo  13)  makes  it  difficult  for  villagers  to   maneuver  around.  Mr.  Wong  (household  1,  2016)  told  us  that  time  have  to  be  spent  clearing   the   water   hyacinth   before   they   could   start   their   boat   and   their   propeller   would   often   get   trapped  between  the  plants  while  travelling.  While  these  impacts  seem  common  and  that  the   villagers  have  gotten  use  to  them,  with  greater  amount  of  waste  and  falling  water  levels  during  
  15. 15. the   wet   season,   such   issues   are   likely   to   worsen   further   threatening   the   livelihood   of   the   villagers.   Photo  13:  Outcrop  of  water  hyacinth  during  the  dry  season “I  have  no  choice”  -­‐  Are  they  Aware?   Throughout  our  interviews,  one  key  question  that  we  asked  was  whether  the  villagers  know   about  the  impacts  of  waste  disposal.  Many  replied  that  they  know  about  the  potential  impacts   on  the  environment  but  they  have  no  choice.  The  Fishing  Authority  (2016)  said  that  the  impacts   are   most   apparent   in   the   dry   season   where   mobility   is   obstructed   by   the   outcrop   of   water   hyacinth  and  the  lack  of  clean  water.  However,  these  impacts  are  viewed  only  as  “short  term”   impacts  by  the  villagers  (Chhnok  Tru  Commune  Fishing  Authority,  2016).   Furthermore,  there  is  a  lack  of  close  ties  between  the  human  activities  and  the  environment   because   the   information   they   have   are   inaccurate   or   insufficient   (Phyrun,   1996).   This   is   reflected  when  the  villagers  weren’t  able  to  provide  much  examples  of  environmental  impacts   other  than  the  outcrop  of  water  hyacinth  which  is  a  highly  visible  impact.  
  16. 16. More  importantly,  the  lake  is  the  only  place  that  they  could  dispose  of  their  wastes  as  there  is   no  proper  waste  management  system.  Thee  Environment  Agency  mentioned  that  the  nearest   landfill   is   located   10   kilometers   away   from   the   commune   and   travelling   is   costly,   making   it   tedious  to  dispose  waste  there.    These,  we  argue,  is  very  much  linked  to  the  need  for  ‘survival’   that  triumphs  over  other  agendas  (Bonheur  and  Lane,  2002).  While  the  villagers  understand   that  the  disposal  of  waste  can  result  in  further  impacts,  they  had  no  other  viable  alternatives.   Thus,  we  cannot  entirely  place  the  blame  on  the  villagers  as  they  were  forced  by  circumstances   and  the  lack  of  infrastructure.  Therefore,  noting  these,  the  next  section  details  some  of  the   factors  to  be  considered.   Proposed  Factors Beyond  the  deconstruction  of  waste,  this  study  aimed  to  provide  a  set  of  factors  to  be  carefully   considered  when  implementing  waste  management  systems  in  floating  villages  like  Chhnok  Tru   Commune.  An  effective  waste  management  system  needs  to  involve  the  collaboration  between   community   members,   academic   researchers,   professionals   and   government   agencies   as   the   environment   is   collectively   used   by   the   various   stakeholders   each   with   different   agendas   (Agyemen,   2002).   Therefore,   central   to   our   proposed   factors   is   the   idea   of   ‘environmental   justice’  -­‐  reinforces  the  need  for  equal  participation  of  all  groups  (Agyeman,  1990)  -­‐  where  we   further  consider  the  roles  and  involvement  of  the  various  stakeholders  in  achieving  effective   waste  management. Evaluating  Existing  (Lack  of)  Efforts   The   lack   of   waste   management   reflects   the   lack   of   government   participation   due   to   the   economic   and   political   weakness   (Bonheur   and   Lane,   2002).   However,   it   is   important   for   government  authorities  to  take  part  in  environment  protection  by  considering  how  it  is  not  an   obstacle  to  economic  growth  but  rather  as  effort  to  promote  sustainable  development  (Phyrun,   1996).    Beyond  the  government,  there  is  a  strong  presence  of  NGOs  in  attempting  to  promote   proper  waste  management.  However,  their  efforts  are  often  ineffective  as  they  fail  to  consider   a  multitude  of  factors.  One  example  is  when  an  NGO  provided  villagers  with  trash  bins  and  
  17. 17. waste   collection,   but   this   only   lasted   for   a   period   of   two   months   (Chhnok   Tru   Commune   Environment   Authority,   2016).   Therefore,   moving   forward,   to   ensure   the   success   of   waste   management  system,  we  have  identified  several  factors  that  we  think  are  important.   Managing  Attitude  and  Habit The  villagers  are  aware  that  there  are  impacts  brought  upon  by  waste  disposal,  but  were  not   able   to   pinpoint   to   specific   impacts   and   felt   that   the   impacts   are   short   term   and   not   detrimental.  Thus,  there  is  a  need  to  change  villagers’  attitude  towards  waste  through  efforts   such   as   public   education.   Phyrun   (1996)   notes   that   environmental   education   provides   them   with   the   necessary   knowledge   to   understand   the   complexities   of   the   environment,   but   is   currently  lacking.  Only  with  an  informed  and  committed  citizenry  that  environment  protection   can   be   successfully   carried   out   (ibid).   We   believe   that   is   is   also   necessary   to   educate   the   children  in  the  commune.  Williams  (2014)  highlighted  how  educating  children  (photo  14)  can   promote  inter-­‐generational  influence,  where  through  children,  families  began  to  adopt  waste   practices.   Photo  14:  Host’s  child  helping  to  pick  up  trash Space  Constraints There  is  a  need  to  acknowledge  the  issue  of  space  constraints  faced  by  the  villagers.  Moving   beyond  the  scale  of  the  lake  and  commune,  it  is  important  to  consider  household  spaces,  since   that  is  where  most  day-­‐to-­‐day  waste  are  being  generated.  As  the  floating  homes  have  to  be  
  18. 18. mobile  and  stable,  they  are  often  small  in  size  resulting  in  space  constraints  within  the  house   (photo  15).  From  our  observations,  some  houses  barely  have  enough  space  to  fit  the  whole   family.  This  brings  about  the  need  to  re-­‐think  how  spaces  can  needs  to  be  manipulated  at  the   various  scales  when  re-­‐thinking  waste  management  policies.   Photo  15:  Typical  house  in  the  commune Involving  the  Actors   Most   importantly,   environmental   protection   projects   need   to   consider   the   complexities   of   environmental   issues   and   mobilise   environmental   justice   by   involving   the   collaboration   between  multiple  actors  (Agyeman,  2002).  We  argue  for  the  engagement  of  the  villagers  (other   than  government  and  NGOs)  in  the  planning  and  execution  of  projects  as  they  are  the  ones  that   are  most  burdened  by  environmental  decisions  (Cole  and  Foster,  2001).  Siphan  (2009:  39)  using   his  example  of  ecotourism  highlights  that  involving  the  community  helps  “to  develop  a  sense  of   stewardship   among   local   communities”   and   ensure   greater   sustainability.   This   has   been   reinforced  by  Mr.  Wong  (Household  1;  2016)  where  he  mentioned  that  efforts  should  involve   all  stakeholders  and  not  just  the  NGOs.   Women  Empowerment Beyond   the   community,   we   realised   that   women   are   often   involved   in   managing   household   wastes,  thus  it  is  important  to  involve  them.  Buckingham  et  al.  (2005)  argues  that  while  women  
  19. 19. play  important  in  the  households  and  are  frequently  in  contact  with  waste,  they  often  have   limited   role   in   political   decision   making   at   the   higher   level.   Thus,   to   ensure   the   success   of   management   systems,   a   gender   sensitive   approach   needs   to   be   adopted   through   mobilizing   environmental  justice.   Moving  Forward In  all,  we  have  highlighted  the  issue  of  waste  on  water  using  the  case  of  Chhnok  Tru  Commune   and   through   that   highlight   the   associated   impacts   resulting   from   free   waste   disposal.   We   moved   on   to   provide   several   factors   that   we   feel   will   be   crucial   to   implementing   successful   waste  management  systems.  However,  it  is  important  to  note  that  “Tonle  Sap  is  the  product  of   a  complex  set  of  interdependent  systems,  however,  it  continues  to  be  dealt  with  in  a  piecemeal   manner”   (Bonheur   and   Lane,   2002:   39).   We   believe   that   further   research   is   required,   to   examine  the  impacts  of  waste  during  the  dry  season,  to  engage  the  stakeholders  and  examine   the  willingness  of  communities  to  participate  in  the  projects.
  20. 20. References   Agyeman,  J.  (1990).  ‘Black  People  in  a  White  Landscape:  Social  and  Environmental  Justice’,  Built   Environment,  16(3):  232–6. Agyeman,  J.  (2002).  Constructing  environmental  (in)  justice:  transatlantic  tales.  Environmental   Politics,  11(3):  31-­‐53. Bennett,  J.  (2004).  The  force  of  things  steps  toward  an  ecology  of  matter.Political  theory,  32(3):   347-­‐372. Bonheur,   N.   and   Lane,   B.   D.   (2002).   Natural   resources   management   for   human   security   in   Cambodia’s  Tonle  Sap  Biosphere  Reserve.  Environmental  Science  &  Policy,  5(1):  33-­‐41.   Brown,  M.  (2010).  Sanitation  in  Floating  Communities  in  Cambodia.  Available  from  Live  &  Learn   Environmental  Education,  Cambodia. Buckingham,  S.,  Reeves,  D.,  &  Batchelor,  A.  (2005).  Wasting  women:  The  environmental  justice   of  including  women  in  municipal  waste  management.Local  Environment,  10(4):  427-­‐444.   Campbell,   I.   C.,   Poole,   C.,   Giesen,   W.,   and   Valbo-­‐Jorgensen,   J.   (2006).   Species   diversity   and   ecology  of  Tonle  Sap  Great  Lake,  Cambodia.  Aquatic  Sciences,  68(3):  355-­‐373. Cole,   L.   and   S.   Foster   (2001),   From   the   Ground   Up:   Environmental   Racism   and   the   Rise   of   theEnvironmental  Justice  Movement,  New  York  and  London:  New  York  University  Press.             Davies,  A.  R.  (2012).  Geography  and  the  matter  of  waste  mobilities.Transactions  of  the  Institute   of  British  Geographers,  37(2):191-­‐196. Europe   Environment   Agency   (EEA).   Inorganic   Waste.   Available   at:   http://glossary.eea.europa.eu/terminology/concept_html?term=inorganic%20waste,   accessed:   24  Oct  2016. Gregson,  N.,  Metcalfe,  A.  and  Crewe,  L.  (2007).  Identity,  mobility  and  the  throwaway  society.   Environment  and  Planning  D:  Society  and  Space,  25:  682–700  . Keskinen,   M.,   &   Sithirith,   M.   (2010).   Tonle   Sap   Lake   and   its   management:   The   diversity   of   perspectives   and   institutions.   PN67   project   report,   improving   Mekong   water   resources   investment  and  allocation  choices.  CGIAR  Challenge  Program  on  Water  and  Food,  Chiang  Mai,   Thailand.
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  23. 23. Annex  A List  of  Interviewees  (Semi-­‐Structured  Interviews)   S/N Interviewee Remarks 1 Fishing  Authority 2 Environment  Authority 3 Public  Health  Centre (Tay,  Doctor) 4 Provision  Shop  1 (Pheap,  35) 5 Provision  Shop  2 (Srey,  35) 6 Oil  Seller   (Sreoun,  38) 7 Machinery  Shop  Owner (Hing,  45) Member  of  Environment  Authority   8 Wood  Shop  Owner (Ratha,  27) 9 Ice  Shop  Owner (Thean,  54) 10 Household  1   (Mr.  Wong,  35) 11 Household  2   (OM  Kong,  42)   Yien  Jun’s  host 12 Household  3 (Thea,  35) Jess’s  host 13 Household  4   (Key  Sokna,  31) Bella’s  host 14 Household  5 Khmer  Village  Chief
  24. 24. Kellie’s  host 15 Household  6 (Vann  Ros,  54) Community  Chief

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