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2. Common Symbols Used In pharmacy.pptx

  1. CHAPTER TWO CommonSymbols Used In Pharmacy BY Tigabu.E(B.Pharm) 1 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
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  6. Latintermsand abbreviations 6 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  7. RouteofAdministrationAbbreviations 7 ad aurio dextra as., al aurio laeva,aurio sinister au auris utrae IM IV od oculusdexter Right Ear Left Ear EachEar Intramuscular Intravenous Right Eye os ou oculussinister oculusuterque LeftEye EachEye po per os ByMouth sl Sublingually 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  8. TimeofAdministrationAbbreviations 8 ac ante cibum Before Meals pc post cibum After Meals prn pro re nata AsNeeded hs hora somni At Bedtime qd quaquedie Every Day qod EveryOther Day tid ter indie Three TimesADay bid bisin die TwoTimesADay qid quater in die FourTimesADay 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  9. DosageFormAbbreviations 9 elix Elixir supp ung tab cap,caps suppositorium unguentum tabella capsula Suppository Ointment Tablet Capsule SR,XR,XL Slow/Extended Release solutio Solution sol susp syr syrupus Suspension Syrup 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  10. MeasurementAbbreviations 10 semis gutta(e) ss i,ii gtt gm gr l onehalf one, two drop gram grain liter quantumsufficiat mcg mg meq ml qs disp microgram milligram milliequivalent milliliter ASufficientQuantity dispense 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  11. OthersAbbreviations 11 Stat statim Now/Immediately NoRefill NR UD ut dictum AsDirected Sig Write On Label tsp Teaspoon noct nocte AtNight U.S.P . United StatesPharmacopoeia 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  12. TypesOf Dispensed PharmaceuticalPreparations 12 /Dosage Forms 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  13. Typesofdosage forms 13 Definition: Dosage formsare the meansby whichdrug molecules are delivered to sitesof action within the body. Theneedfor dosage forms: 1 -Accurate dose. 2 Protection e.g. coated tablets, sealed ampules. 3- Protection from gastric juice. 4 -Masking taste and odour. 5 - Placementof drugs within body tissues. 6- Sustained release medication. 7- Controlled release medication. 8- Optimal drug action. 9- Insertion of drugs into body cavities (rectal, vaginal) 10- Useof desired vehicle for insoluble drugs. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  14. Dosage Forms 14 Medicine API(Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients) Excipients 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  15. Excipients 15 ColoringAgents Sweetening Agents Flavoring Agents Solubilizing Agents Antioxidants Preservatives Thickening Agents Suspending Agents BindingAgents Solvents Lubricants Perfumes 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  16. Whywe should befamiliarwiththebasic propertiesof dosage forms? APIhandlingcanbe difficult or impossible(e.g.low mgand g doses) Accuratedrug dosingcanbe difficult APIadministration canbe impractical, unfeasible or not according to the therapeutically aims Some API can benefit from reducing the exposure to the environmental factors (light, moisture…), or they need to be chemically stabilised due to theinherentchemical instability. o APIcanbe degraded at thesiteof administration(e.g.,low pHin stomach) o APImaycauselocal irritations or injury whentheyare presentat high concentrationsat thesiteof administration o APIcanhaveunpleasantorganoleptic qualities (taste,smell– compliance!) o Administrationof active substancewouldmeanto havenochancefor modification (improvement)of itsPKprofile 16 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  17. Theyareclassifiedaccording to: TypesOf Dosage Forms: 17 Physical form I)Solid II)Semisolid III)Liquid IV)Gaseous Routeof administration I)Oral II)Topical III)Rectal IV)Parenteral V)Vaginal VI)Inhaled VII)Ophthalmic VIII)Otic 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  18. I) Oral dosageforms: 18 1-Tablet: Atablet isahard, compressedmedicationinround, ovalor square shape. Theexcipients include: -Binders,glidants(flowaids)andlubricants to ensure efficient tabletting. -Disintegrantsto ensure that the tablet breaksup inthe digestive tract. active -Sweeteners or flavours to mask the taste of bad- tasting ingredients. -Pigments to makeuncoated tablets visually attractive. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  19. 1-Tablet… 19 Acoating maybe applied to: 1 Hide thetaste of thetablet's components. 2Make thetablet smootherand easier to swallow. 3- Make it moreresistant to the environment. 4- Extending its shelf life. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  20. 2-Buccaland sublingualtablet: 20 - Sublingual and buccal medications are administered by placing them in the mouth, either under the tongue (sublingual)or betweenthegumand thecheek (buccal). - The medications dissolve rapidly and are absorbed through the mucousmembranes of the mouth, where they enter into the bloodstream. - Avoid the acid and enzymatic environment of the stomach and the drug metabolizing enzymes of the liver. - Examples of drugs administered by this route: e.g. vasodilators, steroidal hormones. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  21. 3-Effervescenttablet: 21 Effervescent tablets are uncoated tablets that generally contain acid substances (citric and tartaric acids) and carbonates or bicarbonates and which react rapidly in the presence of water by releasing carbon dioxide. They are intended to be dissolved or dispersed in water before useproviding: A- Very rapid tablet dispersion and dissolution. B- Pleasant tasting carbonated drink. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  22. 4-ChewableTablet: 22 - They are tablets that chewed prior to swallowing. - They are designedfor administration to children e.g.Vitamin products. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  23. 5-Capsule: A capsule isa medication in a gelatin container. - Advantage: maskthe unpleasant taste of its contents. Softgelatincapsule Hard gelatin capsule Spansules normally used for dry, - Thetwomaintypesof capsulesare: 1- Hard-shelled capsules, which are powdered ingredients, 2- Soft-shelled capsules, primarily used for oils and for active ingredientsthat are dissolvedor suspendedin oil. 23 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  24. 6-Lozenge: 24 It is a solid preparation consisting of sugar and gum, the latter giving strength and cohesiveness to the lozenge and facilitating slow release of the medicament. It is used to medicate the mouth and throat for the slow administration of indigestionor cough remedies. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  25. 7-Pastilles: Theyare solid medicated preparations designed to dissolveslowly inthemouth. Theyare softer thanlozengesand their basesare either glycerol and gelatin, or acacia and sugar. 25 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  26. 8- Dental Cones: - A tablet form intended to be placed in the empty socket following a tooth extraction, for preventing the local multiplication of pathogenic bacteria associated with tooth extractions. - Theconesmaycontainanantibiotic or antiseptic. 26 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  27. 9-Pills: 27 • Pills are oral dosage forms which consist of spherical masses prepared from one or more medicaments incorporated with inert excipients. • Pillsare nowrarely used. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  28. 10-Granules: 28 They are consisting of solid, dry aggregates of powder particles often supplied insingle-dose sachets. Some granules are placed on the tongue and swallowed with water, others are intended to be dissolved in water before taking. Effervescent granules evolve carbon dioxide when added to water. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  29. 11-Powder(Oral): 29 use. Thereare twokindsof powder intendedfor internal 1-Bulk Powders are multidose preparations consisting of solid, loose, dry particles of varying degrees of fineness. They contain one or more active ingredients, with or without excipients and, if necessary, coloring matter and flavoring substances. - Usually contain non-potent medicaments such as antacids since the patient measuresa dose by volume using a 5ml medicine spoon. Thepowder is then usually dispersed in water or, in the caseof effervescent powders,dissolved before taking. 2-Divided Powders are single-dose presentations of powder ( for example, a smallsachet)that are intended to be issuedto the patient assuch,to be taken inor with water. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  30. 12-Powdersfor Mixtures: - The mixed powders may be stored in dry form and mixture prepared by the pharmacist when required for dispensing, by suspending the powders in the appropriate vehicle. 30 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  31. 13-liquid Preparations: 31 a- Oral Solution: Oral solutions are clear Liquid preparations for oral use containing one or more active ingredients dissolvedina suitable vehicle. b- Oral Emulsion: Oral emulsions are stabilized oil-in-water dispersions, either or both phases of which may containdissolved solids. c-Oral Suspension: Oral suspensions are Liquid preparations for oral use containing one or more active ingredients suspended ina suitable vehicle. Oral suspensions may show a sediment which is readily dispersed on shaking to give a uniform suspension which remains sufficiently stable to enable thecorrect doseto be delivered. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  32. 13-Liquidpreparations (Cont.): 32 d- Syrup:  It is a concentrated aqueous solution of a sugar, usually sucrose.  Flavored syrups are a convenient form of masking disagreeable tastes. e-Elixir:  It is pleasantly flavored clear liquid oral preparation of potent or nauseousdrugs.  The vehicle may contain a high proportion of sucros e which together with antimicrobial confers the stability of the ethanol or preservative s preparation. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  33. 13-LiquidPreparations (Cont.): f-Linctuses: Linctusesare viscous,liquidoral preparations that are usuallyprescribed for the relief of cough. Theyusuallycontain ahighproportion ofsyrup andglycerolwhichhavea demulcent effect on the membranes ofthe throat. Thedose volumeissmall(5ml) and, to prolongthe demulcent action, theyshouldbe taken undiluted. g- Oraldrops: Oral drops are liquid preparations for oral use that are intended to be administered in small volumes with the aid of a suitablemeasuring device.Theymaybe solutions, suspensions or 35 emulsions. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 33
  34. 13-Liquid preparations: 34 h- Gargles: They are aqueous solutions used in the prevention or treatment of throat infections. Usually they are prepared in a concentrated solution with directions for the patient to dilute with warm water before use. i- Mouthwashes: Theseare similar to gargles but are used for oral hygiene and to treat infections of the mouth. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  35. II) TopicalDosage Forms: 1 Ointments: •Ointments are semi-solid, greasypreparations for application to the skin, rectum or nasalmucosa. •The base is usually anhydrousand immisciblewith skin secretions. •Ointments maybe used asemollients or to apply suspended or dissolvedmedicaments to the skin. 35 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  36. TopicalDosage Forms (Cont.): 36 2- Creams: - Creamsare semi-solidemulsions,that ismixturesof oil and water. - Theyare divided into two types: A- Oil-in-water (O/W) creams: which are composed of small droplets of oil dispersed ina continuousaqueousphase. Oil-in-water creams are more comfortable and cosmetically acceptable as they are lessgreasy and moreeasily washedoff using water. B- Water-in-oil (W/O) creams: which are composed of small droplets of water dispersed ina continuousoily phase. Water-in-oil creams are more difficult to handle but many drugs which are incorporated into creams are hydrophobic and will be released more readily from a water-in-oil creamthananoil-in-water cream. Water-in-oil creams are also more moisturizing as they provide an oily barrier which reduces water loss from the stratum corneum, the outermostlayer of the skin. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  37. TopicalDosage Forms (Cont.): 37 3-Gels (Jellies): Gels are semisolid systemin which aliquid phaseis constrained within a 3-D polymeric matrix (consisting of natural or synthetic gum) havinga highdegree of physicalor chemical cross-linking. They are used for medication, lubrication and some miscellaneous applications like carrier for spermicidal agents to be used intra vaginally 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  38. Topicaldosage forms (Cont.): 38 5- Pastes :  Pastesare basically ointmentsintowhicha highpercentage of insoluble solid has been added.  Theextraordinary amountof particulate matter stiffens thesystem.  Pastesare lesspenetrating and lessmacerating and lessheating than ointment.  Pastes make particularly good protective barrier when placed on the skin, the solid they contain can absorb and thereby neutralize certain noxious chemicals before theyever reachthe skin.  Like ointments, paste forms an unbroken relatively water– impermeable film unlike ointments the film is opaque and therefore can be used as an effective sun block accordingly. Pastes are lessgreasy becauseof the absorption of the fluid hydrocarbon fraction to the particulates. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  39. TopicalDosage Forms (Cont.): 39 Thereare two types of paste: a) Fatty pastes(e.g: leaser'spaste) . b) Nongreasy pastes(eg: - bassorin paste). 6- Dusting powders: - These are free flowing veryfine powders for external use. - Not for useonopenwoundsunlessthepowders are sterilized. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  40. TopicalDosage Forms(Cont.): 7 Transdermal Patch: Atransdermal patch or skin patch isamedicatedadhesivepatch that isplacedon the skinto deliver aspecificdoseofmedicationthrough the skinandinto the bloodstream. Anadvantageofatransdermal drug deliveryroute overother types such asoral, topical, etc isthat it providesacontrolled release ofthe medicamentinto the patient. Thefirst commerciallyavailablepatchwasscopolamine for motion 42 sickness. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 40
  41. Topicaldosage forms (Cont.): 8-Plasters: Plasters are solid or semisolid masses adhere to the skin when spread upon cotton felt line or muslin as a backing material and they are mainly usedto, A-Afford protection and mechanical support. B-Furnishanocclusiveand macerating action. C- Bring medication into close contact with the surface of the skin. 41 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 41
  42. Topicaldosage forms (Cont.): 9- Liniments: - Linimentsare fluid, semi-fluidor,occasionally,semi-solid preparations intendedfor application to theskin. - Theymaybe alcoholicor oily solutionsor emulsions. - Mostare massagedintotheskin(e.g. counter-irritant). - Linimentsshouldnotbe applied to brokenskin. 42 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 42
  43. Topicaldosage forms (Cont.): 10-Lotions: - These are fluid preparations (aqueous) for external application without friction. - They are either dabbed on the skin or applied on a suitable dressing and covered with a waterproof dressingto reduce evaporation. 43 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 43
  44. Topicaldosage forms (Cont.): 11- Collodion: Collodion is a solution of nitrocellulose in ether or acetone, sometimes with the addition of alcohols. -Its generic name ispyroxylin solution. -It ishighly flammable. -Asthe solvent evaporates, it dries to a celluloid- like film. - Compound Wart Remover consists of acetic acid and salicylic acid in an acetone collodion base used in Treatment of warts bykeratolysis. 44 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 44
  45. Topicaldosage forms (Cont.): ou s 12- Paints: - Paints are liquids for applicationto the skin or mucus membranes. - Skinpaints containvolatile solventthat evaporates quickly to leave a dry resinousfilm of medicament. - Throat paints are more viscous due to a high content of glycerol, designed to prolong contact of the medicament with theaffected site. 45 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 45
  46. Topicaldosage forms (Cont.): 13- Pressurized dispensers (aerosol sprays): - Several different types of pharmaceutical product may be packaged in pressurized dispensers,knownas aerosols. - Surface spraysproduce droplets of 100 umdiameter or greater. - May be usedassurface disinfectants, woundor burn dressing,relieve irritation of bites. -Spray-on dusting powders are also available from pressurized containers. 46 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 46
  47. III) Rectaldosage forms: 1- Suppository: It is a small solid medicated mass, usually cone- shaped ,that is inserted either into the rectum (rectal suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository or pessaries) where it melts at body temperature . 47 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 47
  48. Rectaldosage forms: 2- Enema: Anenemaistheprocedure of introducingliquids into therectumand colonvia the anus. Typesof enema: 1- Evacuantenema:usedasa bowel stimulantto treat constipation.E.g.soft soapenema& Mgso4 enema. The volume of evacuant enemasmayreach upto 2 liters. Theyshouldbe warmed to body temperature before administration. 48 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 48
  49. Rectaldosage forms(Cont.): 2- Retention enema: - Theirvolumedoesnotexceed100 ml. - Nowarming needed. - May exert: A- Localeffect: e.g.a bariumenemaisusedasa contrast substance intheradiological imaging of the bowel. B-Systemiceffect: e.g. the administration of substancesinto the bloodstream. This may be done in situations where it isimpossible to deliver a medication by mouth,suchasantiemetics. e.g.nutrientenemawhich containscarbohydrates,vitamins & minerals. 51 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 49
  50. IV) Vaginal dosageforms: 50 1- Pessary: - Pessariesare solid medicated preparations designedfor insertioninto the vagina wheretheymeltor dissolve. - Thereare threetypes: A- Mouldedpessaries:theyare coneshapedand prepared ina similarway to moulded suppositories. B-Compressedpessaries:made ina variety of shapesand are prepared by compressionina similarmannerto oral tablets. C-Vaginal capsules:are similarto soft gelatin oral Capsulesdiffering only in sizeandshape. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  51. Vaginal Dosage Forms: 51 2-Vaginal ring: Vaginal rings are 'doughnut-shaped' polymeric drug delivery devices designed to provide controlled release of drugs to the vagina over extended periods of time. Several vaginal ring products are currently available, including: Femring :  Alow-dose estradiol-acetate releasing ring, manufactured from silicone elastomer, for the relief of hot flashes and vaginal atrophy associatedwith menopause. NuvaRing:  Alow-dose contraceptive vaginal ring, releasing progesterone and estrogen. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  52. Vaginal dosage forms(Cont.): 52 3- Douche: •Adouche is adevice used to introduce astream of water into the body cavity for medical or hygienic reasons. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  53. Vaginal Dosage Forms(Cont.): 4-IntrauterineDevice: 53 -It isabirth control deviceplacedin the uterus, alsoknownasanIUD or a coil. -The IUDisthe world's most widelyusedmethod ofreversible birth control. -The devicehasto be fitted insideor removedfrom the uterus byadoctor . -It remainsin placethe entire time pregnancyisnot desired. Dependingon the type, asingleIUDisapprovedfor 5 to 10 years use. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  54. V) Parenteraldosage forms: 54 An injection is an infusion method of putting liquid into the body, usually with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skinto a sufficient depth for thematerial to be forced into the body. Thereare several methodsof injection,including: 1-An intravenous injection: It isa liquid administered directly into thebloodstream via a vein. It isadvantageouswhena rapid onsetof actionisneeded. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  55. Parenteraldosage forms : 55 either 2- Intramuscular injection: -It isthe injection of asubstance directly into a muscle. -Manyvaccinesare administered intramuscularly. -Depending on the chemicalproperties of the drug, the medication may be absorbedfairlyquicklyor more gradually. -Intramuscular injections are often givenin the deltoid, vastuslateralis, ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal muscles. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  56. Parenteraldosage forms: 56 3- Subcutaneous injection: •Subcutaneous injections are given byinjecting afluid into the sub cutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis and epidermis. •Subcutaneous injections are highly effective in administering vaccines and such medications asinsulin. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  57. VI) Inhaled dosage forms: 57 1-Inhaler: - Inhalers are solutions, suspensions or emulsion of drugs in a mixture of inert propellants held underpressureinanaerosol dispenser. - Release of a dose of the medicament in the form of droplets of 50 umdiameter or less from the container through a spring-loaded valve incorporating a metering device.Thepatient theninhalesthe released drug througha mouthpiece. - In some types, the valve is actuated by finger pressure, in other types the valve is actuated by thepatient breathing inthroughthe mouthpiece. - It iscommonlyusedto treat asthmaand other respiratoryproblems. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  58. Inhaled dosage forms(Cont.): 2-Nebulizeror (atomizer): Anebulizer isadeviceusedto administer medicationto people in forms of aliquid mist to the airways. - It iscommonlyusedin treating asthma, andother respiratory diseases. -It pumps air or oxygenthrough aliquidmedicineto turn it into avapor, whichisthen inhaledbythe patient. -Asageneralrule, doctors generallyprefer to prescribe inhalersfor their patients, because: 1-Theseare cheaper 2- More portable 3- Carry lessrisk ofside effects. Nebulizers, for that reason, are usually reserved only for serious cases of 6r0espiratorydisease,or severeattacks. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 58
  59. VII) Ophthalmicdosage forms: 59 1 Eye drops: Eye drops are saline-containing drops used asavehicle to administer medication in the eye. Depending on the condition being treated, they maycontain steroids, antihistamines or topical anesthetics. Eyedrops sometimes do not havemedications in them and are only lubricating and tear-replacing solutions. 2- Ophthalmic ointment &gel: These are sterile semi-solid Preparations intended for applicationTothe conjunctiva or eyelid margin. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  60. CHAPTER THREE INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACY PRACTICE 4/2/2023 60 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  61. Pharmacy practice areas •Pharmacy professionals can be involved in different pharmacy practice areas: • Health care institutions (hospital, health center…..) • Community pharmacies • Pharmaceutical industries • Government agencies • Importers and wholesalers • Academic and research institutions • Others ( professional associations, NGOs…… 4/2/2023 61 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  62. A. Hospital Pharmacy The practice and profession of choosing, preparing, storing, compounding, and dispensing Medicines & M/devices Hospital Pharmacy Services include: 1. Dispensing: • Is the process of issuing medications with provision of appropriate information • It can be based on: • A prescription • Oral request – for OTC drugs (responding to symptoms)  Counseling is an integral part  Appropriate communication skill is needed  Ethical practice is expected 4/2/2023 62 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  63. Hospital pharmacy… • 2. Compounding • Is small-scale preparation of pharmaceutical preparations • There are different reasons for the need of compounding • 3. Drug supply management • Is the process of the efficient management of resources to ensure access to medications • It involves: • Selection • Quantification • Procurement • Distribution • Use 4/2/2023 63 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  64. Hospital pharmacy…. 4. Drug information service Pharmacists can provide drug information on different areas to • Other health care professionals • Patients/caregivers 5. Clinical pharmacy/ pharmaceutical care • Is the application of the pharmaceutical expertise to help maximize drug efficacy, minimize drug toxicity and promote cost- effectiveness • The main revolutionary feature of clinical pharmacy is the presence of the pharmacist in the ward 4/2/2023 64 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  65. Hospital Pharmacy…. •Pharmacists collaborate with other members of the health care team to: • Initiate therapy • Monitor therapy • Modify therapy • Discontinue therapy to avoid or resolve medication related problems •Pharmaceutical care process • Step 1: targeting and screening of patients • Step 2: assess the patient’s drug therapy needs and identify actual and potential drug therapy problems • Step 3: develop a care plan to resolve and/or prevent drug therapy problems • Step 4: Implementation and monitoring of the care plan. • Step 5: evaluation and reviewing of the care plan.4/2/2023 65 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  66. Cont.. Compounding -involves the preparation, mixing, assembling, packaging, and labeling of a drug in accordance with a licensed practitioner's prescription. Compounding should only be undertaken by capable, qualified and authorized personnel who have been trained for the type of compounding conducted. • Why Compound ? 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 66
  67. Cont.. The benefit of compounding is for;  Unavailable Strength/Dosage Form/Route of Administration Unavailable Medications (limited use, short shelf life, etc.)  Sensitivity to Dyes, Fillers, Preservatives 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 67
  68. Function of hospital pharmacist Provide services to pt.'s & health care professionals in Hospitals Advising HC professionals & pt.'s on their safe, effective and efficient medication use Providing specifications for the purchase of drugs, chemicals etc… Proper storing of drugs & medical supplies. Manufacturing & distribution of medicaments such as parenteral products, tablets, capsules, ointments & stock mgt. Generally hospital pharmacist provide serves to pt. and HCP, advising pt and HCP on medication use ,proper storing manufacturing, distributing and controlling of medication is its major function. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 68
  69. B. Community Pharmacy •Community pharmacy is the area of pharmacy practice in which medicines and other related products are dispensed directly to the public from a retail outlet. •Roles • Dispensing • Compounding • Drug information provision • Public health role 4/2/2023 69 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  70. Cont… Are often patients’ first point of contact and for some patients, the only contact with a healthcare professional. This is due to; Convenience Location and Ease of access Extended opening hours Availability of medicines • In addition to medicines & prescriptions, many now sell a diverse arrangements of additional house hold items such as cosmetics, shampoo, office supplies, confectionary and snack foods. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 70
  71. Organization of a community pharmacy Location :in the city/town among the public activities Human resource: Pharmacists (chief/manager and may be others) Pharmacy technicians, Other support staff (cashier, accountant, cleaner, guard). 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 71
  72. The layout of the pharmacy includes: Dispensary area dispensing counter, shelves, dispensing aids, computer, etc Patient waiting area chairs, reading materials of health promotion materials, Patient counseling area - a room that affords privacy and a comfortable chair and table, shelves Compounding room compounding equipments and chemicals, washing facilities, etc Office - desk, chair, computer, reference materials, etc Toilet (with water facilities) and Others required for proper operation of the pharmacy as required by the services delivered and local regulatory requirements. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 72
  73. C. Pharmaceutical industries • Sales and promotion • Marketing • Research and development • Pharmaceutical production • Quality assurance and quality control • Management and administration 4/2/2023 73 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  74. Cont.. • Industrial pharmacists conduct research, testing and analysis in the development of medicines and production of pharmaceuticals and related supplies. Industrial pharmacists use the latest methods, technologies and processes to develop new medications, and may be involved in clinical drug trial. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 74
  75. Cont.. • The role of the pharmacist is not limited to medication dispensing and patient education, but extends further into discovering, evaluating and manufacturing medications • In Germany and France, qualified employees in the pharmaceutical industry must also be well trained pharmacists in the field as there are no other degrees that could adequately cover their work responsibilities 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 75
  76. D. Government agencies •Drug regulatory agencies •Ensuring quality, safety and efficacy •Product registration •Controlling different pharmaceutical establishments •Pharmaceutical supply agencies •Pharmacists can be involved in forecasting, procurement, storage, inventory management and distribution of pharmaceuticals 4/2/2023 76 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  77. E. Academic institutions • Teaching institutions utilize pharmacists in the education and training of not only pharmacy students, but also students in the allied health professions. 4/2/2023 77 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  78. F. Others • Professional associations • NGOs 4/2/2023 78 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  79. PHARMACIST ROLE IN THE HEALTH CARE DELIVERY 4/2/2023 79 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  80. •Pharmacy professionals can contribute a lot to improve quality of health care through different pharmaceutical services  rational dispensing practice Compounding Clinical pharmacy practice Drug information service Managing drug supply……etc 4/2/2023 80 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  81. Besides pharmacists can have their own role in public health (health promotion and education) Immunization programs and other campaigns Emergency preparedness and response Prevention and control of infectious diseases, chronic diseases, injuries • Advice on diet and life style • Health screening Prevention and control of adverse drug events Health education (e.g. drug use) Smoking cessation initiatives and others 4/2/2023 81 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm)
  82. 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 82
  83. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION 4/2/2023 Introduction to pharmacy by Tigabu .E(B.pharm) 83