This is the third chapter of the course Readings in Philippine History as per the course guide from Commission on Higher Education.
-Site of the First Mass
-Cry of Balintawak or Pugad Lawin?
4. • On April 1, 1521 (originally March 31) the
first mass in the Philippines was happened
• R.A. No. 2733
Magallanes in Limasawa,
Southern Leyte as the
site of the first mass
5. • Dr. Sonia M. Zaide presented evidences that
the site of the first mass was not in
Limasawa but in
Masao, Butuan, Agusan
6. • The site of the first mass was first
mentioned by Maximillian Transylvanus on
his “De Moluccis…” in 1523 because he
interviewed the survivors of Magellan
• The survivors mentioned that they landed in
“Messana” where the first mas was
7. Limasawa as site of the first mass:
• Carlo Amoretti (1800) of Ambrosiana
Library said that Mazaua where Magellan
landed before and the Limasawa mentioned
by Fr. Francisco Combes are the same.
• Limasawa was supported by Fr. Pablo
Pastells, Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera,
Jaime de Veyra and James Robertson.
8. • Fr. Francisco Colin wrote a book about the
spread of Christianity in the Philippines but
could not exactly determine the site, but he
based in “Limasawa” claim because of the
writings of Antonio Herrera who based his
writings to Andres San Martin that the site
was in “Mazaua”
• Limasawa became part of Magellan’s
expedition because of the writings of Fr.
Colin (Dimasaua) and Fr. Francisco Combes
(Limasawa on his “Historia de Mindnao… in
9. • William Henry Scott, Vicente de Jesus and
NHI- the eyewitness account for the issue
was the accounts of Gines de Mafra
(mariner who reached Mazaua twice; 1521
*From Homonhon, Magellan
and his men travelled westward,
southwest to the tip of Seilani
(Panaon) to avoid Northeast
10. Masao as site of the first mass
• Gian Battista Ramusio (1536) wrote a
chronicle about the voyage of Magellan
where he insisted Butuan as the site of the
• Sonia Zaide pointed-out the ff.:
1. As the place called “Mazaua,” Limasawa has four
syllables and begins with another letter, while Masao
has conclusive syllable.
2. The expedition traveled 20-25 leagues from
Homonhon. If they had been to Limasawa, the distance
only 14.6 leagues.
11. 3. The distance to Cebu from Mazaua based on Pigafetta
was 35 leagues (140 miles). The distance from
Limasawa to Cebu is only 80 miles.
4. Rajah of Mazaua came to their ship in a “Balanghai,”
now, Butuan is a site for atleast nine excavated
Balanghai relics. Limasawa has no significant relic of
5. Mazaua has abundance of gold, now Agusan Valley had
abundance of gold while Limasawa doesn’t have.
12. • Mafra mentioned that Magellan’s group
reached Mindanao. Mazaua is 45 n.m. south
of Surigao, a perfect harbor during
• As drawn by Pigafetta, Mazaua has two hilly
areas; Pinamangculan and Dalindingan
where many rice, coconut and fruits.
13. Saint James The Great Church,
Bolinao, Pangasinan the first site?
• A marker claims that it 1324,
Fray Odorico Pordenone from
Friuli, Italy officiated the first
Catholic mass in the country
14. Where’s the site of the first mass in the
Limasawa, Southern Leyte?
Masao Shore, Butuan, Agusan del Norte?
16. • Before, Caloocan was only a municipality of
• Caloocan composed of several barrios,
namely Balintawak, Baesa, Bagobantay,
Bahay Toro, Banlat, Culiat, Kangkong, Loma,
Marulas, Talipapa, and Tangke.
18. “Cry of Balintawak”
• Borromeo-Buehler pointed out, that this
“Cry” commemorated the “Unang Laban,”
the Katipunan encounter with a detachment
of the Guardia Civil on August 26, 1896.
19. “Cry of Pugad Lawin”
• The name “Pugad Lawin” did not appear on any
map of Caloocan at that time.
• In 1917, Pio Valenzuela insisted that the
Pagpupunit and Pasya were happened on the
house of Melchora Aquino in Pasong Tamo,
Barrio Banlat, Caloocan (“Pacpac Lawin”)
• But on 1920’s Valenzuela restated that the two
events happened at Juan Ramos’ house in
Barrio Bahay Toro, Caloocan (“Pugad Lawin”)
20. • Isagani Medina believed that Pagpupunit
preceded the Pasya.
• But it was not believed by many and insisted
that Pagpupunit happened soon after the
Pasya had been taken, and in the same
21. • Allegedly, the Pagpupunit was happened on
August 23, while Pasya was happened on
August 24 because of the following
- Biak na Bato Constitution (1897)
- Carlos Ronquillo’s chronicles (1896)
- La Liga Filipina Monument, Tondo (1903)
- Santiago Alvarez’ memoirs (1927)
22. Where did the allegedly Pagpupunit
(August 23) and Pasya (August 24) really
• Leading revolutionists went first to
Poblacion, Caloocan after leaving Manila,
and then headed eastwards via Kangkong
towards Pasong Tamo and eventually
• Some sources say they left Kangkong as
early as August 23, whereas others say they
were still in Kangkong as late as August 26.
23. • Three places where the Pagpupunit and
Pasya was happened:
1. Apolonio Samson’s house in Barrio Kangkong, Caloocan
2. Melchora Aquino’s house in Pasong Tamo, Barrio
3. Juan Ramos’s house in Barrio Bahay Toro, Caloocan
24. “Walang tigil ang ambon na humina at
lumakas habang tinatahak ng Katipunan ang
malalawak at mapuputik na bukiran at
Basaan ang mga damit, namimitig ang
katawan sa malamig na simoy ng hangin.
Pagal at walang imik sa paglalakad.”
-Santiago Alvarez, 1896
25. *Based on Santiago Alvarez’ accounts*
• August 22, 1896, Bonifacio and 300
Katipuneros reached Apolonio Samson’s
house in Kangkong, Caloocan with 12
revolvers, itak, suligi and balaraw.
• August 23, 1896, Bonifacio and his men
went to Melchora Aquino’s house in Bahay
Toro and the lady fed 500 Katipuneros.
• August 24, 1896- the number of Katipuneros
in Aquino’s house reached 1,000, then
Bonifacio led a general meeting
26. • The meeting pointed-out the establishment
of “Pamahalaang Mapaghimagsik” (an
evidence that Bonifacio can considered to be
as the president of the Philippines) and the
Pasya (decision) for the start of revolution,
scheduled to be on August 29-30, 1896.
27. SOURCE LOCATION DATE
Pio Valenzuela (1911) Kangkong, Caloocan August 23, 1896
Pio Valenzuela (1917) Pasong Tamo, Caloocan August 23, 1896
Labi ng Katipunan Marker
Kangkong, Caloocan August 23, 1896
Tomas Remigio (1917) Kangkong, Caloocan
Pio Valenzuela (1920s) Pugad Lawin (Bahay
August 23, 1896
Julio Nakpil (1925) Kangkong, Caloocan August 26, 1896
Sinforoso San Pedro
Ramon Bernardo (1927) Pasong Tamo, Barrio
August 24, 1896
Kangkong, Caloocan August 26, 1896
28. SOURCE LOCATION DATE
Cipriano Pacheco (1933) Kangkong and Pugad
Lawin (not specific),
Briccio Pantas (1933) Kangkong, Caloocan
Francisco Carreon (1935) Kangkong, Caloocan
Vicente Samson (1961) Kangkong, Caloocan August 26, 1896
29. • From the survey, Jim Richardson surmised
that the KKK Veterans’ statements that the
two events happened in Kangkong, Caloocan
• Yet, Teodoro Agoncillo
and Isagani Medina
considered the memoirs
of Valenzuela because
of his being an
30. • Teodoro Agoncillo wrote the
book, “Revolt of the Masses”
in 1956 that was based fully
on Valenzuela’s memoirs
• Agoncillo insisted that the
Pagpupunit and Pasya was
happened on August 23,
1896 in Pugad Lawin
particularly in Bahay Toro,
Caloocan (Juan Ramos house)
31. • In 1983, “Pugad Lawin Historical
Committee” was established who
investigated the “Cry” but did not find any
fresh document that the “Cry” happened in
• Its investigation relayed to the National
Historical Institute, then, a historical marker
was placed on Bahay Toro, Quezon City
(alleged Pugad Lawin) on August 23, 1984.
32. • In order to simplify the issue, Dr. Ambeth
Ocampo suggested that it is much better to
be called as “Sigaw sa Caloocan” (Cry of
• In some ways, to play safe, Prof. Xiao Chua
suggested it to be called as “Unang Sigaw ng
Himagsikan” (First Cry of Revolution).
33. Where did the KKK’s Pagpupunit and
Pasya really happened;
Pasong Tamo, Barrio Banlat, Caloocan?
Bahay Toro, Caloocan (Pugad Lawin)?
35. December 28, 1896
• Archbishop of Manila Fr. Bernardino Nozaleda
requested the Jesuit Professors of Rizal in
Ateneo Municipal to give him some spiritual
consolation. Part of this was to convince him to
“retract” his Freemasonry linkages.
36. *Based on the statements of Fr. Vicente Balaguer in
Murcia, Spain on August 8, 1917*
December 29, 1896
• Fr. Balaguer went to Rizal on 11:00 AM
together with Fray Jose Villaclara tried to
convince him to write a retraction paper.
• But still believing in the Holy Scriptures, Rizal
supposedly refused to retract his anti-Catholic
views by exclaiming:
37. “Look, Fathers, if I should assent to all you say and
sign all you want me to, just to please you, neither
believing nor feeling, I would be a hypocrite and
would then be offending God!”
• But historians believed that Rizal had a deal
with the friars that he will make a retraction
paper in return, they will allow him to marry
with Josephine Bracken and to produce a
38. • Allegedly, friars agreed with this deal. After
their conversation, Fr. Balaguer reported to
the Archbishop that the only hope to save
the life of Rizal was to retract.
• Rizal had talks with Fr. Estanislao March
and Fr. Jose Villaclara then, Fr. Balaguer
returned to his cell at 3:30 PM to discuss
(again) the retraction. History did not know
about the result of their second discussion.
39. 5:30 PM
• Don Silvino Lopez Tuñon, the Dean of the
Manila Cathedral, accompanied by Frs.
Balaguer, March and Villaclara to talk with
Rizal and exchange some views with him.
Historians did not find any papers about
their but one thing is for sure, this was
about the retraction paper of Rizal.
• Before he took his last supper, he had
confessed to Fray Faura. Afterwards, an
amiable talk happened to Rizal and Manila’s
Royal Audiencia Fiscal Don Gaspar Cestaño
at 9:30 PM.
40. 10:00 PM
• Rizal and some Catholic friars worked on his
• Fr. Balaguer allegedly brought a retraction
draft to Rizal made by Archbishop Nozaleda
but Rizal did not like it because it was too
• Fray Pio Pi, the Superior of Jesuit Mission in
the Philippines, made a shorter retraction
paper that was liked by Rizal and signed it.
41. “I retract with all my heart anything in my words,
writings, publications and conduct that has been
contrary to my character as a child of church. I declare
this spontaneously, in order to repair any scandal which
my acts may have caused and so that God and man may
• The retraction paper was also signed by two
witnesses; Juan Del Presno, chief of the Civil
Guards who watched Rizal in Fort Santiago and
Eloy Maure, adjutant of plaza in Intramuros.
42. • As stated by Father Balaguer, he was the one
who married Rizal and Bracken before his
execution (6:00 AM of December 30, 1896).
• Gregorio Zaide, said that Rizal’s assumed
retraction and his supposed church
marriage with Josephine Bracken have been
considered as a highly dubious by many
Rizal scholars until the present time.
43. • Nevertheless, the alleged retraction paper
“signed” by Rizal did not do anything.
Spanish military court became firm on its
decision to sentence him to death by means
of firing squad as duly allowed by Governor
General Camilo G. Polavieja.
45. • The retraction paper was found in 1935
• The issue on Rizal’s retraction was proven
because of a document that could be an
“independent eye witness account,” the spy
records of Federico Moreno from the
members of Cuerpo de Vigilancia Manila.
• This Cuerpo were the Spanish spies
stationed in prison cell of Rizal during his
stay in Intramuros.
46. Some of its members mentioned to Moreno
• Rizal wrote a paper that he called “La
• Fr. Villaclara, Fr. March, Del Presno and
Maure were on Rizal’s prison cell during
that time (match with the persons who
signed the “retraction paper” aside from
• Rizal was married to Bracken before his
48. Other controversies in Philippine
• Princess Urduja, a hoax?
• Andres Bonifacio, the first Philippine
• Emilio Aguinaldo sold Philippine revolution
• Golden arinola of Elpidio Quirino
• Marcos’ Martial Law was a “Golden Age”