2. Biological diversity
Generally refers to the variety and variability within
species, between species and between ecosystems .
There are three types of biodiversity:
3. 1- Genetic diversity
Each individual species possesses genes which are the
source of its own unique features.
Loss of genetic diversity is often associated with in-
breeding and reduction in reproductive fitness.
4. 2- Species diversity
The total number of different species in a space, locally, in region, in
a country or in the world and various types of ecosystems.
Each species has a role in the ecosystem, An absence of one specie
will affect other species.
5. 3- Ecosystem diversity
The combination of living things of communities with the physical
environment around them is called an ecosystem.
There are variety types of ecosystems such as deserts, mountains,
Each ecosystem is linked to the other by what we call the earth
7. Human effect on biodiversity
There is no doubt that human civilization has had a negative impact on
8. The world conservation Union (IUCN) now includes more than 16,000
entries in its red lists of threatened species.
The IUCN estimated that extinction rates are now over than 50 times
higher than previous rate calculated from the fossil record (Baillie et
9. The Earth's biological resources are vital to humanity's economic and
social development, the threat to species and ecosystems has never
been so great as it is today.
The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) started to take this
problem into consideration since 1988.
10. History of the Convention on biodiversity
The (UNEP) convened the Ad Hoc Working
Group of Experts on Biological Diversity
• to explore the need for an international
convention on biological diversity
11. the Ad Hoc group of the technical and
• prepare an international legal instrument for the conservation and
sustainable use of biological diversity.
• The main objective for the technical and legal Experts are:
•Find a way to share costs and benefits between developed and
•Ways and means to support innovation by local people.
• the Ad Hoc Working Group had become known as the Intergovernmental
Its work culminated
• the Nairobi Conference for the Adoption of the Agreed Text of the
Convention on Biological Diversity
The convention was opened for signature
• at the united nations conference on environment and development (the
Rio “Earth Summit”)
13. The convention entered into force on 29 December 1993
Received 168 signatures
Since then, many countries were working toward saving the
biodiversity based on the convention.
15. About the Convention on biodiversity
The convention text contains
1 main body (Conference of the parties COP)
o the governing body of the Convention, and advances implementation
of the Convention through the decisions it takes at its periodic
16. a Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical, and
Technological Advice (SBSTTA)
o It provides the (COP) timely advice relating to the
implementation of the Convention.
and other subsidiary bodies have been established by the
COP to deal with specific issues as they arise such as:
Working group on protected area
17. Two protocols have been established later to support and
help the convention to reach its objectives.
The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafe.
Entered into force on the 11th September 2003.
The Nagoya Protocol on Access & Benefit sharing.
Entered into force in 2011
18. CBD Objectives
1- The conservation on biodiversity.
19. 2- The sustainable use of the components of biodiversity
Integrate consideration of the conservation and sustainable use
of biological resources into national decision making
Encourage cooperation between governmental authorities and
its private sector in developing methods for sustainable use of
20. 3- The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out
of the utilization of genetic resources.
An appropriate access to genetic resources
An appropriate transfer of relevant technologies
An appropriate funding, thereby contributing to the
conservation of biological diversity.
21. Implementation mechanisms for the
convention on biodiversity
the Convention on General Measures states that
each Contracting Party shall, in accordance with its
particular conditions and capabilities do the
22. Develop national strategies, plans or programs for the
conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.
Integrate, as far as possible and as appropriate, the
conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity
into relevant sectoral or cross-sectoral plans, programs
23. Kuwait and the Convention on
Why was it important for Kuwait to join the convention on
threats on biodiversity were increasing rapidly because of :
the Iraqi invasion (oil pollution of the marine environment).
lack of conservation areas.
lack of enforced environmental regulations.
24. The state of Kuwait signed the convention on biological
diversity at the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro,
1992, and became a party in 2002.
25. To which extent Kuwait implemented the strategy and the
national plan of action for biodiversity?
The Environment Public Authority of Kuwait was formed in
1995 and (the conservation on biodiversity administration) in
it is the national focal point in Kuwait for the convention on
26. The 4th National report was made in 2011
that’s one of the convention implementation mechanisms, the
report shows the status of biodiversity in Kuwait, and the plans to
conserve it until 2010.
The 5th National report was made in 2014
cover the plan from 2011-2020, and it stated the procedures that
have been made after the submission of the 4th national report.
27. Coordination between the relevant authorities in the state was
made to implement the provisions of the convention by
Celebrate the international day of biodiversity on 22/5 to raise public awareness
of the importance of the biodiversity.
28. Monitoring marine biodiversity:
Kuwait's marine and littoral ecosystems contain the bulk of the
nation's biodiversity heritage
Over than 250 species of invertebrates have been recorded from
the intertidal zone
68 species of zooplankton
29. 105 species of marine plants
over than 465 species of fish are known,124 of which are
associated with coral reefs
there are also a number of other species, and they all are
of high scientific interest because of their role in ecosystem
30. Monitoring terrestrial biodiversity:
386 recorded species of plants in 55 families most of them
are annual plants utilized for grazing
also 350 types of birds,18 of them are resident
40 types of reptiles
28 types of mammals 10 of them are endangered such as
the fennec fox, the red fox, the honey badger, the Indian
grey mongoose and the wild cat.
34. Many governmental and non-governmental organizations in Kuwait
are integrated in activities related to biodiversity to manage,
conserve, and work on biodiversity researches in Kuwait such as:
The environmental public authority (EPA).
The Public Authority for Agriculture Affairs & Fish Resources
Kuwait University (KU) and
Kuwiat Institute for Scientific Research (KISR).
While other non-governmental organizations and public benefit
societies are also active toward managing and conserve the