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MR. AARON GOGATE BASIC BSC(N) SAVITRIBAI PHULE COLLEGE OFNURSING, KOLHAPUR
MEANING ‘To evaluate’ means ‘to ascertain the value or amount of appraisal carefully’ It is concerned with provision of learning experience, increasing the capabilities to perform certain functions
DEFINITION Qualitative aspect of determining the outcomes of learning. Process of ranking with respect to attributes or trait Appraising the extent of learning Judging effectiveness of educ. experience Interpreting and analyzing changes in behaviour Describing accurately quantity and quality of thing Summing up results of measurement or tests giving meaning based on value judgments Systematic process of determining the extent to which instructional objectives are achieved
EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION It emphasizes for the development of more adequate technique of assessing a pupil’s growth and development. It puts the individual and not the subject in the centre. Puts more stress in Learning than Teaching.
PRINCIPLES OF EVALUATION1) The value of evidence is gained through careful appraisal of Teaching-Learning process.2) It is a continuous process, the teacher should make a plan for evaluation to cover the entire course.3) The objectives should be stated in terms of behavior and content.4) It determines to what extend the objectives of the course is met or not.
5) Identify and Define the Educational objectives for benefit.6) Methods of evaluation should be selected on the basis of purpose and type of behavior to be measured.7) Comprehensive evaluation requires variety of evaluation techniques.8) Adequacy of experience should be made in terms of excellence and quality of experience.
PURPOSES OF EVALUATION1. Essential for sound educational decision-making.2. To attain educational goals and ascertain have been reached or not.3. For adequate Teaching-Learning situation.4. It clarifies aims of education5. Helps in improvement of curriculum.6. Appraises the status and changes in pupil behavior.7. Familiarizes the Teacher with the nature of pupil learning, development and progress.
8. It appraises the Teacher ‘s/Supervisor’s competence.9. Serves as a method of improvement.10. Encourage students learning by measuring their achievement and informing their success.11. Determine how far the objectives of teaching in particular subject are being realized or to see whether the teacher’s method and the experiences, which he organizes for children.
SCOPE OF EVALUATION EFFECTIVENESS OF APPRAISAL OR METHODS OF INSTRUCTION IDENTIFIES THE PUPIL’S STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES PROVIDES BASELINE FOR GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING PLACEMENT AND PROMOTIONS IN JOBS DEVELOPMENT OF ATTITUDES, INTERESTS, CREATIVITY, SKILLS DEVELOPMENT TOOLS, TECHNIQUES AND CURRICULUM
ASSESSMENT METHODS THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF ASSESSMENT METHODS MENTIONED AS FOLLOWS:-A. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE-Essay type questions, Short answer question, Multiple choice question.B. ASSESSMENT OF SKILLS- Checklist, Anecdotal record, Practical exam, Objective structured clinical examination(OSCE)C. ASSESSMENT OF ATTITUDES-Scaling technique,
ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS It is a test containing questions requiring the student to respond in writing. It emphasizes recall rather than recognition of correct alternatives. The student prepares his/her own answers. Handwriting, spellings, neatness, organizatio n are also considered in scoring.
FEATURES:-i. No answer can be considered throughout and correct.ii. The examinee is permitted freedom of response.iii. The answers vary in their degree of equality or corrections. TYPES:-A. EXTENDED RESPONSE-no restriction is placed on the student on the point he/she discusses.B. RESTRICTED RESPONSE-Student will have less scope, limited nature in the form, because he is told specifically the context in which his answer is to be made.
PRINCIPLES IN PREPARATION:-i. Do not give too many lengthy questions.ii. Avoid phrases e.g. ‘Discuss briefly’.iii. Words should be clear and simple, unambiguous and carefully selected.iv. Do not allow too many choices.v. According to level of students’ difficulty and complexity items has to be selected.
SCORING PROBLEM:-I. For every question, set out elements which according to you, should appear in the answer by point scoring system.II. When 2 or more teacher’s correct the same test, they should agree on the scoring procedure before the test and correct the answer scripts.III. The time allowed and the marks allotted will act as a guide to the students to answer the questions.
ADVANTAGES:-i. Tests the ability to communicate and writing.ii. Freedom of expressing and communicate.iii. Requires short-time for the teacher to prepare the test.iv. Applicable for all the school subjects. DISADVANTAGES:-i. Lack objectivity.ii. Takes long time to score.iii. Limited content sampling.iv. Contaminated by wrong spellings, handwriting, neatness, grammar.v. Mood of examiner.vi. First impression.vii. Improper comparison of answers(bright and dull)
SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS The students response by selection of one or more of several given alternatives by giving words or phrases. It does not call for an extensive written response. The answer is been expected as short and can be expressed in different forms. Ideally, only one answer is acceptable.
PRINCIPLES FOR PREPARATION:-i. Use action oriented precise verbs.ii. Each item should deal with important content area.iii. Question can be as long as possible, but answer should be short.iv. Use precise, simple and accurate language I relation to the subject matter area.v. Provide the necessary space for answers below each question asked
ADVANTAGES:-I. Easy to score.II. Reliability of the score is improved.III. Quick response. DISADVANTAGES:-I. Difficulty in construction of reliable items.
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS These are the most flexible and most effective of objective type items and consists of 2 parts:-A. THE STEM-which represents the problem, presented in the form of an incomplete statement or a question.B. THE OPTION/RESPONSE-the list of possible/correct answers or possible distracters.
PRINCIPLE OF PREPARATION:-i. Have enough content in the stem with less distracters but avoid lengthy stem.ii. Use positive statements in the stem. If negative statements is to be used then underline or write in capital letters, so that it will not be overlooked.iii. Stem consists of complete statement, not just a single word.iv. Place all common elements in the stem to add up simplicity and compactness to the item.v. The stem of one should not suggests the answer to another.vi. Eliminate all unrelated details from an item.
vii. Use plausible or logical distracters.viii. Avoid the use of clues that may suggests correct answer.ix. Be cautious of the use of ‘none of the above’ as a distracter or as a correct answer.x. When dealing with items that have numerical answers, arrange them in order from large to small or vice-versa.xi. Arrange the place for the correct answer, in such a way that, for a test as a whole, no letter corresponding to a given answer appears more frequently than some other letter.
ADVANTAGES:-i. Ensures reliability, objectivity and validity.ii. Provides constructive criticism.iii. The range and variety of facts can be samples in given time.iv. Provides precise measurement of higher processes.v. Provides detailed feedback for student as well as teachers.vi. Easy and rapid to score.
DISADVANTAGES:-i. Takes long time to construct in order to avoid arbitrary and ambiguous questions.ii. Also require careful preparations to avoid questions testing only recall.iii. Provides cues that do not exist in practice.iv. Costly, when a group is small to respond.
VARIATIONS IN MULTIPLE CHOICE FORMAT:-A. ONE CORRECT ANSWER-simplest type. One correct option and other incorrect options.B. BEST ANSWER-the student is told to select the best answer.C. ANALOGY-the student is required to deduce relationship that exists between the two first parts. e.g. Lack of iron content: anemia::lack of iodine content: …………… a)cretinism b)myxoedema c)goitreD. RESERVE TYPE-all but one answer is correct. Selection of the incorrect answer.
LIMITATIONS:-i. Difficult to construct.ii. Requires more skill.iii. Requires more time to prepare.iv. Teachers cannot always think of plausible distracters.v. Tendency of Teachers to write multiple choice items demanding only factual recall.vi. Requires more time to students to respond.vii. Not well adapted for measuring the ability to organize and present ideas.viii. Require more space per item.
OBSERVATIONAL CHECKLIST A checklist consists of a listing of steps, activities or behavior which the observer records when an incident occurs. A checklist enables the observer to note only whether or not a trait or characteristics is present.
SUGGESTION TO FOLLOW WHILE USING CHECKLIST:-i. Checklist should be directly related to learning objectives.ii. It needs to be confined to performance areas that can be assessed by positive and negative criteria.iii. Use checklist when ascertaining a trait or characteristics is present or absent.iv. Clearly specify the traits to be observed.v. Have a separate checklist for each candidate.vi. Multiple observation provide a more accurate assessment.vii. Student should be evaluated in natural setting.
ANECDOTAL RECORDSDEFINITION:- It is a brief description of an observed behaviorthat appears significant for evaluation purposes. An objective description by the teacher of asignificant occurrence or an episode in the life of thestudent.
CHARECTERISTICS:- A factual description of an event in which:-i. How it occurred,ii. When it occurred,iii. Under what circumstances it occurred,iv. The treatment……. Each anecdotal should be of one incident.
PURPOSES:-1) To stimulate teachers to look for information i.e. to help student in self-adjustment.2) The teacher is able to understand her pupil in realistic manner.3) It provides healthy pupil-teacher relationship.4) Helps the student to improve in their behavior, as it is a direct feedback of an entire observed incident.5) Can be used by students for self appraisal and peer assessment.
PRINCIPLES:- Concentrate on only one on two behavior observation should be selective. Record should be complete. They should be kept by all teacher and not only by the student teacher. Record the incident or action as soon as possible after it has happened. They should have a compiled and field. The teacher should have practice and training in making observation and writhing Anecdotal Record. Name of the student, Class and School, date of observation Setting background of the incident. Interoperation of the behavior. Recommendation concerning the behavior.
ADVANTAGES:-1) Provision of insight into total behavioral incidents.2) Use of formative feedback.3) Economical and easy to develop. DISADVANTAGES:-1) If careless recorded, the purpose will not be fulfilled.2) Subjectivity.3) Lack of standardization.4) Difficulty in scoring.5) Time consuming.
For example:- Dated : 09-10-2010 Reena is seen in library, sitting in a corner, preparing nursing care plan of cardiovascular disease. Dated : 13-10-2010 Reena found to be only girl responding to the teachers questions on cardiovascular Nursing. Dated : 16-10-2010 Reena was caught reading a book Medical-Surgical Nursing during "Community Health Nursing" and was asked to leave the room. Recommendation: Reena should been courage to do mean in Medical Surgical Nursing and also not to neglect Community Health Nursing and then other subjects
PRACTICAL EXAMINATION To develop appropriate professional skills over a period of time with consistent practice. Transportation facilities should be provided to take the students to the place of examination.
PURPOSES:-To assess:- The ability to give care in practical situation. Attitude of student towards client. Able to meet the needs of client. Expertise in nursing techniques. Ability to give best care as possible. Skills in proper recording and reporting.
PHYSICAL ARRANGMENT FOR CONDUCTING EXAM:- Permission from nursing superintendent and ward in- charges to conduct examination in the hospital. Selection of examination centre in advance depending on specialties offered. Varieties of nursing care situation, facilities of equipment and supplies, place for examiners all things are to be kept in mind. To practice nursing procedures required equipment has to be placed.
ADVANTAGES:- Provides the opportunity to test all the senses in realistic situation. Possibility of performance evaluation in clinical situation. Tests for investigate abilities. Attitudes of the student can be observed and tested. Rapport will be established.
DISADVANTAGES:- Lacks standardization conditions in bedside examination/providing care/doing procedure with patients of varying degrees of cooperativeness. Limited feasibility for large groups. Difficulties in arranging for examiners to observe candidates demonstrating the skills to be tested. Emergencies in the wards can be a hindrance. Takes longer time to complete the examination for the entire group.
OBJECTIVE STRUCTURED LINICAL EXAMINATION Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCEs) is a form of performance-based testing used to measure candidates’ clinical competence. During an OSCE, candidates are observed and evaluated as they go through a series of stations in which they interview, examine and treat standardized patients (SP) who present with some type of medical problem.
Features of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCEs):- Stations are short Stations are numerous A pre-set structured mark scheme is used hence……reduced examiner input and discretion Emphasis on what candidates can do rather than what they know The application of knowledge rather than the recall of knowledge 5 minutes most common (3-20 minutes)/each patient (minimum) 18-20 stations/2 hours for adequate reliability Written answer sheets or observer assessed using checklists Examination hall is a hospital ward Atmosphere active and busy
STEPS:-RegistrationOrientationEscorting to exam positionStation Instruction TimeThe EncounterPost Encounter PeriodRepeat Steps 4 to 6Exam ended / Escorting to dismissal area
SCALING TECHNIQUEA Scale is a continuum from highest and lowest point and has intermediate points in between two extremes.The Scaling technique consists of questionnaires where the score of individual’s responses gives him a particular place on the scale.
USES:- To utilize simultaneously a number of observation on a respondent. Meaningful responses are logically arranged in the analysis of attitude and behavior. To evaluate skills, outcomes, activities, attitudes and characteristics.
RATING SCALE:-Rating is a assessment of a person by another person.Rating scale records how much or how well it happened. Quantitative or qualitative terms will be used. TYPES OF RATING SCALE:-i. Descriptive rating scaleii. Numerical rating scaleiii. Graphic rating scale
PRINCIPLES:-i. Directly relate to learning objectives.ii. Needs to confined to performance areas that can be observed.iii. Clearly define the specific trait.iv. Trait should be readily observable.v. 3 to 7 rating positions may need to be provided.vi. There should be provision of omitting items.vii. All raters should be well oriented to the specific scale.viii. The rater should be unbiased and trained.ix. Have expert and well informed raters.
ADVANTAGES:-I. Easy to administer and to scoreII. Can be used for a large group of students.III. Wide range of applicationIV. Clarity of feedback to students DISADVANTAGES:-i. Misuse can result in a consequent decrease in objectivity.
ATTITUDE SCALE:- Used for measuring social attitudes. Questionnaires is prepared, an object or system will be allotted for each item. Some relevant or direct statements will also be used to reveal the attitude. TYPES:-1) Point scale2) Differential scale3) Summated or likert scale4) Scalogram5) Semantic scale