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ACIDS AND BASES
KNOWING ACIDS…
MEANING OF ACID
• According to Arrhenius,
An acid is a chemical compound that
produces hydrogen ions, H+ or
hydroxonium io...
Knowing acids..
• Acids can be divided into
– Monoprotic acid
HNO3(aq) H+ + NO3-
– Diprotic acid
H2SO4(aq) 2H+ + SO42-
Knowing acids…
• It is also divided into mineral acid and
organic acid.
Type of
acid
Example
Mineral
acid
Hydrochloric aci...
Role of water
• An acid only shows its acidic
properties when water is present.
• In water, acid will ionise to form H+,
t...
Chemical properties of
acids
• Acids are sour in taste
• Acids have pH values of less than 7.
• Acid changes the colour of...
Chemical properties of acid
• Acid can react with bases to produce
salts and water
H2SO4 + CuO CuSO4 + H2O
• React with me...
Properties of acid
• React with carbonates to produce salts,
carbon dioxide and water
2HCl + CuCO3 CuCl2 + CO2 + H2O
• Aqu...
The strength of acids
• Acids can be divided into
1. Strong acid – an acid which ionises
completely in water to produce hi...
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Acids and bases

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Acids and bases

  1. 1. ACIDS AND BASES KNOWING ACIDS…
  2. 2. MEANING OF ACID • According to Arrhenius, An acid is a chemical compound that produces hydrogen ions, H+ or hydroxonium ions H3O+ when it dissolves in water.
  3. 3. Knowing acids.. • Acids can be divided into – Monoprotic acid HNO3(aq) H+ + NO3- – Diprotic acid H2SO4(aq) 2H+ + SO42-
  4. 4. Knowing acids… • It is also divided into mineral acid and organic acid. Type of acid Example Mineral acid Hydrochloric acid, HCl, sulphuric acid H2SO4 and nitric acid HNO3. Organic acid Ethanoic acid CH3COOH, methanoic acid HCOOH, ethanedioic acid H2C2O4.
  5. 5. Role of water • An acid only shows its acidic properties when water is present. • In water, acid will ionise to form H+, that are responsible for acidic properties. • (Experiment 7.1)
  6. 6. Chemical properties of acids • Acids are sour in taste • Acids have pH values of less than 7. • Acid changes the colour of these indicators: Indicator Colour of indicator Blue litmus paper Red Universal indicator Orangeandred Methyl orange Red
  7. 7. Chemical properties of acid • Acid can react with bases to produce salts and water H2SO4 + CuO CuSO4 + H2O • React with metals to produce salts and hydrogen H2SO4 + Mg H2 + MgSO4
  8. 8. Properties of acid • React with carbonates to produce salts, carbon dioxide and water 2HCl + CuCO3 CuCl2 + CO2 + H2O • Aquoeus solution of acids can conduct electricity because the acid molecules can ionise to produce free mobile ions
  9. 9. The strength of acids • Acids can be divided into 1. Strong acid – an acid which ionises completely in water to produce higher concentration of hydrogen ions HNO3 H+ + NO3 - 2. Weak acid – an acid which ionises partially in water to produce a lower concentration of hydrogen ions. CH3COOH CH3COO- + H+

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