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Urban morphology, elements of urban design

  1. 1. UNIT 1 URBAN DESIGN ELECTIVE 1
  2. 2. Urban morphology Elements of urban design Nature of urban design projects in public and private developments TOPICS TO BE DISCUSSED
  3. 3. URBAN MORPHOLOGY  Urban morphology is the study of the form of human settlements and the process of their formation and transformation.  The study seeks to understand the spatial structure and character of a metropolitan area, city, town or village by examining the patterns of its component parts and the process of its development.  This can involve the analysis of physical structures at different scales as well as patterns of movement, land use, ownership or control and occupation.  Typically, analysis of physical form focuses on street pattern, lot (or, in the UK, plot) pattern and building pattern, sometimes referred to collectively as urban grain.
  4. 4.  Analysis of specific settlements is usually undertaken using cartographic sources and the process of development is deduced from comparison of historic maps.  Special attention is given to how the physical form of a city changes over time and to how different cities compare to each other.  Another significant part of this subfield deals with the study of the social forms which are expressed in the physical layout of a city, and, conversely, how physical form produces or reproduces various social forms.  The essence of the idea of morphology was initially expressed in the writings of the great poet and philosopher Goethe (1790).  Tissue comprises coherent neighbourhood morphology (open spaces, building) and functions (human activity).
  5. 5. Following are the concepts of urban morphology  Figure and Ground  Linkage theory  Place Theory  Figure and Ground theory is founded on the study of the relationship of land coverage of buildings as solid mass (figure) to open voids (ground).  The linkage theory is derived from "lines" connecting one element to another. These lines are formed by street, pedestrian ways, linear open spaces or other linking elements that physically connect the parts of the city. SOME LOCKED CONCEPTS
  6. 6. ELEMENTS OF URBAN DESIGN  Buildings  Public places  Streets  Transportation  Landscaping
  7. 7. Buildings  Buildings are the most pronounced elements of urban design.
  8. 8.  they shape and articulate space by forming the street walls of the city.  Well designed buildings and groups of buildings work together to create a sense of place.
  9. 9.  Great public spaces are the living room of the city. Public spaces  the place where people come together to enjoy the city and each other.
  10. 10.  Public spaces make high quality life in the city possible - they form the stage and backdrop to the drama of life.  Public spaces range from grand central plazas and squares, to small, local neighbourhood parks. .
  11. 11.  Streets are the connections between spaces and places, as well as being spaces themselves. Streets  They are defined by their physical dimension and character as well as the size, scale, and character of the buildings that line them.
  12. 12.  The pattern of the street network is part of what defines a city and what makes each city unique.  Streets range from grand avenues to small, intimate pedestrian streets.
  13. 13.  Transport systems connect the parts of cities and help to shape them, and enable movement throughout the city. Transportation  They include road, rail, bicycle, and pedestrian networks, and together form the total movement system of a city.
  14. 14.  The balance of these various transport systems is what helps define the quality and character of cities, and makes them either friendly or hostile to pedestrians.  The best cities are the ones that elevate the experience of the pedestrian while minimizing the dominance of the private automobile.
  15. 15.  The landscape is the green part of the city that weaves throughout - in the form of urban parks, street trees, plants, flowers, and water in many forms. Landscaping
  16. 16.  The landscape helps to define the character and beauty of a city and creates soft, contrasting spaces and elements.  Green spaces in cities range from grand parks to small intimate pocket parks.
  17. 17.  A public private partnership is a government service or private business venture which is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies.  PPP involves a contract between a public sector authority and a private party, in which the private party provides a public service or project and assumes substantial financial, technical and operational risk in the project.  In other types (notably the private finance initiative), capital investment is made by the private sector on the basis of a contract with government to provide agreed services and the cost of providing the service is borne wholly or in part by the government. Nature of urban design projects in public and private developments
  18. 18.  In projects that are aimed at creating public goods like in the infrastructure sector, the government may provide a capital subsidy in the form of a one-time grant, so as to make it more attractive to the private investors.  There are usually two fundamental drivers for PPPs.  Firstly, PPPs are claimed to enable the public sector to harness the expertise and efficiencies that the private sector can bring to the delivery of certain facilities and services traditionally procured and delivered by the public sector.  Secondly, a PPP is structured so that the public sector body seeking to make a capital investment does not incur any borrowing.  A typical PPP example would be a hospital building financed and constructed by a private developer and then leased to the hospital authority.  The private developer then acts as landlord, providing housekeeping and other non-medical services while the hospital itself provides medical services.
  19. 19.  The sectors eligible for ppp are:  Roads and bridges, railways, seaports, airports, inland waterways.  Power.  Urban transport, water supply, sewerage, solid waste management and other physical infrastructure in urban areas.  Infrastructure projects in Special Economic Zones and internal infrastructure in National Investment and Manufacturing Zones.  International convention centres and other tourism infrastructure projects.  Capital investment in the creation of modern storage capacity including cold chains and post-harvest storage. Eligible sector
  20. 20.  Education, health and skill development, without annuity provision.  Oil/Gas/Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) storage facility (includes city gas distribution network).  Oil and Gas pipelines (includes city gas distribution network).  Irrigation (dams, channels, embankments, etc).  Telecommunication (Fixed Network) (includes optic fibre/ wire/ cable networks which provide broadband /internet).  Telecommunication towers.  Terminal markets.  Common infrastructure in agriculture markets. And  Soil testing laboratories
  21. 21.  Hyderabad Metro Rail (HMR is being implemented entirely on public-private partnership (PPP) basis, with the state government holding a minority equity stake
  22. 22.  "Beauty, Humanism, Continuity between Past and Future". Traditional Architecture Group. Retrieved 23 March 2014.  Batty, M. (2009). Cities as Complex Systems: Scaling, Interaction, Networks, Dynamics and Urban Morphologies. In Encyclopaedia of Complexity and Systems Science. Springer.  Salat, S., and Bourdic, L. (2011). Power Laws for Energy Efficient and Resilient Cities. Procedia Engineering, 21, 1193–1198.  http://www.urbandesign.org/elements.html.  Wekipedia. BIBLOGRAPHY
  23. 23. THANKYOU

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