1. Dr. D. Y. PATIL SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING&TECHNOLOGY
INTRODUCTION OF COMPUTER NUMERICAL
CONTROL MACHINE (CNC)
Under the guidance of,
What is a CNC Machine?
CNC : Computer and Numeric Control
Conventionally, an operator decides and
adjusts various machines parameters like
feed , depth of cut etc depending on type
of job , and controls the slide movements
by hand. In a CNC Machine functions and
slide movements are controlled by
motors using computer programs.
3. Basic CNC Principles
•Each axis consists of a mechanical component, such as a slide that
moves, a servo drive motor that powers the mechanical movement, and
a ball screw to transfer the power from the servo drive motor to the
• CNC can control the motions of the workpiece or tool, the input
parameters such as feed,depth of cut, speed, and the functions such as
turning spindle on/off, turning coolant on/off.
4. Features of CNC Machinery
• The tool or material moves.
• Tools can operate in 1-5 axes.
• Larger machines have a machine control unit (MCU) which manages
• Movement is controlled by a motors (actuators).
• Feedback is provided by sensors (transducers)
• Tool magazines are used to change tools
•In the machine tool category, CNC is widely used for,
2. Drill press
3. Milling machine
4. Grinding unit
5. Laser Cutting
6. Sheet-metal press
7. Tube bending machine etc.
6. TOOLS USED IN CNC
• Most are made from high speed steel
• tungsten carbide or ceramics.
• Tools are designed to direct waste
away from the material.
• Some tools need coolant such as oil
to protect the tool and work.
1. high accuracy in manufacturing
2. short production time
3. greater manufacturing flexibility
4. simpler fixturing
5. contour machining (2 to 5 –axis machining)
6. reduced human error