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Basics about IP address, DNS and DHCP.

Very important and easy to understand..

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Basics about IP address, DNS and DHCP.

  1. 1. India IP ADDRESS DNS DHCP
  2. 2. India IP Address • What is an IP address ?  Internet protocol address  unique identifying number given to every single computer on the Internet.  IP address is a special serial number used for identification.  allows the machine to be located by other machines on the network
  3. 3. India IP Address • IP addresses can be either static or dynamic  Static IP – Fixed and never changes  Dynamic IP – temporary and could change at any time
  4. 4. India IP Address • Two Standards of IP address – IPv4 – 32 bit binary bits  4 numbers separated by dots.  Example - 25.161.13.191 IPv6 – 128 bit binary bits  eight groups of hexadecimal numbers separated by colons(:).  Example - 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334
  5. 5. India IP Address • IP address is divided in 2 parts :- Network ID and Host ID  Network ID – It’s a ID of the network and resembles the network.  Host ID – It’s a identification of host on the network. Net ID Host ID Example – 25.161.13.191
  6. 6. India IP Address Classes
  7. 7. India IP Address • IP Address classes – Class Class Range Address Range Supports Class A 0-126 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 16 million hosts on each of 127 networks. Class B 128-191 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 65,000 hosts on each of 16,000 networks. Class C 192-223 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 254 hosts on each of 2 million networks. Class D 224-239 NA Reserved for Multicasting Class E 240-255 NA Experimental; used for research
  8. 8. India IP Address • How to define network id and host id in IP address classes ? 10.12.34.10 :- 11001100.11100111.11111000.11001100  Class A – First octet shows the network id and rest 3 octets shows the host id. Net Host ID ID 2^24 16,777,216 hosts per network 10.12.34.10
  9. 9. India IP Address • How to define network id and host id in IP address classes ? 10.12.34.10 :- 11001100.11100111.11111000.11001100  Class B – First 2 octets show the network id while the last 2 denotes the host id. Net Host ID ID 2^16 16,384 hosts per network 10.12.34.10
  10. 10. India IP Address • How to define network id and host id in IP address classes ? 10.12.34.10 :- 11001100.11100111.11111000.11001100  Class C – First 3 octets show the network id while the last 1 denotes the host id. Net Host ID ID 2^8 256 hosts per network 10.12.34.10
  11. 11. India LOOPBACK Address
  12. 12. India IP Address • Loopback address – (127.0.0.1)  Also called as Localhost.  Loopback has no hardware associated with it.  Allows us to test ip software without worrying about the broken or corrupted driver or hardware.  Loopback interface never goes down.  Used for management on routers.
  13. 13. India APIPA Address
  14. 14. India IP Address • APIPA address – Link-local address  Automatic Private IP Address.  Range - 169.254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254  With APIPA, client machines can automatically self-configure an IP address.  Meant for small business environments, usually less than 25 clients. ex. Home , small intranet LAN’s.  How to check if your computer is enabled for APIPA?
  15. 15. India DNS
  16. 16. India DNS • DNS – Domain Name System  DNS is a protocol.  Used to translate a user friendly domain name into an IP address.  DNS implements a distributed database to store the name and address information for all public hosts on the Internet.  DNS resolver – contacts DNS server to determine servers IP address.  Best example of DNS is Internet.
  17. 17. India DNS • How DNS works :- www.google.com 3. That’s in my cache. It maps to IP address 70.42.251.42 5 DNS 4. great! I will cache server 3 that for a while. 2 5.Thanks for the direction DNS Server 4 1 1. I need direction to 2. The domain name is www.google.com www.google.com is not in my database
  18. 18. India DHCP
  19. 19. India DHCP • DHCP :-  Dynamic host configuration protocol.  Configures devices that are connected to a network so that they can communicate using the IP address.  Maintains database of available IP addresses and configuration information.  Allocate IP address to a client on a lease. Lease :- amount of time that a given IP address will be valid for a computer.  Lease duration is set to 8 days by default.  DHCP Pool – contains list of available IP address.
  20. 20. India DHCP • How DHCP works :-  DHCP works on DORA process. 1) Discover 2) Offer 3) Request 4) Acknowledge
  21. 21. India THE END

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Very important and easy to understand..

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