2. 2. Romanesque Architectureq
1. Describe the characteristics of Romanesque
A. thick walls
B. broad, rather than steep roofs
C small windows – not much natural lightC. small windows not much natural light
D. Roman arches or square top entrances, windows
3. Origins of Roman Architectureg
As ith sc lpt re theAs with sculpture, the
Romans borrowed heavily
from two cultures that theyfrom two cultures that they
the Etruscans and
Model of an Etruscan Temple
El t f R hit t h i ifi t G kElements of Roman architecture show very significant Greek
However Roman functional needs sometimes differed resultingHowever, Roman functional needs sometimes differed, resulting
in interesting innovations.
The Romans were less attached to “ideal” forms and extended
Greek ideas to make them more functional.
4. Origins of Roman Architecture
The Maison Caree @ NimesThe Maison Caree @ Nimes
Romans needed interior
space for worship,p p
whereas the Greeks
Their solution was to
extend the walls
engaged columns, while
i i i hmaintaining the same
5. Roman Innovation
The Roman ability to build massively was largely
determined by their discovery of slow-drying concrete,y y y g ,
made with pozzolana sand.
This allowed not only bases, but also walls to be constructedy ,
of mainly concrete or concrete and rubble.
Facings could be made of more expensive stone org p
The result was strong structures that could be formed in anyg y
6. Roman Innovation – The Arch
Romans did not
i t thi f b tinvent this form, but
they used it well in
bridges withinbridges, within
buildings, and to
allow aqueducts toallow aqueducts to
span rivers and
7. Roman Cities
Th t i l R it f th l t R bli dThe typical Roman city of the later Republic and
empire had a rectangular plan and resembled a
Roman military camp with two main streets—Roman military camp with two main streets
the cardo (north-south) and the decumanus (east-
west)—a grid of smaller streets dividing the town
i t bl k d ll i it ith tinto blocks, and a wall circuit with gates.
Old iti h R it lf f d d b fOlder cities, such as Rome itself, founded before
the adoption of regularized city planning, could,
however, consist of a maze of crooked streets. Thehowever, consist of a maze of crooked streets. The
focal point of the city was its forum, usually
situated at the center of the city at the
i t ti f th d d th d
intersection of the cardo and the decumanus.
8. Plan of the City ofy
By the time of Augustus,
Rome had grown from a
ti ttl t th Tibtiny settlement on the Tiber
River to a metropolis at the
center of an expandingcenter of an expanding
empire. Under the republic
Rome became the political
capital of the Mediterranean
and a symbol of Roman
d lthpower and wealth.
9. All Roads Lead to Rome
Why do you think a system of roads was important to the
survival of the Empire?
10. An expanding network of
An expanding network of
roads helped to link Rome's
distant territories. One of the
most important paved military
roads was the Appian Way,
commissioned by the Roman
official Appius Claudius
Caecus It became the majorCaecus. It became the major
route from Rome to Greece.
Although these large lavag g
blocks may not be the original
material, the route itself has
i d h d d iremained unchanged and in
use since it was first paved
more than 2200 years ago
more than 2200 years ago.
The Romans usedThe Romans used
arches to support
the things theythe things they
They built victoryThey built victory
There wasn’t enough water in the city of Rome.
Th R b ht t i f th diThe Romans brought water in from the surrounding
Th t b ht i b t b ll d d tThe water was brought in by tubes called aqueducts.
Among the other great public building projects of the
R h h h k f b idRomans, the most noteworthy are the network of bridges
and roads that facilitated travel throughout the empire, and
the aqueducts that brought water to the towns fromthe aqueducts that brought water to the towns from
13. The Roman aqueduct at Pont du Gard near Nîmes, France, was
b ilt b t th l t 1 t t b d th l 1 t tbuilt between the late 1st century bc and the early 1st century
ad. The Romans built extensive systems of aqueducts to carry
water to their residential areas from distant sources
water to their residential areas from distant sources.
14. Why arches?
Water is heavy stuff.
The Romans needed a
structure strong enough
h ld ll hto hold all that water to
move it from the
mountains into the citymountains into the city.
15. Where did the water go?g
The water was
transported in concretetransported in concrete
The tunnels were
underground if possibleunderground if possible.
Sometimes the tunnelSometimes the tunnel
had to go above ground.
16. How did the aqueduct work?
The water flowed in a tube on the top of the aqueduct calledThe water flowed in a tube on the top of the aqueduct called
a water channel.
The arches supported the water channelThe arches supported the water channel.
17. What did the water channel look like?
The water flowed through aThe water flowed through a
The channel was lined withThe channel was lined with
The Romans invented concreteThe Romans invented concrete.
The forum, an open area bordered by colonnades with
shops functioned as the chief meeting place of the town Itshops, functioned as the chief meeting place of the town. It
was also the site of the city's primary religious and civic
buildings among them the Senate house records office andbuildings, among them the Senate house, records office, and
19. When archaeologists began
excavating the city ofexcavating the city of
Pompeii, which had been
covered with ash and mud
by the eruption of Mount
Vesuvius in ad 79, they
f d h i ffound the remains of
people, ancient buildings,
and other artifacts preservedand other artifacts preserved
amid the volcanic debris.
Among the structuresg
uncovered was The Forum
of Pompeii, pictured, a
f lgroup of temples, courts,
and palaces that served as
the city’s legislative center
the city s legislative center.
The basilica was a roofed hall with a wide central area theThe basilica was a roofed hall with a wide central area—the
nave—flanked by side aisles, and it often had two or more
stories In Roman times basilicas were the site of businessstories. In Roman times basilicas were the site of business
transactions, government officials and legal proceedings.
When Christianity became the state religion this kind ofWhen Christianity became the state religion, this kind of
building was adapted to Christian worship.
The building type was adapted in Christian times as theThe building type was adapted in Christian times as the
standard form of the Western church with an apse and altar at
the end of the long nave. The first basilicas were put up in thet e e d o t e o g ave. e st bas cas we e put up t e
early 2nd century b.c. in Rome's own Forum, but the earliest
well-preserved example of the basilicas (circa 120 b.c.) is
p p ( )
found at Pompeii.
21. This Roman basilica was
begun by the emperor
Maxentius between 307Maxentius between 307
and 310 and completed
by Constantine the Greaty
after 312. Although it
was one of the most
important monuments in
almost all that remains ofalmost all that remains of
the building are these
three huge, barrel-g ,
22. Roman Templesp
The chief temple of a Roman city, the capitolium, was
generally located at one end of the forum. The standardg y
Roman temple was a blend of Etruscan and Greek
elements; rectangular in plan, it had a gabled roof, a
deep porch with freestanding columns, and a frontal
staircase giving access to its high plinth, or platform.
23. By the 1st century b.c, the extensive conquests of the Romans led
th t d th M dit t ( ) Rthem to regard the Mediterranean as mare nostrum (our sea). Roman
influence went far beyond politics. Roman art, architecture, and
language were among the cultural traits that slowly took hold in manylanguage were among the cultural traits that slowly took hold in many
of Rome's conquered territories. Ruins of ancient temples in Baalbek,
Lebanon, include the Temple of Jupiter, built by the Romans after they
took control of the territory.
Roman temples were erected not only in the forum, but
throughout the city and in the countryside as well; manythroughout the city and in the countryside as well; many
other types are known. One of the most influential in later
times was the type used for the Pantheon (ad 118-28) inyp ( )
Rome, consisting of a standard gable-roofed columnar porch
with a domed cylindrical drum behind it replacing the
traditional rectangular main room, or cella.
26. The Pantheon in Rome is one of the most famous buildings in theThe Pantheon in Rome is one of the most famous buildings in the
world. It was commissioned by Hadrian in 118 and completed in 128.
At one time it had a colonnaded court leading to the portico. Theg p
dome of the rotunda behind the portico is 43.2 m (142 ft) in diameter.
The oculus (a round opening) at the top is 8.5 m (28 ft) in diameter
d id h l f li h f h i i
and provides the only source of light for the interior.
27. Its interior was
i d i lconceived as a single
illuminated by a singleilluminated by a single
round opening, called
an oculus, at the
highest point in the
C ff i th d tCoffering the dome to
The interior isThe interior is
decorated with colored
marble, and lined with
pairs of columns and
carved figures set into
niches in the wall
niches in the wall.
28. Roman Theaters
Roman theaters first appeared in the late Republic. They
i i l i l d i t d f t ll twere semicircular in plan and consisted of a tall stage
building abutting a semicircular orchestra and tiered seating
area (cavea) Unlike Greek theaters which were situated onarea (cavea). Unlike Greek theaters, which were situated on
natural slopes, Roman theaters were supported by their own
framework of piers and vaults and thus could be constructedframework of piers and vaults and thus could be constructed
in the hearts of cities.
29. The Roman emperor
Augustus founded the
city of Aosta during the
1st century b.c near the
j ti f t ljunction of natural
from Italy through thefrom Italy through the
mountains to France and
Switzerland. The city has
many remnants of
including wall segmentsincluding wall segments
from this theater.
Amphitheaters were elliptical in plan with a central arena,
where gladiatorial and animal combats took place and awhere gladiatorial and animal combats took place, and a
surrounding seating area built on the pattern of Roman
theaters The earliest known amphitheater (75 bc) is attheaters. The earliest known amphitheater (75 bc) is at
Pompeii, and the grandest, Rome's Colosseum (ad70-80),
held approximately 50,000 spectators, roughly the capacitypp y , p , g y p y
of today's large sports stadiums.
31. The Coliseum- a blend of Greek
and Roman architectureand Roman architecture
The arches areThe arches are
supported by central
The columns on the
fi fl D ifirst floor are Doric.
The columns on the
second floor are Ionic.
The columns on the
third floor are
32. The Colosseum in Rome (70-82) is best known for its multilevelThe Colosseum in Rome (70-82) is best known for its multilevel
system of vaults made of concrete. It is called the Colosseum for a
colossal statue of Nero that once stood nearby, but its real name isy
the Flavian Amphitheater. It was used for staged battles between
lions and Christians, among other spectacles, and is one of the most
f i f hit t i th ld
famous pieces of architecture in the world.
A clear picture of Roman architecture can be drawn from the
impressive remains of ancient Roman public and privatep p p
Many of our modern government institutions are modeled
after the Roman system, as is much of our publicy , p
What type of innovations came from the Ancient
What influences can we see in our society today?
Provide two examples?
36. Amphitheater: circular building a round or oval buildingAmphitheater: circular building, a round or oval building
without a roof that has a central open space surrounded by
tiers of seats especially one used by the ancient Romanstiers of seats, especially one used by the ancient Romans
for public entertainment
A d t A l t f h l b ilt tAqueduct: A complex system of channels built to carry
water from one place to another.
Basilica: a type of ancient Roman building that had a
central nave with an aisle on each side formed by two
rows of columns, and typically a terminal semicircular
apse. It was used as a court of justice, an assembly hall, or
37. Forum: a public square or marketplace in ancient Roman
cities where business was conducted and the law courts were
Oculus: an architectural feature that is round or eye-shaped,
for example, a round window, a round opening at the top ofp , , p g p
a dome, or the central boss of a volute.