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Abhishek Tiwari
11M180157
To make an estimation major air pollutants viz.
PM 10, PM 2.5 , SO2 and NO2 at Analytical and
Environmental Engineering La...
 Air pollution occurs when the air contains
substances in quantities that could harm the
comfort or health of humans and ...
 Ranchi is capital and one of the most important
industrial cities in the state of Jharkhand. It is
divided in 5 industri...
SITE:- Analytical and Environmental Engineering
Laboratory Yugantar Bharati, Namkum, Ranchi.
Training was scheduled from 5th April 2013 to 12th April
2013.
Day 1 covered Registration, Introduction of Equipments
and ...
Equipments required for the training were
introduced by Mr. Sanjeev singh and Mr. mukesh
singh.
Equipments required are:
R...
Spectrophotometer
Lab Glass wares
Gloves
Respirable dust sampler is an machine designed
for the sampling and collection of dust and NO2
and SO2 by an attached gas ...
Model 460 B
Major parts of Respirable Dust Sampler
I. Main housing :- Metallic body enclosing various
parts.
II. Filter holder :- the ...
PM 2.5 Attachment
An attachment is added to the body which
separates and collects particulate matters of
size lesser than ...
Gas Manifold…..
An Gas Manifold is attached for the sampling of NO2
and SO2 .
Gas Manifold has glass impinger filled with
...
Filter Papers:- filter papers are placed in the machine to
collect dust particles.
There are two types of filter papers.
F...
An air dessicator is used by means of moisture
removal from the filter paper.
It contains silica gel which absorbs moistur...
A UV visible spectrophotometer was used for
analysis of gaseous samples that is SO2 and
NO2.
 Respirable dust sampler was set at about 3
meters height above the ground.
 Both the filter papers were set at the
resp...
 Rota meter of gas manifold was set at 1 .
 Manometer was calibrated and was set up the
level by adding distilled water ...
 Machine was started at 11.00 am on 09/04/2013.
 Machine was closed at 7.30 pm.
 Machine was disturbed 4 times which wa...
 After sampling, filter paper were taken out from
the machine and preserved in the plastic zipper
bag carefully.
 Absorb...
Take 10 ml of aliquot sample in 50 ml volumetric flask
Take 10 ml of unexposed sample in 50 ml volumetric flask
Add 1 ml h...
Take 10/20 ml of aliquot sample in 25 ml vol. flask
Take 10/20 ml of unexposed sample sample in 25 ml vol. flask
Add 1 ml ...
OBSERVATION TABLE FOR PM 10
Starting
time
Closing
time
Filter
paper
code
Filter
paper
initial
weight
Initial
flow rate
Fin...
OBSERVATION TABLE FOR PM2.5
Starting
time
Closing
time
Filter
paper
code
Filter
paper
initial
weight
Initial
volume
Final
...
OBSERVATION TABLE FOR SO2
Starting time Closing Time Sample code Initial flow
rate
Final flow
rate
11.00 AM 3.10 PM RU1- S...
OBSERVATION TABLE FOR NO2
Starting time Closing Time Sample code Initial flow
rate
Final flow
rate
11.00 AM 3.10 PM RU1- N...
CALCULATION OF PM 10
Time of Sampling :- 480 min.
Average flow rate :- Initial flow rate+final flow rate
2
=
= 1.115 LPM
V...
Dust concentration on filter paper :-
106× (Wf- Wi)
vol. of air
= 106× (2.8140 – 2.7610)
535.2
= 106× 0.053
535.2
= 99.139...
Calculation of PM 2.5
Volume of air sample :-
Final air volume – initial volume
= 42.614 – 33.42
= 9.272 m3
Dust concentra...
CONCENTRATION OF SO2
Table for absorbance and concentration of sample
standard solution
Absorbance(x) Concentration(y)
0.1...
Slope :-
Y2 - Y1
X2 – X1
0.017
0.14
0.121
CF 8.264 ( Reciprocal of slope)
Sample code RU 1
(As – Ab)× 8.26 × 30
Va × Vt
(0.015 – 0.006) × 8.264 × 30
2.4
35.70048
2.4
0.9297 µg/m3
Sample code RU2
(As – Ab)× 8.26 × 30
Va × Vt
(0.026 – 0.006) × 8.264 × 30
2.4
2.06 µg/m3
CONCENTRATION OF NO2
Table for absorbance and concentration of sample
standard solution
Absorbance(x) Concentration(y)
1.0...
CALCULATION OF CALIBERATION FACTOR FOR NO2
SLOPE :-
Y2 – Y1
X2 – X1
0.041 – 0.062
1.02 – 3.92
0.007
CALIBERATION FACTOR
14...
Sample code RU1
(As – Ab) × CF × Vol.
Va × Vt × 0.82
(0.38 – 0.009) × 142.8571 × 30
0.01728 × 0.82
61.39 µg/m3
Sample code RU2
(As – Ab) × CF × Vol.
Va × Vt × 0.82
(0.38 – 0.009) × 142.8571 × 30
0.01728 × 0.82
61.39 µg/m3
The amount of Pollutants were recorded as follows :-
PM 10 99.1395 µg/m3
PM 2.5 43.1406 µg/m3
SO2 RU1 0.929 µg/m3
RU2 2.06...
Concentration of pollutant at YBAEEL as compared
with CPCB norms are as below
Pollutants CPCB Standards Concentration at
Y...
Measurement of ambient air pollutants, sampling and analysis
Measurement of ambient air pollutants, sampling and analysis
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Measurement of ambient air pollutants, sampling and analysis

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Measurement of ambient air pollutants, sampling and analysis

  1. 1. Abhishek Tiwari 11M180157
  2. 2. To make an estimation major air pollutants viz. PM 10, PM 2.5 , SO2 and NO2 at Analytical and Environmental Engineering Laboratory Yugantar Bharati, Namkum, Ranchi. Understand the air monitoring and sampling technique. To know about related equipment.
  3. 3.  Air pollution occurs when the air contains substances in quantities that could harm the comfort or health of humans and animals, or could damage plants and materials. These substances are called air pollutants and can be either particles, liquids or gaseous in nature (Alias M. et al, 2007).  Particulate matter and gaseous emissions of pollutant emission from industries and auto exhausts are responsible for rising discomfort, increasing airway diseases and deterioration of artistic and cultural patrimony in urban centers.
  4. 4.  Ranchi is capital and one of the most important industrial cities in the state of Jharkhand. It is divided in 5 industrial zones- Tupudana industrial area, Namkum Industrial Area, Tatisilawai Industrial area, Kokar industrial area and H.E.C. with about 10 lakhs vehicles, increasing about 70000 per year in Ranchi , the city emits heavy amount of pollutants.  Thus, the ambient air quality of the city Ranchi is needed to be studied in detail as it is a major concern to care for the health of the people residing in Ranchi resulting due to pollution.
  5. 5. SITE:- Analytical and Environmental Engineering Laboratory Yugantar Bharati, Namkum, Ranchi.
  6. 6. Training was scheduled from 5th April 2013 to 12th April 2013. Day 1 covered Registration, Introduction of Equipments and their accessories, introduction to filter papers and absorbents an Review session. Day 2 involved Preparation of Absorbents, preparation of filter papers, checklist preparation for sampling and storage and Review meeting. Day 3 was determined as sampling date. Day 4 :- calculations/analysis of dust partials, Analysis of gas , report preparation and review meeting. Day 5 was for the reports submission photo session and certificate distribution.
  7. 7. Equipments required for the training were introduced by Mr. Sanjeev singh and Mr. mukesh singh. Equipments required are: Respirable dust sampler filter paper for PM 10 Filter Paper For PM2.5 Air Desecrator Electronic weight
  8. 8. Spectrophotometer Lab Glass wares Gloves
  9. 9. Respirable dust sampler is an machine designed for the sampling and collection of dust and NO2 and SO2 by an attached gas manifold. The unit separates Particulate matter by size, passing small particulate matter to filter paper and retaining the non respirable particulate matter in a cup. It collects air at rate of 1132 lpm speed.
  10. 10. Model 460 B
  11. 11. Major parts of Respirable Dust Sampler I. Main housing :- Metallic body enclosing various parts. II. Filter holder :- the filter holder assembly consists hopper assembly to hold filter paper of size 8×10 inches. III. Manometer :- The flow rate is monitored by it. IV. Time totalizer :- A time totalizer has been provided to indicate the total time of sampling in minutes.
  12. 12. PM 2.5 Attachment An attachment is added to the body which separates and collects particulate matters of size lesser than 2.5 micron. It has an sample cup fitted with filter paper.
  13. 13. Gas Manifold….. An Gas Manifold is attached for the sampling of NO2 and SO2 . Gas Manifold has glass impinger filled with absorbing solution. It has a Rota meter which measures the Flow rate in the manifold. Generally , the flow rate is set at 1.
  14. 14. Filter Papers:- filter papers are placed in the machine to collect dust particles. There are two types of filter papers. Filter paper made up of glass fiber of size 8×10 (Whatmann 41 GF/A) for the collection of Particulate matter of size greater than 10 µ. Another Filter Paper is round having diameter of 47 mm made up of Teflon to collect PM 2.5.
  15. 15. An air dessicator is used by means of moisture removal from the filter paper. It contains silica gel which absorbs moisture and turns blue after absorbance.
  16. 16. A UV visible spectrophotometer was used for analysis of gaseous samples that is SO2 and NO2.
  17. 17.  Respirable dust sampler was set at about 3 meters height above the ground.  Both the filter papers were set at the respective sockets after moisture removal inspection and their initial weight was recorded .  Attachments were assembled on the machine.  Glass impinger of the gas manifold was filled with 30 ml each of absorbing solution for SO2 and NO2 viz. tetra chloro mercurate solution and sodium arsenate solution respectively.
  18. 18.  Rota meter of gas manifold was set at 1 .  Manometer was calibrated and was set up the level by adding distilled water in the manometer.  machine was started.  Time, initial flow rate of manometer and initial volume of air at PM 2.5 attachment were recorded.
  19. 19.  Machine was started at 11.00 am on 09/04/2013.  Machine was closed at 7.30 pm.  Machine was disturbed 4 times which was balanced later.  Impinger of gas manifold were changed after 8 hours.
  20. 20.  After sampling, filter paper were taken out from the machine and preserved in the plastic zipper bag carefully.  Absorbing solution were taken out from the impingers and were preserved.  Next day, filter paper were weighed.  SO2 and NO2 were measured.
  21. 21. Take 10 ml of aliquot sample in 50 ml volumetric flask Take 10 ml of unexposed sample in 50 ml volumetric flask Add 1 ml hydrogen peroxide Add 10 ml sulfanilamide Add 1.4 ml NEDA Make up to 50 ml with distilled water Keep 10 minutes for reaction Set zero of spectrophotometer with distilled water Measure absorbance at 540 nm Calculate concentration of NO2 in µg/m3
  22. 22. Take 10/20 ml of aliquot sample in 25 ml vol. flask Take 10/20 ml of unexposed sample sample in 25 ml vol. flask Add 1 ml sulphamic acid, keep 10 minutes Add 2 ml formaldehyde Add 2 ml working PRA Make up to mark 25 ml with distilled water Keep 30 minutes for reaction Set zero of spectrophotometer with distilled water Measure absorbance at 560 nm Calculate the SO2 concentration
  23. 23. OBSERVATION TABLE FOR PM 10 Starting time Closing time Filter paper code Filter paper initial weight Initial flow rate Final flow rate Filter paper final weight 11.00 AM 7.30 PM RU1 2.7610 gm 1.14 1.09 2.8140 gm
  24. 24. OBSERVATION TABLE FOR PM2.5 Starting time Closing time Filter paper code Filter paper initial weight Initial volume Final volume Filter paper final weight 11.00 AM 7.30 PM PT01430 95 0.1525 gm 33.342 42.614 0.1530 gm
  25. 25. OBSERVATION TABLE FOR SO2 Starting time Closing Time Sample code Initial flow rate Final flow rate 11.00 AM 3.10 PM RU1- SO2 1 1 3.20 PM 7.30 PM RU2- SO2 1 1
  26. 26. OBSERVATION TABLE FOR NO2 Starting time Closing Time Sample code Initial flow rate Final flow rate 11.00 AM 3.10 PM RU1- NO2 1 1 3.20 PM 7.30 PM RU2- NO2 1 1
  27. 27. CALCULATION OF PM 10 Time of Sampling :- 480 min. Average flow rate :- Initial flow rate+final flow rate 2 = = 1.115 LPM Volume of air sample :- time of sampling × average flow rate = 534.2 m cube
  28. 28. Dust concentration on filter paper :- 106× (Wf- Wi) vol. of air = 106× (2.8140 – 2.7610) 535.2 = 106× 0.053 535.2 = 99.1395 µg/m3
  29. 29. Calculation of PM 2.5 Volume of air sample :- Final air volume – initial volume = 42.614 – 33.42 = 9.272 m3 Dust concentration on filter paper :- 106× (Wf- Wi) vol. of air = 43.9258 µg/m3
  30. 30. CONCENTRATION OF SO2 Table for absorbance and concentration of sample standard solution Absorbance(x) Concentration(y) 0.105 0.82 0.122 0.96 0.217 1.95 0.328 2.96 0.383 3.94
  31. 31. Slope :- Y2 - Y1 X2 – X1 0.017 0.14 0.121 CF 8.264 ( Reciprocal of slope)
  32. 32. Sample code RU 1 (As – Ab)× 8.26 × 30 Va × Vt (0.015 – 0.006) × 8.264 × 30 2.4 35.70048 2.4 0.9297 µg/m3
  33. 33. Sample code RU2 (As – Ab)× 8.26 × 30 Va × Vt (0.026 – 0.006) × 8.264 × 30 2.4 2.06 µg/m3
  34. 34. CONCENTRATION OF NO2 Table for absorbance and concentration of sample standard solution Absorbance(x) Concentration(y) 1.02 0.041 3.93 0.062 7.05 0.134 10.09 0.205 12.97 0.243
  35. 35. CALCULATION OF CALIBERATION FACTOR FOR NO2 SLOPE :- Y2 – Y1 X2 – X1 0.041 – 0.062 1.02 – 3.92 0.007 CALIBERATION FACTOR 142.8571 ( Reciprocal of Slope)
  36. 36. Sample code RU1 (As – Ab) × CF × Vol. Va × Vt × 0.82 (0.38 – 0.009) × 142.8571 × 30 0.01728 × 0.82 61.39 µg/m3
  37. 37. Sample code RU2 (As – Ab) × CF × Vol. Va × Vt × 0.82 (0.38 – 0.009) × 142.8571 × 30 0.01728 × 0.82 61.39 µg/m3
  38. 38. The amount of Pollutants were recorded as follows :- PM 10 99.1395 µg/m3 PM 2.5 43.1406 µg/m3 SO2 RU1 0.929 µg/m3 RU2 2.06 µg/m3 NO2 RU1 61.39 µg/m3 RU2 25.432 µg/m3
  39. 39. Concentration of pollutant at YBAEEL as compared with CPCB norms are as below Pollutants CPCB Standards Concentration at YBAEEL PM 10 100 µg/m3 99.1395 µg/m3 PM 2.5 60 µg/m3 43.9258 µg/m3 SO2 80 µg/m3 RU1 0.929 µg/m3 RU2 2.06 µg/m3 NO2 80 µg/m3 RU1 61.39 µg/m3 RU2 25.432 µg/m3

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