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Mitosis & meiosis review

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Mitosis & meiosis review

  1. 1. Mitosis and Meiosis Review
  2. 2. Mitosis Meiosis Haploid Diploid Daughter cell Gamete Chromosome Chromatid Centromere DNA
  3. 3. What is Mitosis? <ul><li>A type of cell division that copies the cells DNA to create two identical daughter cells. </li></ul>Back to splash
  4. 4. What are the products of Mitosis? <ul><li>Two identical daughter cells. </li></ul>Back to splash
  5. 5. What is meiosis <ul><li>A type of cell division where the daughter cells do NOT have identical DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>4 daughter cells are created, each one with slightly different DNA. </li></ul>Back to splash
  6. 6. What is a diploid cell? <ul><li>A cell with two of each chromosome, because the chromosomes were copied during cell division. </li></ul><ul><li>Mitosis produces diploid cells, in humans the daughter cells have 46 chromosomes or 23 pair. </li></ul>Back to splash
  7. 7. What is a haploid cell? <ul><li>A cell that has only half of the chromosome, the DNA was not copied. </li></ul><ul><li>Meiosis creates daughter cells that are haploid because the DNA is not copied in each of the daughter cells. In humans the daughter cells have only 23 chromosomes..NO PAIRS! </li></ul>Back to splash
  8. 8. What is a gamete? <ul><li>An organisms reproductive cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Egg and sperm are gamete cells. </li></ul>Back to splash
  9. 9. What is a chromosome? <ul><li>A long strand of DNA. </li></ul>Back to splash
  10. 10. What is a chromatid? <ul><li>A chromatid is one of the two identical copies of DNA making up a chromosome. </li></ul><ul><li>These duplicated chromosomes are held together by the centromere . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Chromosome terminology
  12. 12. How many nuclear divisions take place during mitosis? <ul><li>One </li></ul>
  13. 13. How many nuclear divisions take place during meiosis? <ul><li>Two </li></ul>
  14. 14. What is DNA? <ul><li>The chemical building block of life. </li></ul><ul><li>The recipe that makes up you! </li></ul>Back to splash
  15. 15. Why is it important for the cell to make a correct copy of the DNA? <ul><li>So the cells have the correct information to do their job! </li></ul><ul><li>If the DNA is incorrectly copied, an error can occur. This error can result in cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Errors can also cause birth defects if they occur during development before birth. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Which type of cell reproduction leads to a greater variation in a species? Why? <ul><li>Meiosis </li></ul><ul><li>Because the daughter cells each have different DNA and they must combine with the opposite gamete to produce offspring. </li></ul><ul><li>In Mitosis an identical copy is </li></ul><ul><li>made, no variation there! </li></ul>
  17. 17. Which type of cell reproduction is important in healing broken bones or wounds, and growing? <ul><li>Mitosis, this is when new cells are created to replace old ones, these new cells are identical to the old ones. </li></ul><ul><li>During growth identical cells are created to increase an organisms size. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Why is UV radiation from overexposure to the sun a danger to mitosis? <ul><li>UV radiation can cause an error to occur when the DNA is being copied. If there is an error it will continue to be copied as the cells replace themselves. This error could result in skin cancer from UV radiation. </li></ul>