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What is Tight Gas?Unconventional rock and sand surrounding the deposit
What is Tight Gas?Unconventional rock and sand surrounding the deposit• Because this gas is so much more difﬁcult to extract than natural gas from other sources, hydraulic fracturing and directional drilling is necessary to produce the well.
Tight Gas Characteristics• Low Permeability (<0.1md)• Frac Job or Horizontal Well required• Large pressure gradients across reservoir• High transient decline rates• Often Commingled Production• Often Layered and complex
Introduction to the IWC technology• An intelligent well completion is a system capable of collecting, transmitting and analysing completion, production, and reservoir data, and taking action to better control well and production processes.
Exploring Tight Gas Reservoirs making it economical with IWC• Remotely-operated hydraulic “frac” valves now can provide selective control of high-rate stimulation of multiple intervals in horizontal wells, and can improve operation time through the elimination of coil tubing trips. “Frac” valves may be cemented in place and can also be used after fracturing for simple selective production test and clean-up operations, with the ability to manipulate the valves later to shut off water or gas encroachment.
Did you know?• Coil tubing drilling rigs on a day rate, cost $12,000/ day + $2,000/well (coil charge & mud)
Typical IWC components inexploration of Tight Gas reservoirs • Interval Control Valve - sFrac™ Valve is a remotely operated downhole hydraulic valve that offers a cost-effective multi-stage fracturing capability to operators working in areas with tight gas or difﬁcult-to-produce reserves.
Typical IWC components inexploration of Tight Gas reservoirs• Swelling Packer Technology eliminates problems in difﬁcult zonal isolation in Tight-Gas Reservoir completion so the modiﬁcation of the near-bore concentrations and a low spurt loss (as designed). consequently the relative permeability is solved by leaving very low leak- off mud with a low spurt loss (as designed).
Typical IWC components inexploration of Tight Gas reservoirs• Permanent Monitoring Systems - Chemical injection systems provide operators with precise well-bore chemistry management that is designed to optimize ﬂow assurance, reduce expensive intervention costs, and ultimately optimize production.
CASE STUDY: Changbei Field Microseismic hydraulic-fracture monitoring can give the operator an idea of which stages were fractured and isolated successfully and can identify areas that are unstimulated and may need to be exploited by other inﬁllwells.The knowledge gained from analyzing a horizontal well completed in a given ﬁeld can aid in the risk identiﬁcation, risk mitigation, and overall design of future horizontal completions in that ﬁeld.
• SPE Paper References• Afaleg, N.I.,Pham, T.R., Al-Otaibi, U.F., Amos, S.W., and Sarda, S.: “Design and Deployment of Maximum Reservoir Contact Wells with Smart Completion in Development of a Carbonate Reservoir”, paper SPE 93138, presented a the SPE Asia Paciﬁc Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 4-5 April 2005• Brent Miller and John Paneitz, Whiting Petroleum Corporation, and Sean Yakely and Kent Evans, Baker Hughes, Unlocking Tight Oil: Selective Multistage Fracturing in the Bakken Shale, SPE 116105, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, USA, 21-24 September 2008• Cheng,Y. 2010. Impact of Water Dynamics in Fractures on the Performance of Hydraulically Fractured Wells in G Shale Reservoirs. Paper SPE 127863 presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibiton on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 10-12 February 2010.• Fan, L., Luo, F., Lindsay, G.J., Thompson, J.W. and Robinson, J.R. 2011. The Bottom-Line of Horizontal Well Productio Decline in the Barnett Shale. Paper SPE 141263 presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 27- 29 March 2011• Robert Pucket and Maurilio Salano / Baker Oil Tools; Michael Krejci / QuantX Wellbore Instrumentation, IWS wit Hydraulic Adjustable Chokes and Permanent Monitoring Improves Conventional ESP Completion for an Operato in Ecuador, SPE - 88506, SPE Asia Paciﬁc Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Perth, Australia
Well Completion• Completion is the process of making a well ready for production (or injection)• Preparing the bottom of the hole to the required speciﬁcations, running in the production tubing and its associated down hole tools as well as perforating and stimulating as required.
Exploring Tight Gas Reservoirs making it economical Hydraulic Fracturing: It is a process of artiﬁcially stimulating the reservoir by creating a network of fractures. This is done by pumping a highly pressurized (5000psi) ﬂuids into the well- bore.
Why not vertical drilling?• Horizontal Drilling has following advantages over vertical drilling, as far as the case with Tight Gas reservoirs is concerned:• Deeper reservoir Penetration• Multiple Zone Production