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S. no Topic p.no
01 Company Profile 02
1.1- Organization Name 02
1.2- Vision 02
1.3- Mission 03
02 Brain Drain 04
03 History Of Brain Drain 05
04 Terminologies For Brain Drain 07
05 Magnitude Of Brain Drain in Pakistan 09
06 Causes Of Brain Drain 13
07 Measures To Stop Brain Drain 15
08 How Talent Scout Will Work To Stop Brain
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1.1-Organization Name: “Talent Scouts”
Our Organization name is Talent Scouts, which reflects our vision, the term “Talent
Scouts” means, “a person engaged in discovering and recruiting people of talent for
specialized task or activity”, which is sole purpose of our organization, to fight Brain
As Talent Scouts our Slogan is:
“Where Talent Meet Opportunities.”
This represents our intention, or what we want to do? We want people to find
appropriate opportunities in Pakistan, so that they can live their lives in Pakistan
serving their nation.
1.2-Our Vision is:
“Talent Scout Empowers People To Find Opportunities around Pakistan,
Enabling Them to Recognize Their Talent and Utilize it For the Prosperity
Of The People And The Pakistan”
Our vision represents what we want to do in long run, where we want to see ourselves
in far future, our main motive is to serve people by enabling them to recognize their
talent so that they can know what they can do, where they actually fits, and then
providing them with possible opportunities, so that the Pakistan can be well served by
the talent it possessed.
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1.3-Our Mission is:
“Talent Scout is a Prime Opportunity Provider Organization of Pakistan,
It Drives Out Talent from People, Provide Them with Possible Available
Opportunities Through Our Talent Drive Program, Enabling and Inspiring
Them to Live Their Life And Future around Pakistan, Retaining Pakistan’s
Best Asset, TALENT! ”
Our Mission Statement states who we are, what we will be doing and how it will be
done? As our mission statement shows that Talent Scout is a leading opportunity
provider organization, it plays a key role to meet people talent with opportunities in
Pakistan, the main focus of Talent Scout is to find opportunities for countryman within
Pakistan, so that its talent can be well served for nation, for this Talent Scout needs to
drive talent from people through its numerous talent drive programs identifying
talent, afterward Talent Scout will find best possible opportunity where this talent can
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Brain drain is the cynosure of all the eyes due to high outflow of qualified and skilled
workers from Pakistan, Wikipedia defines brain drain as: “a large scale emigration of
large group of individuals with technical skills or Knowledge”
The migration of intellectual manpower from less developed countries to more
developed countries is a global phenomenon. The most prominent migration of
intellect is from the poor and developing countries to the rich and advanced countries.
The recent trend of globalization has been characterized as the flow and exchange of
goods, services, capital, and informative services and at high level qualified skilled
labor. According to recent study 59 million migrants in OECD countries alone, 20
million are highly skilled, Most of the OECD countries possessing South Asian
countries including Pakistan, Srilanka and Bangladesh.
Pakistan is facing a severe Brain Drain, God Almighty has graced Pakistan with full
talent and technically sound human capital and Nuclear Power, Geographically
graced by Land Mountain, rivers, ocean, and the most important thing is that this is a
border line country, and we are free to trade with the world in any respective
principles, but we do not see proper utilization of these resources neither this human
capital working in our organizations, so question arises “where are these technically
The answer is that, these peoples have left Pakistan, in search of better opportunities
abroad, selling their skills and technical expertise to foreign lands. At first the deal
looks so great but actually by selling our expertise to some other land we are selling
our contribution in prosperity of our home land, if those expertise were served in our
own homeland, we could be economically more stable by time.
To solve this issue we were assigned with task to create an Organization, with title,
Vision, Mission, Slogan and objectives to conduct meetings, debating on this issue
bringing in consideration all the possible means to stop or at least minimize this
burning issue of Brain Drain.
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3-History of Brain Drain:
The British Royal Society first coined the expression Brain Drain to describe the
outflow of scientists and technologists to the United States and Canada in the 1950s
and early 1960s. It is normally used as a synonymous of the movement of Human
Capital (HC hereafter), where the net flow of expertise is heavily in one direction.
The history can best be understood in following three phases.
3.1-Phase 1 (1950s – 1960s):
Grubel and Scott identified that developed and developing country benefit in the field
of science and technology. Pierpaolo Giannocolo, found that with heavy outflow of
qualified workers the sending country effect socially as well as economically. The
outflow of scientists and technologists was focused from Europe (and primarily the
UK) to the United States and Canada. For instance reviews of effect of the immigration
Act of 1965 on the demographic characteristics of USA. Kannappan stated heavy
outflow of skilled labor from poor countries their economic potentials were losing
especially when turning to the productivity levels.6 According to Portes initially brain
drain was considered very harmful for the native countries. They claimed that the
situation exists because of the development of North and backwardness of South.
3.2-Phase 2 (1970s – 1990s):
Reviews of most of the scholars concluded that the term brain drain is not beneficial
for the native country, while host country gain benefits from the inflow of qualified
skilled workers. In this connection the solution suggested is to implement migration
policies, to create and to fortify the role of the International Organizations and
Institutions on the management of the migration flows. During 1970s the Brain Drain
was termed as North/South, developing developed issue. Literature shows that Brain
Drain is deteriorating factor to the welfare of the countries. As per circumstances
Bhagwati proposed a “Brain Drain Tax”. This tax should from one side, reduce the
high outflow and from the other perspective developed countries pay to the LDCs for
draining their scientific and economical elites. Reviews of the researches on
Bhagwati’s proposal we find debate which culminate in the “Bellagio Conference on
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the Brain Drain and Income Taxation”, in Italy from 15 to 19 February 1975, where the
scientist discussed deeply these arguments.
3.3-Phase 3 (1990s – till date):
However in mid 1990s a new trend termed as new economics of brain drain emerged
with rapid advancement in globalization and growth in information and
communications technologies. It argued that under such circumstances, migration of
professionals from developing countries may be blessing and the potential gains could
be higher than costs. In short Brain Drain may have both positive and negative effects
on the sending countries. The economists who created harmonized databases of skilled
migration rates and the positive effects of brain drain were to some extent verified.
The scholars who present the theory argue that the detrimental impacts of skilled
outflow on human capital may countervail by positive impacts of migration. Several
new phenomena were introduced in this period with a view that migration perspective
increases the attractiveness of educational investments in the sending economy, thus
contributing to increased accumulation of human capital and faster growth Lucas
Effect of induced education.
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4-Terminologies for Brain Drain:
During the years vast terminology concerning brain mobility arose. these terms are:
4.1-Optimal Brain Drain:
Optimal brain drain theory is based on the hypothesis that some developing countries
can benefit from the “right” amount of skilled emigration.
The term brain waste is used in the case when highly skilled is underemployed.
Physicians working as taxi drivers are a good example of this phenomenon. This
situation occurs both in the sending and receiving country.
Brain circulation refers to lively return migration of the native born. Returnee’s
resupplied the highly educated population in the sending country and boosts source
Brain exchange occurs when the loss of native-born workers is offset by an equivalent
Inflow of highly skilled foreign workers. A given source country may exchange highly
skilled migrants with one or many foreign countries.
Some level of skilled mobility is needed to participate in the global economy.
Multinational corporations and the forces of globalization necessarily require
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Brain export is defined as a strategy to educate and export highly skilled workers in
order to gain economic feedbacks. In a few cases, developing countries choose to
educate and export their highly skilled workers, either in bilateral contract programs
or in free- agent emigration. The strategy is to improve the national balance sheet
through return of earnings and the return of more-experienced workers, or through
Remittances, technology educated from a given country who emigrated. Applying the
data gained, there are two transfer and investment.
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5-Magnitude for Brain Drain in Pakistan:
Since the time of partition Pakistan has encountered severe Brain Drain due to
political instability and economical downfall, various studies have been conducted in
past in order to determine the magnitude of loss of skilled Pakistani qualified through
emigration, UNESCO's 127th executive conference discussed about the highly skilled
migration rate of Pakistan increased by more than 50% from 6.1 in 1990 to 9.2 in
2000. During the period 1961-1976, the highest number of migrating skilled people to
the US and UK, Canada took place.
Since 1971 the qualified migrants comprising of engineers, doctors, IT specialists and
other professionals are trained by government financial resources. A very small
percentage of the age group is enrolled in institutions of higher learning also there is
shortage of institutions providing quality education. With the migration of doctors,
engineers, and teachers and other professional’s health, education, industrial and
Constructional fields are badly affected. Migration trends show the failure of the
government to provide sufficient opportunities and incentives to retain its qualified
World Bank study of 2007 identified Pakistan Infrastructure Capacity Assessment
shows 1971-2000 skilled manpower was 1.236. This number is soared to 1.641 million
during 2000-2005. Out of these 23078 were engineers. In 2007 1800 engineers
emigrated overseas which is almost the 70% of the numbers trained in 2006.
According to OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) there
are 50 million migrant in OECD countries alone, 20 millions are highly skilled, most of
OECD countries possessing including Pakistan, Srilanka, Bangladesh.
According to bureau of immigration and overseas employment-Pakistan the Regional
Offices of Bureau of Emigration & Overseas Employment registered 6829765 persons
for employment abroad during the period 1971-2013, which account for approximately
3% of its population.
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STATEMENT SHOWING THE NUMBER OF PAKISTANIS PROCEEDED
ABROAD FOR EMPLOYMENT REGESTERED BY BUREAU OF
OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT DURING THE PERIOD 1971-2013 (Up to July)
89474 328226 2231802 109411 2232519 4991432
2010 7081 31650 165726 5181 153266 362904
2011 6974 3018 171672 73247 201982 456893
2012 9298 4202 261531 104240 259316 638587
2013 6440 2678 165819 62685 142327 379949
Total 119267 369774 2996550 354764 2989410 6829765
As it is clear in above table that emigration of total skilled (including highly
professional, highly skilled and skilled) are 3,485,591 these are registered emigrants
only figures does not include unregistered emigrants or those who have left Pakistan
by some other means.
According to BUREAU OF EMIGRATION AND OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT the vast
population of Pakistan is living in following countries,
Countries with significant Pakistani Emigrations
Country Population of Pakistani Emigrants
1- Saudi Arabia 1,500,000+
2- United Kingdom 1,100,100+
3- United Arab Emirates 1,200,000+
4- United States 409,163 - 500,000
5- Canada 124730
6- Italy 100,000
7- Kuwait 100,000
8- Oman 85,000
9- Qatar 83,000
10- Greece 80,000
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Emigration by Region
Data Taken From Wikipedia.com
Majority of Skilled Professionals Prefer to work in Middle East, European Countries,
2 1 1
Emigration by Region
Australia and Newzealand
Asia and Far East
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6- Causes for Brain Drain:
Generally causes of Brain Drain can be discussed under two factors i.e. push and pull
factors, Push Factors are those Factors which forces person to country, where as pull
factors are those factors that attracts a person to other country.
6.1- Push Factors:
Agha Khan Medical University conducted research about Brain Drain respondents
were selected from both Agha Khan Medical University and Boston University, about
95% of respondents from Agha Khan and 65% respondents from BU respondents
mention their interest to leave Pakistan for better opportunities and future.
Furthermore following reasons are identified in our meeting with group member,
- For Better Jobs
- Lack of Opportunities offered to high Skilled labor
- Unemployment ratio among qualified workers is very high and salary levels for
skilled workers are often kept low by governments to maintain an egalitarian
- Lack of respect of the professionals and usually qualified people are answerable
to the bosses that have no knowledge about their respective fields
- Job Satisfaction
- Academically progressive environment
- Better pay and Service Environment
- Better life and higher Education
- Lack of institutions for research along with doctorate and post doctorate level
- Political Instability
- Lack of Higher Education Institutions
- Science and technology is the area not fully exploited by the Pakistani resources.
Fewer budgets in education sector are the reason in leaking the higher studies
contributing to brain drain.
- Political and Social Problems
- Lack of availability of resources for modern research
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6.2- Pull Factors:
- Availability of resources in foreign countries to conduct research.
- Higher salary levels for researchers in recipient countries.
- Life-changing and academic enhancement bright career,
- Economical social, intercultural, personal benefits.
- Better living facilities that is education, housing, etc to their family.
- The differential in salaries and living conditions between the home and recipient
- To acquire better knowledge, skills and research based work.
- Employment in well paid jobs in good career opportunity.
- High standards of living, scientific excellence, social democracy and possibility
of upward mobility.
- Suitable opportunities and environments for education of children.
- Developed legislation with respect to human rights, social justice, intellectual
property and professions.
- High level of skills associated with their specific degrees.
- Opportunities for advancement in careers and in specialization.
- Fair, well-governed environments for HR management attract and retain
many skilled professionals.
- Basic comforts during their working life.
- Security after retirement and Pension benefits are important motivation
- Face fewer bureaucratic controls as compared to our home bureaucratic
- Better employment opportunities which suit their qualification.
- Good professional working environment, skills utilization at professional and
technical proficiency that allows for international recognition.
- Availability of experience/supporting staff.
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7- Measures to Stop Brain Drain:
As Brain Drain is a macro economical factor single organization or person cannot stop
it, collective efforts are required to stop or at least reduce Brain Drain, participation
from different stack holders are required, in our meeting to resolve Brain Drain issue
we decided to invite following representatives of departments, which can play key role
in minimizing Brain Drain, these are
7.1- HEC contribution:
Higher Education Commission is a supreme Educational institution in Pakistan which
has its direct interfere in Educational matters with universities as well as sending
Students to abroad on Scholarship for Brain Gain, but unfortunately this phenomenon
of Brain Gain does not work in Pakistan, majority of Students leaving country for
scholarships and better educations does not returns, or not willing to return,
unfortunately HEC did not have any particular strategy to cope with this situation, but
recently HEC has decided to castigate those students who do not follow HEC policies,
For this HEC has decided to publish name of these students in Federal Investigating
Agency (FIA), and to punish them with penalty to pay every expense made by HEC.
But that’s not enough, beside this HEC should take some more serious steps like signing
some sort of contracts with other developed countries so that restriction can be placed
on highly skilled emigrants, or at least students should be force to work for some years
in their homeland after completing their education in abroad, HEC should make some
struggles to find suitable opportunities within Pakistan for those students who are
returning to their homeland after completing their education.
HEC should extend its reverse Brain Drain Program initiated in 2005, in order to call
back Highly Skilled emigrants to return and work in their homeland for betterment of
HEC should design equivalent education standard all around Pakistan, which shall
reduce education system differences in Pakistan.
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7.2- Reverse Brain Drain Program (RBD):
HEC has initiated Pakistan Education And Research Networks (PERN) a fiber optic
internet system with broad bandwidth connects 60 public sector universities to
promote data exchange and collaborative research. It serves as digital library which
was launched in 2005.The library provides access to 23000 full-text journals with
back volumes to students and faculty free of charge. International collaboration in
research and teaching is encouraged through collaborative research programs with
the universities of UK, USA, South Korea, Sweden, France, Austria, Germany and
China. A country- specific collaborative program with British Council links 35 British
universities with Pakistani Universities. The S&T collaboration Agreement between
Pakistan and USA has funded research projects worth US$ 70 millions in past five
years jointly implemented by Pakistan and US scientists. The past five years of
targeted reforms in the fields of engineering, information technology, and biological
sciences shows a significant impact, as university enrolment increases from 135,123 to
479,800 student’s substantial increase in post graduate research students and 160%
increase in international publications from higher learning institutions in the country.
7.3- Government Contribution:
Government plays key role in framing policies, that can open or close doors for foreign
investments, it is responsibility of government to frame those policies which are
investors friendly, which can motivate foreign investments to invest in Pakistan,
opening new doors of economic stability and prosperity, if investments by foreign
parties increases new projects will be started in Pakistan, which will create handful
opportunities for skilled professionals in Pakistan.
Government can design fair salary system for Skilled Professionals, or provide them
with some incentives until they find some opportunity. In 2009, President’s program
launched a program for care of highly qualified Pakistanis (PPQP). PPQP provide all
relevant information and assistance to potential overseas Pakistani workers, and
operate an interactive website through which online registration facility provided to
highly qualified Pakistanis throughout the world
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The effort was made to provide profitable opportunities for overseas Pakistanis to
invest in Pakistan’s progress. The main idea of the program was to benefit from the
vast reservoir of business, technological, managerial and entrepreneurial skills
represented by overseas Pakistanis.
8- How “Talent Scout” will work to stop Brain Drain?
Talent Scout has planned to start a talent Drive program through which we will be
driving Talent from new pass out students from different universities, Talent Drive
program will lead following procedure:
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Each year Talent Scout will be announcing talent drive program to test and drive
talent from competent students, the announcement will be made at the time when
students pass out from their universities, so that fresh talent can be provided with
opportunity to test their talent.
After announcement, Talent Scout will visit different regions of Pakistan to conduct
Talent drive test, so that best talent can be hunted each year, to maintain demand and
supply of talent candidates.
During Talent Drive students will be provided with opportunity to show their talent,
how well knowledge they are acquiring, their analytical and logical capabilities will be
tested, those students who will successfully complete this Talent drive program will be
selected, and their records will be maintained.
Those students who are with some good business plans, feasibility of their plan will be
tested by experts, approved plan will be assessed by Talent Scout, they will be helped
for provision of capital, skilled work force will be provided to them and also some
After successful selection, candidates will be provided with training to cover their
Successfully trained candidates will be placed as per their skills and talent, Talent
scout will be seeking other organizations and public sectors assistance in placing these
talented candidates, so that talent can be used within Pakistan.