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Ploieşti The City Of The Black Gold

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Ploieşti The City Of The Black Gold

  1. 1. PLOIEŞTI The City of the Black Gold 2010 © Alex Dragomirescu
  2. 2. The community is first mentioned in documents in 1503, but archaeological researches have identified piles of dwellings from 14 th century that belonged to a rural settlement.
  3. 3. The origin of this village is lost in the remote past. The legend speaks of a group of six houses, hidden in a plain of the Vlasia, under Mos Ploae. The founders of Ploieşti village sat down on the outskirts of Vlasia forest, long time ago, in harsh times, because otherwise they would have chosen not so strong places. The seven householders ran from somewhere - hit by foreign soldiers, ruled by a master, crudely executed on the log. The beginnings of Ploieşti village are mixed up with the fiery work of clearing the woods . The successors represented perfectly this hard work on the stem of Ploieşti : Two lions uprooting an oak tree
  4. 5. Descriptions of travelers who visited the city of Ploieşti mention impressive medieval constructions. A growing number of buildings were erected in the architectural styles specific to the Western space: Romantic, Neo-Gothic, Neoclassical, Baroque. However, earthquakes, invasions, air raids and afterwards the implementation of communist town planning strategy destroyed these vestiges and distorted the positive direction that the urban evolution had so far.
  5. 6. Ploieşti was a headquarters for Michael the Brave’s army, as he prepared his glorious military campaign to Transylvania, first step to a unification of the Romanian provinces (1600). The Statue of Liberty (1870) is the oldest monument of the city, an homage paid by its inhabitants to democracy they fought for.
  6. 7. The Unification Square
  7. 8. The Soldier’s Memorial (1877) commemorates the first victory of the young Romanian army
  8. 9. St. John’s Cathedral (1937) built in the memory of the inhabitants of Ploieşti who sacrificed their lives in the battles of World War I or behind the front
  9. 10. Astra Romana Refinery The City of the Black Gold In the mid-19 th century, the Ploieşti region was one of the world's leading oil extraction and refinery sites.
  10. 11. The world’s first large refinery was built by Mehedinţeanu brothers in 1857 at the periphery of Ploiesti city, near the South Station, on 174, Buna Vestire Street. The refinery installations were quite primitive, all the equipment being build up from iron or raw iron cylindrical vessels, warmed up directly with wood fire. This equipment was ordered in Germany from Moltrecht company which was building boilers for bituminous shale distillation. In the same year 1857, Romania was t he first country in the world with a petroleum production officially registered in the international statistics („The Science of Petroleum” 1938) with an oil production of 275 tones followed by the United States in 1859, Italy in 1860, Canada in 1862 and Russia in 1863.
  11. 12. <ul><li>“ Who will have the oil will have the domination,… the domination of the world through financial power …. the nation that will be the owner of this precious fuel will see billions.” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Berenger a diplomatic note for Clemenceau at 12 December 1919, in the eve of the French-British Conference from London, regarding the Western Europe and the Asia Minor future. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Astra Romana and Orion Refineries
  12. 13. Unirea Refinery (Orion and Sperantza) The main oil companies of that time : Steaua Română, Româno-Americana, Vega, Astra Română, Concordia, Creditul Minier. These strong companies have been thrown into relief through the extraction, processing and commercialization activities from a number of 104 existing societies in 1914. As a matter of fact, these companies will be the ones that will promote the Romanian oil production growth, from 275 tones in 1857, to 15.900 tones in 1880, date until which only Romania and USA were registered in the oil producers’ countries statistics. The production will grow at 250.000 tones in 1900 and will reach 1.783.947 tones in 1914.
  13. 14. Ploiesti Oil Refineries - - - 108 000 - - - 138 500 - 164 000 1936 - 22 000 ? Dero Lever (Unilever) Uzina Petrochimica 2, Dero Xenia - 33 000 1906 - - Unirea Orion Unirea Sperantza - 36 000 1903 - - Standard Petrol Block 292 000 92 000 1904 Petrotel-Lukoil Rafinaria 3, Rafinaria Teleajen Romano-Americana (Standard Oil Co.) - 65 000 - - Phoenix - 15 000 ? - - Dacia Romana 375 000 45 000 1905 Petrobrazi (Petrom-OMV) Rafinaria Brazi Creditul Minier 37 500 110 000 1905 Vega (Rompetrol SA) Vega, Rafinaria 2, L. Edeleanu, Ploiesti-Nord Concordia Vega - 45 000 1906 - - Columbia Aquila 58 000 146 000 1904 Astra Romana Rafinaria 1, Rafinaria Ploiesti Astra Romana 2010 WWII Production, t/month Year of Construction Today Other Names Name
  14. 15. The Siege of Ploiesti on August 1 st 1943 the refineries were bombarded by US 15 th Air Force and British 205 th Bomb Wing – “Operation Tidal Wave”
  15. 16. The Siege of Ploiesti Columbia (Aquila) Refinery - August 1 st 1943
  16. 17. Although oil production in the region is declining steadily, there is still a thriving processing industry through four operating oil refineries, linked by pipelines to Bucharest, the Black Sea port of Constanţa and the Danube port of Giurgiu. Ploiesti concentrates many foreign investments: OMV-Petrom Petrotel-Lukoil Shell Gas OMV (Österreichische Mineralölverwaltung) Austria has 25.1% of Rompetrol Group and 51% shares of Petrom SA Group. Lukoil , the second largest public company next to Exxon Mobil in terms of proven oil and gas reserves, has 90% shares of Petrotel.
  17. 18. Petrotel-Lukoil Refinery
  18. 19. Petrom S.A. (OMV Group) Exploration & Production Building Ploiesti Headquarters
  19. 20. <ul><li>Tradition and Professionalism </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical & Petrochemical Equipment Design Companies : Raytheon, Petrostar, IPIP, Comproiect 92 , MAAD International </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical & Petrochemical Equipment Manufacturing Companies : Upetrom 1 Mai ( ex-Concordia ), UZUC ( ex-Macazul ), UZTEL , 24 Ianuarie, Flintab </li></ul><ul><li>Drilling & Exploitation Equipment Design Companies: IPCUP S.A . </li></ul><ul><li>Research & Development: ICERP – The Research Institute for Petroleum Processing & Petrochemical </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of Petroleum Products Companies: PECO – Petrom, Shell, MOL Group </li></ul><ul><li>Pipeline Oil Transport: Conpet </li></ul>Conpet Headquarters
  20. 21. <ul><li>More Economic Potential </li></ul><ul><li>in Ploiesti, The Petroleum Industrial Citadel </li></ul><ul><li>Timken (heavy-duty bearings) </li></ul><ul><li>Dero Lever (Unilever’s detergents plant) </li></ul><ul><li>Coca-Cola </li></ul><ul><li>Efes Pilsner (beer) </li></ul><ul><li>British American Tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Mayr Melnhof Packaging (printing) </li></ul><ul><li>Cablul Romanesc (steel cables, ex-Anglia ) </li></ul><ul><li>Dorobantul (clothes, fabrics) </li></ul><ul><li>Retailers : Carrefour, Metro, Selgros, Kaufland, Billa, Bricostore, Praktiker, Intermarche (Interex), Profi, Mega Image, Tengelmann . </li></ul>
  21. 22. Ploieşti is home to the Petroleum - Gas University (UPG) After 50 years of “alma mater”, in 1998 the statistics showed: more than 21 000 graduates (diplomat engineers and engineers) and over 325 Ph.D. UPG has also trained almost 2 000 specialists within the postgraduate courses. Almost 2 000 foreign students of 90 countries in the world, have attended various forms of education: graduate and postgraduate courses (Ph.D., UNESCO courses). Over 800 books destined to the educational process, over 1 500 scientific articles published in specialty magazines in the country or abroad, over 350 patents. In 1948, the “Petroleum and Gas Institute” was founded in Bucharest and had a rapid development. Everybody agreed that its place is in Ploieşti, therefore between 1966 and 1973 it was moved. There was created a complete new, vast, modern, open and functional campus.
  22. 23. <ul><li>Petroleum - Gas University (UPG), Competence Centers: </li></ul><ul><li>Materials and Technologies in Petroleum Equipment Manufacture Director Prof.dr.eng. N. Napoleon Antonescu </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability, Diagnosis and Technical Safety of Petroleum and Petrochemical Equipment Director Prof.dr.eng. Ion Voicu </li></ul><ul><li>Strength, Stability, Dynamics and Durability of Structures for Petroleum and Petrochemical Equipment Director Prof.dr.eng. Nicolae Posea </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Automatic Control in Chemical Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Director Prof.dr.eng. Nicolae Paraschiv </li></ul><ul><li>Second Degree Testing Laboratory authorized by ICPLUAT, Prahova district Laboratory Director Prof.dr.eng. Mihail Minescu </li></ul><ul><li>Electronics-Electrotechnics Department Research Center </li></ul><ul><li>Director Prof.dr.eng. Doru Georgescu </li></ul><ul><li>Research Center of Petroleum Reservoir Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Director Prof.dr.eng. Iulian Nistor </li></ul><ul><li>Modern and Ecological Technologies in Drilling and Production </li></ul><ul><li>Director Prof.dr.eng. George Iordache </li></ul><ul><li>Research Center for Petrochemical & Petroleum Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Director Prof.dr.eng. Costica Stratula </li></ul>
  23. 24. Ploieşti is home of the National Oil Museum , illustrating the history of Romanian oil industry as well as the petroleum science and technology.
  24. 25. National Oil Museum
  25. 26. The museum was established on the occasion of the Romanian oil industry centenary in 1957 presenting items and aspects related to oil exploration, geology and petrochemistry: mining tools and lamps from the 19th century; oil lamps from Bucharest - the first city in the world lighted by oil in 1859; wood or metal drilling equipment from the 19th century; rotating drilling equipment; distillery and refinery models boards illustrating the SO 2 system invented by Lazăr Edeleanu and applied all over the world; history of gas manufacturing; geological maps, mineralogical samples, petrochemical products; diplomas, photographs.
  26. 27. Various relevant works, oil legislation, courses, catalogues, lexicons and relevant magazines ( Moniteur du Petrole Roumain, Romanian Oil Gazette ) are found in the document collection. The museum owns goods listed in the National Cultural Heritage Treasure.
  27. 28. The History and Archaeology Museum set up by Professor Nicolae Simache (the former Secondary School, built in 1873 by Architect Alexandru Orascu)
  28. 29. The Art Museum set up by Professor Nicolae Simache (the former Ionescu Quintus Building)
  29. 30. The Clock Museum set up by Professor Nicolae Simache (the former Luca Elefterescu Building)
  30. 31. There are no thorough studies on urban evolution of the city of Ploiesti. The oldest maps date from around 1850 (Plesoianu map). There are no earlier maps, if we don't take into consideration the locality's lay-out included on the late 18 th century Austrian map, but we can imagine the settlement's configuration, which was typical of the towns with strong trade activities and that lacked for a long time aristocratic residences. It must have been a &quot;loose – disposed&quot; locality, with crowded zones concentrated around market places and residential districts with houses placed in the middle of large and luxurious gardens. Unfortunately, extensive demolitions have damaged the city's central zone from 1960's and until recently, and have destroyed both 80% of the centre of the town and the identity of settlement. The front buildings on both sides of main arteries have been demolished and replaced by dull, inexpressive edifices.
  31. 32. City Hall 1894-1972
  32. 33. City Hall Today
  33. 34. Downtown 1900
  34. 35. Downtown 1923
  35. 36. Downtown 1925
  36. 37. Downtown 1940
  37. 38. Downtown 1960
  38. 39. Downtown 1965
  39. 40. Downtown 1970
  40. 41. Downtown 1974
  41. 42. Downtown Today
  42. 43. Downtown Today
  43. 44. Downtown Today
  44. 45. Ploiesti Galleries Mall Winmarkt Grand Center
  45. 46. Downtown Today
  46. 47. Downtown Today
  47. 48. Downtown Today
  48. 49. The Former Courthouse erected in 1920-1930’s after the plans of architects Al. Donaud and Toma T. Socolescu
  49. 50. The Arts Palace
  50. 51. The Arts Palace
  51. 52. The Arts Palace is house for: The School of Arts and Crafts, Public Library, Ethnography Museum, Human Biology Museum
  52. 53. The House of Arts
  53. 54. The House of Arts
  54. 55. St. Peter and Paul Lyceum
  55. 56. The National College “I.L. Caragiale” (the former Commercial School, erected in 1930’s after the plans of Architect Toma T. Socolescu)
  56. 57. I. L. Caragiale Ion Luca Caragiale was a playwright, short story writer, poet, theater manager, political commentator and journalist. He is considered one of the greatest playwrights in Romanian language and a leading representative of local humor.
  57. 58. Although few in number, Caragiale's plays constitute the most accomplished expression of Romanian live theater, as well as being important venues for criticism of late 19 th century Romanian society. His work, spanning four decades, covers the ground between Neoclassicism, Realism, and Naturalism, building on an original synthesis of foreign and local influences. His role in the Romanian context was likened to those of Honoré de Balzac in France, Charles Dickens in the United Kingdom, and Nikolai Gogol in the Russian Empire.
  58. 59. Romanian Commercial Bank
  59. 60. Hotel Europa (1923) Hotel Carol (1925)
  60. 61. Hotel Central (Berbec)
  61. 62. Trade and handicrafts represented the main economic resources of local people, besides agricultural activities. The city of Ploiesti was situated on the crossing point of important trading routes whose role increased especially after moving the principality's capital from Targoviste to Bucharest. At the middle of the 18 th century Ploiesti is named “leader city”. The development of Ploiesti was methodically going on. After 1854 it became the capital of Prahova county and the most important urban center in this highly - urbanized county.
  62. 63. 1936 1959 The Central Market Hall The Symbol of Ploiesti
  63. 64. The Central Market Hall
  64. 65. The Central Market Hall
  65. 66. The Central Market Hall
  66. 67. The Central Market Hall
  67. 68. Campinei Drive (1921) Campinei Drive (1951)
  68. 69. Lipscani Street
  69. 70. Lipscani Street
  70. 71. In Passage
  71. 72. The Courthouse
  72. 73. The Boulevard of Independence The Symbol of Ploiesti 1939
  73. 74. The Soldier’s Memorial 1901 1923 1929
  74. 75. 1940 2009 The Soldier’s Memorial
  75. 76. Bridge Near South Station (1960)
  76. 77. South Station (1922)
  77. 78. South Station (1924)
  78. 79. 1967 South Station 1960
  79. 80. South Station Today
  80. 81. The Hippodrome - Horse Races Course
  81. 82. St. Nicholas ( Old ) Church – XVII century
  82. 83. St. Vineri Church (1926)
  83. 84. St. George ( Old ) Church – 1753
  84. 85. St. Pantelimon Church St. Haralambie Church
  85. 86. St. Constantine and Helena Church
  86. 87. The Beth Israel Synagogue at Ploiesti (1901)
  87. 88. Aquarelles by Toma T. Socolescu, Architect “ House From Ploiesti” Casa Petre Ion zis Boiangiul Ulierului Street
  88. 89. Old Ploiesti
  89. 90. With the economic boom created by the oil industry, the so far trade - generated welfare turns to opulence, and the houses of some &quot;slummers&quot; are transformed into genuine urban residences, thanks to the owner's wealth and with the contribution of famous architects and contractors. Many of late 19 th century buildings' façades are re- modeled in Neoclassical or Baroque style. In this period the townsmen's dwellings with traditional architecture are replaced by edifices erected in accordance to international architectural styles. Several townsmen's dwellings were also preserved, among which Hagi Prodan“ House (end of 18 th century) is the best - known. After 1800 the locality underwent an intensive development.
  90. 91. Hagi Prodan House set up by Professor Nicolae Simache
  91. 92. The Wedding House Radu Stanian Building
  92. 93. Z. Leon Villa
  93. 94. Orascu Building
  94. 95. Stefan Z. Ghiculescu Building
  95. 96. Boulevard Restaurant
  96. 97. <ul><li>Ion Luca Caragiale (playwright) </li></ul><ul><li>Nichita Stanescu (poet) </li></ul><ul><li>Ion Agheana (professor) </li></ul><ul><li>Fabian Anton (journalist) </li></ul><ul><li>Vasile Baltac (IT pioneer) </li></ul><ul><li>Octavian Belu (gymnastics coach) </li></ul><ul><li>Geo Bogza (poet, journalist) </li></ul><ul><li>Geta Bratescu (visual artist) </li></ul><ul><li>Constantin Bugeanu (composer) </li></ul><ul><li>Elena Bulgaru (pilot) </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandru Candiano-Popescu (military) </li></ul><ul><li>Mihai Caragiu (mathematician) </li></ul><ul><li>Toma Caragiu (actor) </li></ul><ul><li>Emilia Comisel (ethnomusicology) </li></ul>Notable People from Ploiesti: <ul><li>Marin Constantin (musician) </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Constantinescu (composer) </li></ul><ul><li>Tamara Costache (swimmer) </li></ul><ul><li>Carol Nicolae Debie (engineer, musician) </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Diaconescu (chess coach) </li></ul><ul><li>Razvan Diaconescu (mathematician) </li></ul><ul><li>Adrian Diaconu (boxer) </li></ul><ul><li>Nicolae Dima (mining engineer, professor) </li></ul><ul><li>Constantin Dimitrescu (composer) </li></ul><ul><li>Maria Dinulescu (actress) </li></ul><ul><li>Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea (sociologist) </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandru Dobrogeanu-Gherea (sociologist) </li></ul><ul><li>Leonard Doroftei (boxer) </li></ul>
  97. 98. Notable People from Ploiesti: <ul><li>Mihai Draganescu (engineer) </li></ul><ul><li>Mircea Dridea (football) </li></ul><ul><li>Alina Alexandra Dumitru (judoka) </li></ul><ul><li>David Emanuel (mathematician) </li></ul><ul><li>Fory Etterle (actor) </li></ul><ul><li>C.C. Georgescu (forestry professor) </li></ul><ul><li>Florin Gheorghiu (chess player) </li></ul><ul><li>Stefan Gheorghiu (labor leader) </li></ul><ul><li>Mădălina Gojnea (tennis player) </li></ul><ul><li>Ion Th. Grigore (mathematician) </li></ul><ul><li>Ioan Grigorescu (writer, film-maker) </li></ul><ul><li>Take Ionescu (politician) </li></ul><ul><li>Bogdan Iorga (scientist) </li></ul><ul><li>Ana Ruxandra Ilfoveanu (painter) </li></ul><ul><li>Mihai Ispirescu (writer) </li></ul><ul><li>Gabriela Lazarescu (costume designer) </li></ul><ul><li>Liviu Librescu (scientist, professor) </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Magdu (actor) </li></ul><ul><li>Vlad Maistorovici (violinist) </li></ul><ul><li>Camelia Mandricel (gymnast) </li></ul><ul><li>Marius Manea (tenor) </li></ul><ul><li>Corneliu Manescu (diplomat) </li></ul><ul><li>Adrian Negulescu (chess player) </li></ul><ul><li>Petre P. Negulescu (philosopher) </li></ul><ul><li>Basarab Nicolescu (physicist) </li></ul><ul><li>George Nicolescu (musician) </li></ul><ul><li>Nicoleta Onel (gymnast) </li></ul>
  98. 99. Notable People from Ploiesti: <ul><li>Toma T. Socolescu (architect) </li></ul><ul><li>Ion-Olimpiu Stamatescu (physicist, professor) </li></ul><ul><li>Constantin Stanciu (gypsy singer) </li></ul><ul><li>Mihaela Stanculescu-Vosganian (composer) </li></ul><ul><li>Lazăr Şăineanu (linguist) </li></ul><ul><li>Ieronim Tătaru (literature professor) </li></ul><ul><li>Traian Trestioreanu (painter) </li></ul><ul><li>Radu Tudoran (writer) </li></ul><ul><li>Corina Ungureanu (gymnast) </li></ul><ul><li>Florin Vintila (Thai boxing) </li></ul><ul><li>Alexandru M. Zagoritz (architect) </li></ul><ul><li>Vladimir Zamfirescu (painter) </li></ul><ul><li>Lory Wallfisch (pianist) </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Wilder (pharmacist, memoirist) </li></ul><ul><li>Carol Partos (chess player) </li></ul><ul><li>Constantin Pârvulescu (astronomer) </li></ul><ul><li>Cristian Pârvulescu (political analyst) </li></ul><ul><li>Ion N. Petrovici (neurologist) </li></ul><ul><li>Celestina Popa (artistic gymnast) </li></ul><ul><li>Dan Ioan Popescu (politician) </li></ul><ul><li>Constantin Predescu (handball) </li></ul><ul><li>Emanoil Protopopescu-Pake (soil scientist) </li></ul><ul><li>Andrei Radulescu (lawyer) </li></ul><ul><li>Valeriu Râpeanu (literature historian) </li></ul><ul><li>Corneliu Revent (actor) </li></ul><ul><li>Nicolae Simache (historian) </li></ul><ul><li>Eugen Simion (philology professor) </li></ul>
  99. 100. References: 1. Hoinarescu C., “Reabilitation of Representative Historic Building in the City of Ploiesti 2. Marius Furcuta, “Romanian Petroleum History” 3. Marius Furcuta, “Prahova Valley Oil Refineries During WW2” 4. Banciu, Axente Sever, “Historical Data on the Romanian Petroleum Industry, 1981 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 2010 © Alex Dragomirescu