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Harnessing the Power and Promise of Mobile Technologies to Make Literacy Data Collection and Management Easy and Fun

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PhD(Lang.& Literacy Ed.), University of Georgia,USA, MED (Sp.Ed.) University of Auckland, Newzeland,BA, PGDE(KU)
Coordinator, Pan African IRA Conference to be held at The University of Nairobi, Kenya Science Campus 12th to 16th August, 2013
Literacy Specialist, Early Grade Reading Instruction Curriculum (EGRIC) Project funded by USAID
Affiliation: University of Nairobi.
Evans W. Mahaya: Research Proffessional & Editor (The International Journal of literacy and development).
Affiliation: Association of Reading of Kenya

Publicado en: Educación
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Harnessing the Power and Promise of Mobile Technologies to Make Literacy Data Collection and Management Easy and Fun

  1. 1. AFRICAN VIRTUAL UNIVERSITY MOBILE LEARNING WORKSHOP Harnessing the Power and Promise of Mobile Technologies to Make Literacy Data Collection and Management Easy and Fun July 22, 2016 By: Evans W Mahaya Crowne Plaza, Nairobi
  2. 2. The workshop will provide opportunity for participants to: Outline their expectations about mobile learning. Acquire knowledge and practical skills about developing data collection tools. Administer surveys/assessments accurately and precisely with confidence using hand-held devices. Demonstrate mastery in navigating the tablet to conduct mock assessments. Specific Objectives of the Workshop
  3. 3. Analogue: It all Starts Here Right?
  4. 4. Digital: Progress?
  5. 5. Provide Clear, Precise Instructions
  6. 6. Manage Distractions
  7. 7.  Participants will listen to “student” responses and code them simultaneously.  Assessments are administered following specific rules and procedures.  Participants will score student responses in the same manner to ensure the data consistently reflects actual levels in terms of reading abilities, rather than scorer’s personal evaluation of the reader’s skills. Training Approach
  8. 8. Introduction to EGRA Tools
  9. 9. EGRA – Early Grade Reading Assessment Diagnostic tool designed to assess foundation skills for reading in lower grades. Tools used to determine proportion of learners achieving grade level competencies in reading. EGRA is used to measure pupils’ progress towards fluent reading with comprehension. What is EGRA?
  10. 10.  As national reading diagnostic tools.  To gauge the effectiveness of a program.  For contiunous assessment of pupils by teachers.  To investigate the language-of-instruction policy at National, County, District or regional level. Other Uses of EGRA
  11. 11. Why do we Assess?
  12. 12.  To determine the level of pupils’ foundational reading skills proven to predict later reading abilities (skills essential for learning to read).  To determine the effect of new/refined instructional approaches e.g. How effective is the intervention?  Develop high quality instructional materials and resources.  Provide richer data for policy formulation. Why do we Assess?
  13. 13. Implications of Early Intervention
  14. 14.  When pupils fail to learn to read early, they struggle throughout their learning lives.  Early success in acquiring reading skills leads to later success in reading as pupils grow. “The rich get richer and the poor get poorer”  When pupils need to “Read to Learn” (RtL), their reading inefficiency creates difficulty in learning. (Stanovich,1986). Implications: Matthew Effect (Contd.)
  15. 15.  A shift in focus from improving access to improving quality of educational opportunities.  The need for richer data to report on foundations of student learning.  The need to provide a basis for continuous assessment of students’ learning outcomes.  The need to transfer approaches across domains and scale-up for greater impact/wider dissemination.  The need to locate, capture and fix deficiencies in the education system. Why Early Grade Reading Assessments?
  16. 16. At a national level:  To determine children’s current reading levels.  If and where there are gaps in the curriculum.  To determine instructional areas that need to be strengthened by teacher professional development.  To determine and set appropriate goals for change. During an impact evaluation:  To determine effect of the intervention on children’s learning outcomes. When to Administer EGRA
  17. 17.  By assessing a variety of literacy skills across domains that are predictive of reading skills e.g. letter sound knowledge, decoding non-words, fluency.  By assessing domains that are easily measured.  By assessing skills that can be changed through instruction and as a result, improve reading. How do we get Information?
  18. 18. EGRA provides data to be able to :  Intervene early and strategically during the critical window of a child’s early reading development.  Develop and promote a comprehensive system of instruction.  Identify need, allocate resources, design and modify instruction.  Review the language policy. Oral reading fluency measures are language specific. Word length and orthographic complexity vary from one language to another. Implications of Early Grades Reading Assessments
  19. 19. Languages differ in their phonological and morphological structures and their orthographies. Phonological System Representation of sounds used in the oral and writing system of a language. Morphological System Representation of meaningful units in the oral and written system of a language. Orthographic System Representation of the visual symbols used in the writing system of a language and the mapping of these symbols onto speech and meaning. Overview of Language and Literacy
  20. 20.  Phonemic Awareness  Alphabetic Principle  Vocabulary  Accuracy and Fluency with connected text  Comprehension (Including listening comprehension) Scope of Early Grades Reading Assessment
  21. 21. Phases of Reading Skill Development
  22. 22.  As children map sounds to print, they also access the words in their vocabularies. This knowledge is used to support them in identifying the word they are reading.  Fluency measures assess the child’s knowledge and how they integrate the knowledge and process the information automatically in different contexts.  To be successful readers, children’s basic reading competencies have to be automatic. Achieving Automaticity
  23. 23.  Limited early literacy experiences and lack of instruction / practice.  Failure to develop phonemic awareness  Failure to develop the alphabetic knowledge  Failure to master basic decoding skills  Accuracy in word reading but no Automaticity Why Pupils Fail to Learn to Read
  24. 24.  To address the reading difficulties and successes from a school-wide, systematic perspective.  Reading measure are necessary improve instruction at a national level and in the classroom.  To be effective, these measures must assess skills that have an impact on learning. Why do we Measure Reading?
  25. 25.  A review of the procedures; including establishing rapport and seeking verbal consent.  Completing the school and student information.  Detailed coverage of tasks and sub-tasks.  Mechanism of administration, prompts and stop rules.  Plenary, Individual and Small group guided practice. Detailed Coverage of EGRA Tools
  26. 26. Rapport and Verbal Consent
  27. 27. Administrative Details  Capture the school data and all student data  This is critical during data entry and data analysis  It provides an easy way to cross-reference data sets
  28. 28.  Letter Sound Knowledge  Invented Words  Oral Passage Reading  Reading Comprehension (timed)  Reading Comprehension (untimed)  Pupil Context Interview EGRA Tasks and Sub-tasks
  29. 29. Letter Sound Knowledge  Read instructions and practice letter name examples with the pupil  Start timer when child says the first letter (or after 3 sec. have elapsed)  If child hesitates or stops at item for 3 seconds, provide the letter name, and say “Please go on”  Mark the provided letter name as incorrect.
  30. 30. Scoring: Letter Name Knowledge
  31. 31. Example: Letter Sound Knowledge
  32. 32.  Practice example words with pupil.  Start timer when child reads the first word (or after 3 seconds elapse)  If the child does not read a word after 3 seconds, provide the word and say “Please go on”  Mark the provided word as incorrect Invented Words
  33. 33.  Stop after 60 sec. and put a bracket.  If the child finishes the entire sheet in under 60 sec, stop the timer and write the no. of seconds remaining in the box  Early stop rule: If the child does not get any word correct in first line with no auto- corrections, say “Thank you” Check the box to indicate early stop. Rules: Invented Words
  34. 34.  Practice examples with child, giving clear instructions.  Start timer when child reads first word. If the child stops at a word or hesitates for 3 seconds, Point to the next word and prompt the child. Say, “Please go on”.  Early stop rule: If all words are incorrect in the first line.  Mark incorrect responses by slashing through  If child skips entire line, strike through with a straight line. nog pid lef rix sed  Mark self-corrections as correct ker  If child finishes before 60 seconds, record seconds remaining in the appropriate box Rules: Invented Words (Contd.)
  35. 35. Example: Invented Words
  36. 36. Example: Invented Words
  37. 37.  Timed to 60 sec. Start the timer after child reads the first word  Observe the 3 second prompts.  Early stop rule:  If all responses in the first line are incorrect  If child finishes before 60 sec.  Record remaining seconds . Oral Passage Reading
  38. 38. Example: Scoring Oral Reading
  39. 39.  REMOVE the PASSAGE from in front of the child  Allow pupil 15 sec to respond  Read the questions up to the bracket where the child stopped reading.  Tick appropriate box as per the child’s answer. Questions: Reading Comprehension Accept responses with the same meaning as those provided. Be careful not to read the answers below the questions to the child
  40. 40. General Instructions on Assessment How to hold Your Clipboard, Pen and Stopwatch  Place your pen in your dominant hand.  Slant your clipboard such that is points toward the student’s forehead.  Practice turning your stopwatch on and off while holding clipboard, stopwatch and pen.  Hold your clipboard, with your stopwatch in your non-dominant hand.
  41. 41.  Start the timer when the child reads the first letter or word.  If the child hesitates for 3 seconds, provide the name of the letter or the word, point to the next letter or word and say “Please go on”  If the pupil gives you the letters sound, rather than the name, provide name of the letter and say; “Please tell me the NAME of the letter”. This prompt can only be given once! Summary of Procedures
  42. 42.  Incorrect answers and omissions: Put a slash through incorrect answers and non-responses. fen Q  Self –corrections: Circle the item already slashed through if the pupil self-corrects within 3 seconds, and count as correct. tew W  Skipped lines: Strike a line through any row of words or letters that are skipped by the pupil. nog pid lef rix sed Summary: EGRA Scoring
  43. 43.  Early stop rule: If you have slashed/marked as incorrect all of the letters or invented words on the first line, say “Thank you!” Discontinue the exercise, check the box at the bottom and go on to the next exercise.  After 60 seconds: Say, “Stop” Mark the last letter or word read with a square bracket ( ] ). Summary: EGRA Stop Rules
  44. 44. Setting up Your Work Station
  45. 45. Setting up…
  46. 46.  Develop a soft copy of the tool based on the purpose of the research  Register in Tangerine Central (Creating an administrator i.e the PI’s User Account).  Tangerine: The tool development platform.  Create or join a group in Tangerine Central.  Create a survey or assessment on the remote server in Tangerine Central (Or other open source software such as Survey CTO, Survey Monkey e.t.c.) Refer to the User Manual for a step-by-step outline of developing survey tool and troubleshooting. Using Hand-held Gadgets/Tablets
  47. 47.  Perform a test run and revise the survey accordingly.  Generate the Android Package (APK) file and save it on desktop or dropbox.  Turn on WiFi on the hand-held device/tablet.  Install the Tangerine Application onto the Tablets by “double clicking” the APK file in dropbox.  Place the icon on the home page for easy access.  Click on the Tangerine icon to launch the application.  Create a simple user name preferably the surname.  Create a simple password such as 1234 or abcd Using Hand-held…
  48. 48.  Sign in to launch the application.  Form groups of 4 participants each to role-play.  Simulate a data collection session. Click on the play button to begin the survey/assessment.  At the end of the assessment/survey, click the “Save Results” button to save the assessment.  To conduct another assessment /survey, click “Perform Another Assessment”.  Upload the assessments by clicking “Universal upload” button on the tangerine main menu. Using Hand-held…
  49. 49.  Look out the message: “Results Synched Successfully”  The administrator will be able to access the Uploaded/Synched results on the remote server (Cloud computing). NOTE: The Help button in Tangerine an be used to avail additional information and important hints / reminders to the enumerator for quick reference. Using Hand-held…
  50. 50.  Capacitive touch screen  Android OS [v. 2.3 or higher] - Except Lollipop v. 5.0  HTML 5-capable browser  Wi-Fi (b/g/n)  4GB HDD  512MB Memory  1GHz dual-core processor  7 hours battery life (without Internet turned on)  Ability to install third-party Android applications General Specifications
  51. 51.  3G connectivity  Flash 10 capability  GPRS  Mini-/USB port  7 inch screen (Surveys are optimized for 7’’ screen)  Ideally below 1 lb. in weight (About 450g) General Specs…
  52. 52. A range of tablets or eReaders that meet the minimum requirements: Archos 70 Huawei Ideos 7  Samsung Galaxy Tab 4 and Tab 7 Cherry Tablet 2 Original Kindle Fire Google/Asus Nexus 7 Kindle Fire HD (7 inch and larger screens) Nexus 7 (USD199, USD227 including tax). Supported Devices
  53. 53. o e f n f E y a h R a O A B n r E G l W o h m e H e M a P a L s o W D S e s e z C n l t T S s N U t J u E r c Q m a H a c E i r w H y i e H D n t N l a E o V x l t t d k i Q A o t n r E G l W o h m e
  54. 54. fen mul pax ove gib wey rog yop pis soz fet hal muk rea vid nog pid lef rix sed hig dox mex tew lub zim ulk aze cid og fab lop tun mey gil len ker cit tof rin fot nom vev fru roch nith sug doz bab foth
  55. 55. Thank you!