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Pupils’ usability of multimedia-based eLearning resources, in Kenyan primary schools

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By;
Dr. Makingu Mondi
Directorate of eLearning
Kenyatta University

Dr. Mondi's seminal work on structural relationship between the learners' communication behaviour and their perceived e-learning experience, culminated in development of a 'Uses and Gratification Expectancy Model' (UGEM)

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Pupils’ usability of multimedia-based eLearning resources, in Kenyan primary schools

  1. 1. PUPILS’ USABILITY OF MULTIMEDIA-BASED ELEARNING RESOURCES, IN KENYAN PRIMARY SCHOOLS by Dr. Makingu Mondi Directorate of eLearning Kenyatta University
  2. 2. Objectives Theoretical Conceptual framework Background to the study Research findings, application and Conclusion research Pupils’ usability of multimedia-based eLearning resources, in Kenyan primary schools
  3. 3. 3 Digital Literacy Programme (DLP) digi- school concept Several tenets Vision2030  To equip students with IT competence at an early age; to prepare them for knowledge economy (k-e) KENYA’S  To re-emphasise science and technology in education, with a focus on creativity and innovation Background to the study DigiSchoolconceptunderpinstheDLP
  4. 4. 4 Rural schoolUrban school Peri-urban school 47 x 3 = 141 Plus 9 Special schools Total = 150 6 primary schools 2 Urban Pri. schools 2 Peri-urban Pri. schools 2 Rural Pri. schools 150 pilot primary schools, DLP Out of 22,000 public primary schools in all the 47 counties, in Kenya GoK thro’ MOEST has enlisted
  5. 5. digiSchool concept 5 Pupils are excited to have the tablets, but are they learning anything?
  6. 6. SOME OF THE EMERGING ISSUES The introduction of eLearning resources in schools raises some pertinent issues that may influence pupils’ learning experience
  7. 7. Techno-savvy • Need scaffolding The notion that all pupils are techno savvy Although today’s pupils are regarded as being technology savvy, there is a danger of underestimating the support they need in order to utilise eLearning resources
  8. 8.  Scaffolding  Guidance Scaffolding On how: (1) Operate complex ICT- based learning environment, embedded with unfamiliar navigational and browsing features as well as On how , (2) to integrate technology in learning core subjects like Science and mathematics
  9. 9. Left on their own, some pupils ….  Not all pupils are techno-savvy – some need assistance, guidance and scaffolding Overwhelming: and experience information overload
  10. 10. intimidating Disorientation or Cognitive dissonance
  11. 11. Scary gadgets  Afraid and fearful
  12. 12. In a nutshell – these are some of the emerging issues For eLearning systems to succeed, particularly the Kenyas’s DLP, these issues must be addressed:  poor eCourseware design - some of the digital content is in textbook format (not as interactive as digital learners expect)  information overload  disorientation or cognitive dissonance  application of computer skills to their learning context – learn core subjects like Science and Mathematics In the context of this research, we examine all these issues as aspects of pupils’ COMMUNICATION BEHAVIOUR
  13. 13. 13 Purpose of the Study Pupils’ Usability of multimedia- based eLearning resources their Perceived eLearning Experience Overarching Research Question ? For e-learning resources influences ‘how and why’ Communication behaviour Academic performance Technicallyproblemstatement
  14. 14. PUPILS’ LEARNING NEEDS To answer this question that asks ‘how and why’, we considered pupils’ learning needs, using multimedia- based digital content, in terms of various Usability parameters: • Perceived Ease-of-Use • Perceived Usefulness • Perceived Enjoyment • Perceived Attractiveness • Perceived Transparency And of course, how these influence their: • PERCEIVED eLearning Experience usability parameters Academic performance derived from Technological Acceptance Model (TAM) Expectancy-value theory
  15. 15. Operational definitions of concepts Usability: easy to learn, easy to use or intuitive to use the multimedia-based eLearning resources Various parameters used to determine this USABILITY 1. Perceived Ease-of-Use 2. Perceived Usefulness 3. Perceived Enjoyment 4. Perceived Attractiveness 5. Perceived Transparency 15 Operational definitions and indicators
  16. 16. 16 Usability Conceptual frameworkPEOU PU PA PT PE P. e-Learning Experience pupils’ learning needs (independent constructs) pupils’ expectations (dependent construct) USABILITY FACTORS: PEOU – Perceived Ease-of-Use PU – Perceived Usefulness PE – Perceived Enjoyment PA – Perceived Attractiveness PT – Perceived Transparency
  17. 17. 17 Usability Conceptual frameworkPEOU PU PA PT PE P. e-Learning Experience USABILITY FACTORS: PEOU – Perceived Ease-of-Use PU – Perceived Usefulness PE – Perceived Enjoyment PA – Perceived Attractiveness PT – Perceived Transparency regression
  18. 18. 18 Usability Conceptual frameworkPEOU PU PA PT PE P. e-Learning Experience USABILITY FACTORS: PEOU – Perceived Ease-of-Use PU – Perceived Usefulness PE – Perceived Enjoyment PA – Perceived Attractiveness PT – Perceived Transparency correlational
  19. 19. 19 Usability Conceptual framework PEOU PU PE PT PE Perceived eLearning Experience USABILITY FACTORS: PEOU – Perceived Ease-of-U PU – Perceived Usefulness PE – Perceived Enjoyment PA – Perceived Attractivenes PT – Perceived Transparency
  20. 20. 20 Possible hypothesesPEOU ξ1 PU ξ2 PE ξ4 PT ξ5 PE ξ3 P. e-Learning Experience η1 H3 USABILITY FACTORS: PEOU – Perceived Ease-of-Use PU – Perceived Usefulness PE – Perceived Enjoyment PA – Perceived Attractiveness PT – Perceived Transparency To test
  21. 21. 21 Research Hypotheses Research Hypotheses H1: Pupils’ Perceived Ease of Use for multimedia-based eLearning resources is positively related to their Perceived eLearning Experience H2: Pupils’ Perceived Usefulness for multimedia-based eLearning resources is positively related to their Perceived eLearning Experience H3: Pupils’ Perceived Enjoyment for multimedia-based eLearning resources is positively related to their Perceived eLearning Experience H4: Pupils’ Perceived Attractiveness for multimedia-based eLearning resources is positively related to their Perceived eLearning Experience H5: Pupils’ Perceived Transparency for multimedia-based eLearning resources is positively related to their Perceived eLearning Experience To test
  22. 22. 22 Research Hypotheses 22 Research Methods Research Methods Qualitative and Quantitative
  23. 23. 23 Research Design Participants Teachers Questionnaire (TAM) Quantitative Data Analysis Research findings, Application and Conclusion Research Instruments Data Analysis Document Reviews Observation Photo, Video Focus Group Discussions Semi-structured Interviews Descriptive Statistics Normality tests KMO tests, Reliability, & Validity Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) Research Design Pupils Qualitative Data Analysis TRANSCRIPTION THEMATIC ANALYSIS 120 12
  24. 24. Observation: facial expression, use of gestures on the touch- screen, Excited, neutral and bored/frustrated
  25. 25. Focus Group Discussions - participation
  26. 26. Prototype testing: Prototype 1, Prototype 2 PROTOTYPE 1: Science PROTOTYPE 2: Science The pupils were also asked to rate their preferences for : Multimedia-based eLearning resources PROTOTYPE 1: Mathematics PROTOTYPE 2: Mathematics
  27. 27. Prototype 1: Science Prototype 2: Science  Perceived Ease-of-Use  Perceived Ease-of-Use  Perceived Usefulness  Perceived Usefulness  Perceived Enjoyment  Perceived Enjoyment  Perceived Attractiveness  Perceived Attractiveness  Perceived Transparency  Perceived Transparency Prototype 1: Mathematics Prototype 2: Mathematics  Perceived Ease-of-Use  Perceived Ease-of-Use  Perceived Usefulness  Perceived Usefulness  Perceived Enjoyment  Perceived Enjoyment  Perceived Attractiveness  Perceived Attractiveness  Perceived Transparency  Perceived Transparency For Class One (Std. 1)
  28. 28. 28 QUANTITATIVE data collected was analysed Using MS Excel and SPSS PROTOTYPE 1 PROTOTYPE 2
  29. 29. RESULTS FOR QUANTITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS 29
  30. 30. 30 Science – Class-One-DLP 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 PEOU PU PE PA PT PROT1 Std 1 Science PROT2 Std 1 Science ACCEPT REJECT USABILITY RATINGS USABILITY PARAMETERS: PEOU – Perceived Ease-of-Use PU – Perceived Usefulness PE – Perceived Enjoyment PA – Perceived Attractiveness PT – Perceived Transparency PROT 2 Science PROT 1 Science y x
  31. 31. 31 Mathematics – Class-One-DLP 0 1 2 3 4 5 PEOU PU PE PA PT PROT 1 Std. 1 Mathematics PROT 2 Std. 1 Mathematics ACCEPT REJECT USABILITY RATINGS USABILITY PARAMETERS: PEOU – Perceived Ease-of-Use PU – Perceived Usefulness PE – Perceived Enjoyment PA – Perceived Attractiveness PT – Perceived Transparency PROT 2 Mathematics PROT 1 Mathematics
  32. 32. Research findings Today’s digital learners expect interactive multimedia-based digital content • This digital generation of learners expect and demand:  Random access  Interactivity  Instantaneity  Engagement (immersive, multi-senses)  Mobile-learning: digital tablets
  33. 33. Conclusion help to detect pupils’ preferences, expectations and learning difficulties guide educators and designers to develop suitable eLearning resources that fulfil digital generation pupils’ learning needs and expectation help facilitators to scaffold, guide and support pupils’ learning experiences in a blended learning strategy Usability Conceptual Framework
  34. 34. Thank you for your attention 34 Q & A
  35. 35. 35
  36. 36. Cognitive UGE Perceived Ease-of-Use • Easy to navigate around the digital content • Quickly find a function • User-friendly system • EasTy to use the system stranded Need to be shown what to doTrouble in switching on the tablets 1
  37. 37. Cognitive UGE Perceived Usefulness Displayed information is: • useful • interesting • adds value to the learning experience 2
  38. 38. Cognitive UGE Perceived Enjoyment • Digital content is entertaining • Using the system (tablet and digital content) is a pleasant experience • Like using the system • Use the system to learn 3
  39. 39. Cognitive UGE Perceived Attractiveness • The system looks attractive • Digital content is pleasantly organized • Attractive layout of displayed information • Colours used are attractive 4
  40. 40. Cognitive UGE Perceived Transparency Displayed information is: • easy to see • easy to understand • clear The steps to perform a task are easy to: • follow • understand 5
  41. 41. Observation guidelines Focus Group Discussion Questionnaire Interview schedules Variables  Perceived Ease-of-Use  Perceived Usefulness  Perceived Enjoyment  Perceived Attractiveness  PerceivedTransparency Research instruments
  42. 42. Use of wifi connectivity Issues: • Teachers may not have the necessary skills to connect the Teacher’s laptop, and the pupils’ tablet
  43. 43. Use of wifi connectivity Issues: • Teacher able to see all the pupils who are logged on
  44. 44. Use of wifi connectivity PROJECTOR • Teacher able to control what appears on the pupils tablet, and what is projected
  45. 45. Use of wifi connectivity Issues: • Teachers may not have the necessary skills to connect the Teacher’s laptop, and the pupils’ tablet
  46. 46. 46 Research InstrumentsResearch Instruments Q = Questionnaires (pupils) I = Semi-structured interviews (teachers) FGD = Focus Group Discussions (pupils) OD= Observation and Document reviews (multimedia-based digital content evaluations) Q FGDI OD Triangulation improve reliability and validity of the data
  47. 47. 47 Problem statement Pupils’ Usability of multimedia-based eLearning resources’ influences their ‘Perceived eLearning Experience’ pupils’ communication behaviour influences their academic performance technically
  48. 48. Communication behaviour – academic performance The notion that pupils are techno-savvy/confident, and can readily use technology to enrich their learning experience, may not be entirely valid in all cases  The problem is that pupils’ communication behaviour, or usability in this context, influences their academic performance
  49. 49. research instruments and Variables measured Variables  Perceived Ease-of-Use  Perceived Usefulness  Perceived Enjoyment  Perceived Attractiveness  Perceived Transparency • Observation • Focus Group Discussion – with the pupils • Administered questionnaires – pupils • Semi-structured with interviews with the teachers
  50. 50. 50 static Dynamic movement: visually, Audio: hear Animate this particular one for presentation purposes PROTOTYPE 1 PROTOTYPE 2
  51. 51. Implementation of research findings (i) to detect pupils’ preferences, expectations and learning difficulties 53 The USABILITY conceptual framework provides a method:
  52. 52. Implementation of research findings (ii) to help facilitators to guide and support pupils’ learning experiences in a blended learning strategy 54 The USABILITY conceptual framework provides a method:
  53. 53. Implementation of research findings (iii) to guide teachers, pupils, educators, e-courseware developers and researchers to ascertain the efficacy of e-learning systems intended to enhance pupils’ learning experience 55 The UGE model will provide a framework: The USABILITY conceptual framework provides a method:
  54. 54. Implementation of research findings (iv) to forecast the success of integration of eLearning resources in the school-curriculum that promises to enhance pupils’ learning experience 56 The USABILITY conceptual framework provides a method:
  55. 55. Implementation of research findings (v) to direct the design and development of suitable eLearning resources that fulfill pupils’ learning needs and expectations 57 The USABILITY conceptual framework provides a method: Interactive- immersive eContent Random access Interactivity Instantaneity Engagement (immersive, multi- senses) Mobile-learning
  56. 56. Interviews with the teachers: excerpts Two to three weeks training on how to integrate ICT in lesson-delivery, was not adequate Teachers lack technical-expertise in using computers in classroom Effective training …. depends on various factors, such as: the level of teacher education, socioeconomic context, training resources, and even teacher’s pedagogical beliefs Training teachers to adopt and integrate new computing technologies is critically important for the success of DLP
  57. 57. Interviews with the teachers: excerpts Handling over 40 pupils, per class session, all fidgeting with the tablets, is not an easy task; given their short attention span Pupils are not allowed to take the tablets with them to their homes Some of the tablets are not functioning well; normally, taken to the suppliers for repair e.g JKUAT, Moi University Some teachers focusing too much on technology
  58. 58. 61
  59. 59. 62 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 A. Perceived Ease-of-Use 1. It is easy to navigate around the digital content 2. I can quickly find the function I need 3. I think it is a user-friendly system 4. I find the system easy to use Instruments: Reliability = 0.65 Validity - Use SPSS
  60. 60. 63 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 B. Perceived Usefulness 1. I find the displayed information useful in the performing tasks 2.The displayed information is interesting to me, in performing tasks 3. The displayed information adds value when performing tasks 4. I find the displayed information important in the performing tasks
  61. 61. 64 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 C. Perceived Enjoyment 1. I find the system overall an entertaining one 2. I find using the system to be pleasurable 3. I like using the system 4. Using this system would enable me to learn many things
  62. 62. 65 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 D. Perceived Attractiveness 1. Overall, I find that the system looks attractive 2. The layout of displayed information is attractive 3. The displayed information is pleasantly organized 4. The colours that are used are attractive
  63. 63. 66 Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 E. PerceivedTransparency 1. The displayed information is easy to see 2. 2. The displayed information is easy to understand 3. 3. The displayed information is clear 4. The steps to perform a task are easy to follow
  64. 64. 68 PROTOTYPE 1 PROTOTYPE 2 Already coloured Pupils have opportunity to colour
  65. 65. 69 PROTOTYPE 1 PROTOTYPE 2 Textbook format interactivity
  66. 66. 70 PROTOTYPE 1 PROTOTYPE 2 arm legs chest head neck Textbook format Drag-and drop (interactivity)
  67. 67. 71 PROTOTYPE 1 Textbook format chest head leg arm neck PROTOTYPE 2 Touch-screen gestures or point-and-click
  68. 68. 72 matches sun firewoodfirefly PROTOTYPE 1 PROTOTYPE 2
  69. 69. 73 PROTOTYPE 1 PROTOTYPE 2 static dynamic
  70. 70. 74 A B C PROTOTYPE 1 PROTOTYPE 2
  71. 71. 75 PROTOTYPE 1 PROTOTYPE 2
  72. 72. Focus Group Discussion
  73. 73. Focus Group Discussion
  74. 74. Self-regulated learning Collaborative learning Scaffolding: guidance Teacher-led learning Varying class ecologies: • Participation that were established • discourses that were encouraged Group discussion learning
  75. 75. 79 Research Hypotheses 79 Research Methods Research Methods Research Design Research Instruments Sampling method Data Collection methods TRIANGULATION: BOTH QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH METHODS Qualitative and Quantitative
  76. 76. Focus Group Discussion
  77. 77. Traumatising  Some find the tablet to be puzzling and traumatising

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