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Context mapping

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This is the third lecture about contextmapping given for the experience design master class at HITLab, Canterbury University in New Zealand. Contextmapping is an important exercise in the early design phase when the designer needs to confront his / her assumptions with the real world the users live in. It is a great preparation for user research.

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Context mapping

  1. context mapping: figuring out what you know and don’t know of your users aga szóstek(at)
  2. to design genuine experiences the designer needs to build empathy towards the user
  3. Which one is the facial and which one the hemorrhoid crème?  
  4. Empathy is: “our intuitive ability to identify with other people’s thoughts and feelings – their motivations, emotional and mental models, values, priorities, preferences, and inner conflicts”.
  5. empathy is happening in context
  6. context is tough to understand
  7. the importance of carefully defining and redefining the context for every design problem
  8. alternative stories for the context
  9. imagining the context from the perspective of the different users
  10. context always has components of time and space, whereas experience occurs in the context of time
  11. we have a tendency to imagine an ideal world
  12. while the world in not ideal at all
  13. but it’s infinitely creative and full of inspiration
  14. context mapping
  15. -  ambiguity of the phrase itself -  traditional definition used in the domain of contextmapping: „context between people and products” -  operationalized by the Aristotelian questions: what? how? who? when? where? how long? why?... -  the selection of the questions determines, which aspects (beyond cognitive and physical) are important for defining the research problem
  16. try it out
  17. emotions environment mood group context senses place other objects ritual time of the day what happened before what will happen after
  18. how to map context?
  19. 1.  preparations 2.  sensitizing 3.  data aggregation 4.  data analysis 5.  creative workshop
  20. example: travelling with small kids
  21. -  tons of luggage -  issues pertaining to safety and hygiene -  unpredictable behaviour of kids assumptions
  22. sensitizing -  preparation of a booklet where the parents could describe and draw how travelling with kids looks like -  questions about: how the trip went, feeding and food aspects, contents of the luggage, division of tasks between the parents
  23. data aggregation -  preparation of a collage presenting the collected insights, particularly focusing on what’s irritating -  discussion about ideal solutions for eating rituals during the trips
  24. data analysis -  selection of interesting issues, stories and descriptions of critical situations in a form of a scrapbook -  returning to the initial assumptions to verify them -  categorization of the uncovered issues through drawings and photos -  a bag with products taken for the trips with labels with inspirational quotes from the participants
  25. the most interesting insight the way kids behave in the car and in the restaurant
  26. what do you get out of context mapping?
  27. -  intensification of users’involvement -  creation of a common language -  looking for inspiration on different levels -  materialization of new questions and discovery of dead ends -  confirmation or rejection of assumptions regarding a given user group
  28. how to do contextmapping?
  30. goal setting
  31. -  formulation of the research goal - instead of a broad question, such as: having insight in the use of mobile phone to stay in touch with the partner the goal can be formulated as: what is it like to be a partner who is just returning from the long absence and what concerns, feelings and attitudes do they have when being on the way home? -  the product itself should not be mentioned in the goal -  a clear goal statement is especially relevant as the resulting data is fragmentary, multi-layered and consists of individual stories
  32. preliminary mapping
  33. -  mapping knowledge and views of the experience domain with two goals in mind: -  reducing the risk of projecting one’s preconceptions on the participants -  supporting the researcher in formulating instructions and providing a starting structure for data analysis -  having an initial map helps to differentiate what is already known from what was learned from the participants
  34. participant selection
  35. -  inviting a variety of people leads to rich and diverse discussions -  the background of participants influences the study -  sessions with a few participants (2 – 4) reveals fewer stories as there is less opportunity to reflect on each other’s experiences -  a group of four is large enough to create a group feeling and have discussions and six is small enough to pay attention to every individual -  in a group with more than six participants it becomes more difficult to pay attention to every individual -  doing two or more sessions reduces the possibility of group dynamics suffering from topics only mentioned by one or a few dominant participants
  37. sensitizing package
  38. -  basic principle of the exercises in the package is to let people express memories, opinions, dreams around the central topic of the study -  participants receive the package about one or two weeks before the creative session -  small playful exercises trigger participants to reflect on their experiences without analyzing too much -  each exercise elicits a fresh perspective on the situation that is explored -  sensitizing packages are meant to stimulate reflection on the participants’daily experiences
  39. -  the design of the sensitizing package should be playful and professional but also informal -  the subject of the package is usually broader than the study subject -  the activities should be inspirational and provocative. -  the package aims to stimulate participants to reflect on a daily pattern over a few days so they slowly become aware about their experiences -  the package needs to include white space to write ideas and impromptu comments. -  working on the sensitizing packages should require no more than five to ten minutes per day
  40. sessions with participants
  41. advantages disadvantages group sessions participants can react to each other’s experiences a global view of the context and various user experiences will be created a large amount of diverse information is generated in one session without professional moderation, one dominant participant can influence the group it is difficult, although possible to obtain individual responses pair sessions participants feel comfortable because they are with a friend, spouse, etc. participants may reveal things about each other the session can take place at the participant’s home or workplace less diversity in the total range of participants since members of the pair are related or acquainted individual sessions a lot of attention and time can be devoted to a participant and this can bring out detailed information the session can take place at the participant’s home or workplace a participant can feel inhibited, because it may feel as if a psychologist is testing him/her about feelings, experiences and needs it is more time-consuming than groups
  42. data analysis
  43. fixating on the data -  documenting thoughts and remarks from the session -  analysis of the audio and video-documentation. -  working with transcripts to annotate the data and select quotes
  44. analyzing and being surprised -  searching through the data for interesting indicators -  all impressions and insights need to be written down -  making notes on post-it notes facilitates their rearrangement
  45. finding patterns -  organizing and reorganizing the annotations and the data -  determining recurrent and/or striking themes -  working spatially, e.g., on a wall or large boards -  creating overviews to show the relations between different experiences and themes visually
  46. communicating the results
  47. references Visser, Froukje Sleeswijk, et al. "Contextmapping: experiences from practice." CoDesign 1.2 (2005): 119-149. Sanders, Elizabeth B-N., and Pieter Jan Stappers. "Co-creation and the new landscapes of design." Co-design 4.1 (2008): 5-18. Sanders, Liz. "ON MODELING An evolving map of design practice and design research." interactions 15.6 (2008): 13-17. Kouprie, Merlijn, and Froukje Sleeswijk Visser. "A framework for empathy in design: stepping into and out of the user's life." Journal of Engineering Design 20.5 (2009): 437-448. Sleeswijk Visser, Froukje, Remko Van der Lugt, and Pieter Jan Stappers. "Sharing user experiences in the product innovation process: Participatory design needs participatory communication." Creativity and innovation management 16.1 (2007): 35-45. IDStudioLab – Contextmapping -