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Oh Crap!      More on Johne’s                   Dr. Greg KeefeDr. Shawn McKenna, AJDI Steering Committee, AJDI Scientific ...
Outline   Reacquainting with Johne’s   Other programs   Atlantic Johne’s Disease Initiative   Results to date   Take ...
Overview of Disease   Johne’s Disease (Yo-nees), Paratuberculosis      Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (...
Transmission of Infection   Ingest material contaminated with MAP      Young Calves          Manure of mature infected ...
Diagnosis   Tip of the Iceberg Effect                 Clinical                                               Cow         ...
Calf              Heifer         Infected cow        Clinical cow   High risk of         Incubating         May shed      ...
Why Johne’s     Economics          Decreased milk production          Culling and reproUK study Sibley, Orpin, Pearce (...
Neilsen ICP 2009
   Programs in US (State run with national    standards)   Programs in Australia   Highlight     Danish     Dutch    ...
Danish Program   Initiated in 2006   Voluntary                        2/4   Aggressive milk ELISA testing              ...
Dutch Quality Assurance   Initiated in 2006   Initial categorization by milk ELISA     Negative test every other year “...
UK System   Modular biosecurity program     Myhealthyherd.com     Risk management based            BVD, IBR, Leptospir...
Canadian programs
Program Structure - all programs   Voluntary   4 Key Components:       Education – All 4 programs – Most Important!    ...
2010       2007              20112010
Quebec   Pre- program: (2007-08)       Continuing education (75% of all AMVPQ)       Client awareness (conference and p...
Ontario   4 KEY Components:       Education of Dairy Producers, Veterinarians and        Consumers       Risk Assessmen...
Ontario
Alberta     Similar to Atlantic     Risk Assessment-based     Environmental culture funding     35% participation in Y...
Atlantic Johne’s Disease Initiative      Goal          Reduce the Johne’s disease prevalence in           the Atlantic C...
Management Structure   Steering committee     DFNB (R. Dykstra – Chair)     DFPEI (J. Bysterveldt – vice Chair – lead B...
Funding partners
Program Launch   Website (www.atlanticjohnes.ca)   Direct Mailings       Cowpies and brochures   Media   Regional Vet...
Education   Advisors – vets          Online          Seminars        Certification          On farm       Conference(...
Prevalence Reduction Program 2011-2014               Herd Categorization                     Voluntary                    ...
Herd Categorization   Environmental Culture (EC)       EC (-) versus EC (+)   USDA-based protocol       6 sites of wel...
100   80   60                              Ability of EC to detect herds at                              different prevale...
Risk Assessment & Management   Plan (RA & MP = RAMP)   Cornerstone of ALL Johne’s Programs      Conducted only by AJDI c...
Minnesota data                           Fecal culture          Serum ELISA                           Impact of risk manag...
Register of EC Negative Herds   Biosecurity - goal no animal transfers   Total Voluntary   Two Level Program       EC ...
Project status   Outputs to Date     Enrollment of Herds     Sampling and Diagnostics     RAMP Recommendations
Enrollment in the AJDI   1st Year Goal: 50% of Atlantic Canada’s herds       Target of 347 herds       364 herds enroll...
Project OutcomesValue                   Number      PercentTotal Herds Enrolled    364 herds   105% of goal (53% of herds)...
RAMP Recommendations      Max 3 Recommendations per RAMP        Rank in order of importance        Producer and vet mus...
Between herd biosecurity1.3     Did you purchase animals in the last 5 years   30   Yes, from multiple herds   20   Yes, f...
Calving pen and preweaning2.7           What is the duration of exposure of the newborn calf to the cow?        10    Less...
Take home   Johne’s is a worldwide issue       Production, reproduction, culling   Developed dairy countries have progr...
Last Call   Funding allows for    enrolment of 60% of    herds   Currently at 53%   If you are on the fence    now is t...
Thanks   Norman, Art, Tasha, Maria & Marcelo   Certified Vets & Registered Producers   Steering Committee & Scientific ...
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Web dairy focus 2012x

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AJDI Update presented by Dr. Greg Keefe March 29, 2012 at Dairy Focus.

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Web dairy focus 2012x

  1. 1. Oh Crap! More on Johne’s Dr. Greg KeefeDr. Shawn McKenna, AJDI Steering Committee, AJDI Scientific Committee, Norman Wiebe and Dr. Karen MacDonald-Phillips
  2. 2. Outline Reacquainting with Johne’s Other programs Atlantic Johne’s Disease Initiative Results to date Take home and a challenge
  3. 3. Overview of Disease Johne’s Disease (Yo-nees), Paratuberculosis  Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) Chronic, Infectious Enteritis  Milk production losses  Premature culling  Reduced fertility  Diarrhea and emaciation Photos courtesy of www.johnes.org
  4. 4. Transmission of Infection Ingest material contaminated with MAP  Young Calves  Manure of mature infected cow  Colostrum and milk  MAP is hardy Uninfected Herds  Purchase of infected cow
  5. 5. Diagnosis Tip of the Iceberg Effect Clinical Cow Subclinical Cows Infected Calves
  6. 6. Calf Heifer Infected cow Clinical cow High risk of Incubating May shed Shedding infection Low risk of No overt signs Chronic weightFecal oral infection infection/shed loss Lower production Colostrum risk No overt signs DiarrheaNo outward signs Lower production Median age between infection and shedding is 5 years Most animals get culled for low production before clinical
  7. 7. Why Johne’s  Economics  Decreased milk production  Culling and reproUK study Sibley, Orpin, Pearce (ICP 2012) Mean 305 day yield (Kg) Calving to conceptionWhole herd current lactation 10,203 106Whole herd previous lactation 10,130 102Test positive in current lactation 9,424 136  For 3rd lactation predicted production was 10,059 Kg and actual was 8,562 Kg  Cattle movement  Infection reservoir cows  Movement = spread  Market access  Competitive advantage for local genetics
  8. 8. Neilsen ICP 2009
  9. 9.  Programs in US (State run with national standards) Programs in Australia Highlight  Danish  Dutch  United Kingdom
  10. 10. Danish Program Initiated in 2006 Voluntary 2/4 Aggressive milk ELISA testing 1/4  quarterly Risk management 0/4 29% of herd participate
  11. 11. Dutch Quality Assurance Initiated in 2006 Initial categorization by milk ELISA  Negative test every other year “A” status  Positive test annually  Cull positives = “B”  Retain positives = “C” Mandatory 2010 – Mandatory “B” 2011 Allow culture confirmation of positives  50% of “B” become “A” with culture Driven by processors (and $ support)
  12. 12. UK System Modular biosecurity program  Myhealthyherd.com  Risk management based  BVD, IBR, Leptospirosis, TB, Bluetongue, Johne’s and Neospora Johne’s module uses Danish system  2500 herds enrolled (25%)
  13. 13. Canadian programs
  14. 14. Program Structure - all programs Voluntary 4 Key Components:  Education – All 4 programs – Most Important!  Risk Assessment & Management Plan  Testing – Different approaches  Research – All 4 programs – variable funding
  15. 15. 2010 2007 20112010
  16. 16. Quebec Pre- program: (2007-08)  Continuing education (75% of all AMVPQ)  Client awareness (conference and publications)  Laboratory testing capacity and expertise Prevention (2008-present)  Risk assessment (Y 1)  Environmental cultures (Y 2) Individual animal testing  Only if farmer agrees to not sell/move positives  Affidavit/ATQ
  17. 17. Ontario 4 KEY Components:  Education of Dairy Producers, Veterinarians and Consumers  Risk Assessment on EVERY dairy farm ANNUALLY….goal  Optional Testing of entire milking herd (funded ONCE) over 4 years of program  PERMANENT Removal of ALL HIGH positive cows
  18. 18. Ontario
  19. 19. Alberta  Similar to Atlantic  Risk Assessment-based  Environmental culture funding  35% participation in Year 1 0 +ve 1 +ve 2 +ve 3 +ve 4 +ve 5 +ve 6 +ve TotalFrequency 136 15 8 4 2 7 5 177Percentage 76 8 5 2 1 4 3 100Ave. herd size 129 176 155 204 190 188 181 Orsel et al., ICP 2012
  20. 20. Atlantic Johne’s Disease Initiative  Goal  Reduce the Johne’s disease prevalence in the Atlantic Canada dairy herds  Program Pillars  Education  Infection control & prevalence reduction  ResearchMQM lab is USDA proficiency tested for 5 Johne’s diagnostics
  21. 21. Management Structure Steering committee  DFNB (R. Dykstra – Chair)  DFPEI (J. Bysterveldt – vice Chair – lead Board)  DFNL (Dr. Pauline Duivenvoorden)  DFNS ( Phillip Vroegh) Scientific committee  Drs. Frank Schenkels, Brian Hicks, Vicki O’Leary John Drake
  22. 22. Funding partners
  23. 23. Program Launch Website (www.atlanticjohnes.ca) Direct Mailings  Cowpies and brochures Media Regional Veterinarians  47 Certified vetsAwareness Economics Biosecurity Heifers
  24. 24. Education Advisors – vets  Online  Seminars Certification  On farm  Conference(s) Producers  Web, Media, Mail Out  Seminars  One on One (vets)
  25. 25. Prevalence Reduction Program 2011-2014 Herd Categorization Voluntary Fully funded Risk Assessment & Management Plan Required if herd tested Fully funded Cow Testing Voluntary - EC positive herds eligible Partial funding
  26. 26. Herd Categorization Environmental Culture (EC)  EC (-) versus EC (+) USDA-based protocol  6 sites of well mixed manure  Very prescriptive methodology Norman Wiebe Third party collection of samples Coordinator Why Environmental Culture?  No risk of false positives  Herd sensitivity high  Will not find all positive herds – no test will
  27. 27. 100 80 60 Ability of EC to detect herds at different prevalence rates Good when over 2% 40 Excellent once over 5% 20 0 0 5 10 15 Within Herd Test Prevalence (Fecal Culture) Sensitivity CI_low CI_highEC Se 71.4% (49.2%-86.5%) Courtesy of Carrie LaversWhen prevalence ≥5%, Se ≥90%Cow Fecal Culture Se 19-53%
  28. 28. Risk Assessment & Management Plan (RA & MP = RAMP) Cornerstone of ALL Johne’s Programs  Conducted only by AJDI certified vets Separate RA for EC (+) and EC(-) Herds  Emphasis on external versus internal biosecurity Includes a Management Plan  Individualized  Best management practices Individual Cow Testing  EC (+)
  29. 29. Minnesota data Fecal culture Serum ELISA Impact of risk management overEspejo et al., ICP 2012 time on new infections in heifers
  30. 30. Register of EC Negative Herds Biosecurity - goal no animal transfers Total Voluntary Two Level Program  EC negative level 1 (Entry)  All 6 samples negative  Must re-test in 10-14 months  EC Negative level 2 (Maintenance)  All 6 samples negative  Must re-test every other year Loss of EC Negative Status:  a) Any positive samples  b) Re-test not on schedule
  31. 31. Project status Outputs to Date  Enrollment of Herds  Sampling and Diagnostics  RAMP Recommendations
  32. 32. Enrollment in the AJDI 1st Year Goal: 50% of Atlantic Canada’s herds  Target of 347 herds  364 herds enrolled as of March 24 160.0% 140.0% 120.0% 100.0% 80.0% 141.9% 60.0% 106.9% 105.1% 105.1% 97.7% 40.0% 20.0% 0.0% NB NS PE NL Total Enrolment as a percent of initial goal
  33. 33. Project OutcomesValue Number PercentTotal Herds Enrolled 364 herds 105% of goal (53% of herds)Total Herds Sampled 251 herds 69% of enrolledTotal Herds Diagnosed 195 herds 78% of sampledTotal EC (+) 39 herds 20% of diagnosedTotal RAMPS Received 108 herds 55% of diagnosed
  34. 34. RAMP Recommendations  Max 3 Recommendations per RAMP  Rank in order of importance  Producer and vet must agree and sign MPRecommendation Freq. Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3Animals are not purchased (closed herd) 62 37 12 13>90% of calves removed <30 minutes 57 27 18 12Colostrum and milk bottle/bucket fed 33 16 14 3Non-saleable milk never fed to calves 21 6 6 9No visitors or require clean clothing 21 4 9 8Feed milk replacer/pasteurized milk 15 4 4 7Calves born in designated calving area 14 5 6 3No non-calving cows in calving area 13 3 7 3Calf areas remote from cows/cow manure 9 2 4 3Never more than a single cow in the 8 4 3 1calving pen/area
  35. 35. Between herd biosecurity1.3 Did you purchase animals in the last 5 years 30 Yes, from multiple herds 20 Yes, from two or less herds of unknown status 7 Yes, from two or less herds of known negative herd status 1 No animals have been purchased in the last 5 yearsComment: The introduction of infected animals from other infected herds is the way JD moves from herd to herd.Introducing animals from multiple herds is associated with both an increased risk of introducing MAP, as well as withhaving a higher percentage of the herd being test positive. If animals need to be purchased, buy from low risk herds (herds with a testing history). Tests of individual animals prior to purchase do not provide evidence of the infection status of that individual.
  36. 36. Calving pen and preweaning2.7 What is the duration of exposure of the newborn calf to the cow? 10 Less that 10% of calves are removed from the dam within 30 minutes 7 Between 10 and 50% of calves are removed from the dam within 30 minutes 4 Between 50 and 90% of calves are removed from the dam within 30 minutes 1 More than 90% of calves are removed from the dam within 30 minutes3.2 What is the source of colostrum fed to calves? 10 Calves are fed pooled colostrum or colostrum from multiple cows 5 Calves are fed colostrum from a cow other than their dam 1 ALL calves are fed colostrum only from their mother or a single low risk donor cowComment: Colostrum can be a source of infection for calves if there are undetected shedding animals in the herd.For negative or low prevalence herds (environmental culture negative), the most practical risk control is to fed colostrumfrom one cow to one calf. Testing of the status of donor cows or dams should be within the last year.
  37. 37. Take home Johne’s is a worldwide issue  Production, reproduction, culling Developed dairy countries have programs  Testing is challenging but control of spread is understood Atlantic Canada has launched a very successful initiative  Risk-based (between and within herd)  Minimal testing
  38. 38. Last Call Funding allows for enrolment of 60% of herds Currently at 53% If you are on the fence now is the time to step up!
  39. 39. Thanks Norman, Art, Tasha, Maria & Marcelo Certified Vets & Registered Producers Steering Committee & Scientific Committee Funding Agencies

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