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  1. 1. 1Time Management
  2. 2. 2Learning Objectives• When you have completed this module youwill be able to define the key conceptsassociated with Time Management and youwill be able to:• Identify the main obstacles to effective TimeManagement in your daily role• Understand the nature of Time Management
  3. 3. 3Learning Objectives• Understand a range of tools, techniques andconcepts for Time Management• Use these techniques to build an effectiveTime Management process that will enhanceyour productivity and lower your stress• Explain the benefits of having an effectiveTime Management process
  4. 4. 4Introduction
  5. 5. 5Time Management & The Organization• Looking at time management from the perspective ofthe organization what are the benefits:– Improved productivity through improved use of time by thepersonnel– Better performance in terms of on time delivery to customers– Increased profitability through better use of the human andnon-human resources
  6. 6. 6– Improved planning and control of businesssystems through time based management– Better alignment of activities byincorporating a time bound system for co-ordination of tasks and projects in thebusiness– Reduction of stress that arises due to crisismanagement by reducing the incidence ofcrises by better planningTime Management & The Organization
  7. 7. 7IntroductionWhat is TimeManagement?What is TimeManagement?Time as aCommodityTime as aCommodityEssential HabitsEssential HabitsTypes of TimeTypes of TimeOver & UnderEstimation of TimeOver & UnderEstimation of Time
  8. 8. 8What is Time Management?• Time management has five main aspects:– Planning & Goal Setting– Managing Yourself– Dealing with Other People– Your Time– Getting Results– The first 4 all interconnect and interact to generatethe fifth - results
  9. 9. 9Time as a Commodity• Time is the most precious thing we have• Time is ultimately the most valuable resource• Time and how we spend it within theorganization must be managed effectively• Time is totally perishable• Time cannot be stored up for use later
  10. 10. 10Essential Habits• Essential habits for good time managementare:– Know where the hours are going– Keep focused on the end result– Work to defined priorities– Schedule time for important issues– Delegate routine tasks and responsibility for them– Confront your own indecision and delay– Take the stress out of work– Keep applying the essential habits!
  11. 11. 11Types of Time• Time can be categorized into two types:– Fast time• when absorbed in, or enjoying an activity– Slow time• when bored with an activity or having a badtime• when scared
  12. 12. 12Over- & Under-estimating Time• Time for tasks or activities can be over-or under-estimated due to– Intensity of activity– Level of brain function– Length of gaps between enjoyments– Fear or ecstasy
  13. 13. 13Effects of Estimating Time Incorrectly• Under-estimation of time• Stress due to committing to too many tasks• Poor quality output• Deadlines may be missed• Over-estimation of time• Stress due to people pressing to haveactivities completed• Poor quality output• Deadlines set may not match requirements
  14. 14. 14Time Management Principles
  15. 15. 15Time Management PrinciplesTime Management PrinciplesTime Management PrinciplesSpent Time MatrixSpent Time MatrixQuadrant 2Quadrant 2Time-BasedManagementTime-BasedManagement
  16. 16. 16Time Management• Covey identified 4 waves in timemanagement– 1 Notes and Checklists– Recognition of the demands on energy & time– 2 Calendars and appointment books– Scheduling with some focus on the future– 3 Prioritization– Comparison of the relative worth of activities– 4 Self management– Realization that time cannot be managed - it is ourselvesthat we have to manage!The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Covey,1989
  17. 17. 17Spent Time MatrixQ1Q3Q2Q4CrisesDeadlinesPreventionRelationship BuildingPlanningRecreationInterruptionsSome MeetingsPopular ActivitiesPleasant ActivitiesBusy WorkTime WastersTriviaUrgent Not UrgentImportantNotImportant
  18. 18. 18Quadrant 1• Being in Quadrant 1 brings– Stress– Burnout– Crises management– Firefighting– Focus on the immediate
  19. 19. 19Quadrant 3• Being in Quadrant 3 brings– Short term focus– Crises management– Low value on goals– Feeling of victimization / lack of control– Shallow relationships
  20. 20. 20Quadrants 3 & 4• Cycling between Quadrants 3 & 4brings:– Total irresponsibility– High dependency on others for basics– Short career path in the organization
  21. 21. 21Quadrant 2• Being in Quadrant 2 brings:– Vision– Perspective– Balance– Discipline– ControlThe Seven Habits of Highly Effective People: Covey,1989
  22. 22. 22Characteristics of a Quadrant 2 Person• There are six basic criteria to allow aperson to function in Quadrant 2:– Coherence– Balance– Focus– An ability to get on with people– Flexibility– Portability
  23. 23. 23Quadrant 2 RequirementsThe basic requirements to reach Quadrant 2 are:• Clear definition of organizational roles and specificallyyour own role• Selection of and focus on SMART goals• Development and utilization of schedules• The practice of daily adapting in work role
  24. 24. 24Saying No and Quadrant 2• To stay within Quadrant 2, there is arequirement that you must say no:– In a professional manner– When items are associated with Quadrant 3 orQuadrant 4 activities• Not important not urgent• Not important but urgent• Will not deliver competitive advantage
  25. 25. 25Time-Based Management• Fundamentals:– Focus is on time and resources– Pre-analysis of performance– Analysis of goals and objectives– Systemization of processes
  26. 26. 26Focus on Time & Resources• For effective management of time there needs to be a reasonableattempt made to look at the time and resources required tocomplete a task:• The quality of the outcome is directly influenced by the resourcesand time constraints involvedQualityTimeResources
  27. 27. 27Pre-Analysis Of Performance• The ability to learn from past experience allows timemanagement to improve performance• The discipline of reviewing past performance allowsthe organization to:– Debug projects before initiation and subsequent waste ofresources– Define critical points in processes which need to haveparticular attention paid to them– Improve the overall utilization of resources by capturing andimplementing best practice
  28. 28. 28Analysis of Goals & Objectives• By setting goals that relate to businessperformance and conform to SMART criteriathe organization will improve productivity:– S -- specific and well defined objectives– M -- measurable outputs and inputs– A -- achievable in terms of resources availableand expectations– R -- relevant to the overall business strategy– T -- time bound with an operational schedule
  29. 29. 29Systemization of Processes• The ability to design and implementprocesses that allow consistency of– Input– Output– Training and skill transfer– Consistency allows for time to be gaugedaccurately for activities which assists in thescheduling aspect of capacity planning in theorganization
  30. 30. 30Time-based Management• Need to look at– Is the allotted time for completion of plans realisticfor the person / team?– In the effort to achieve results, is efficient usemade of the available time?– For teams - how can the time available be used togenerate the optimal results?– Is task-related time management appropriate andrealistic in the situation?
  31. 31. 31Productive Work
  32. 32. 32Productive WorkBusy V’s ProductiveBusy V’s ProductiveIndecision & DelayIndecision & DelayOverworkOverworkUrgency V ImportanceUrgency V ImportancePrioritizationPrioritization
  33. 33. 33Busy Work• Just because you are busy does notmean that you are productive• Differentiate between– Effectiveness -- doing the right things– Efficiency -- doing the right things correctly
  34. 34. 34Busy v Productive Work• Problem No 1: Procrastination• Putting off doing the things that you should bedoing at this point!• Solution• List all tasks that you are currently putting off• Remove two from the list by doing them now!• Plan and set a schedule for dealing with the rest• Reward when tasks are completed• Punish when tasks are not completed on schedule
  35. 35. 35Dealing with Indecision or Delay• When faced with a task - decide to deal with itaccording to one of the following actions:– Do it– Delegate it– Dump it– Deadline it– Dissect it
  36. 36. 36Busy v Productive Work• Problem No 2: Paralyzing perfectionism– This is a failure to recognize the difference betweenexcellence and perfection• Excellence• Achievable• Healthy• Satisfying• Realistic• Perfection• Unattainable• Frustrating• Unrealistic
  37. 37. 37Busy v Productive Work• Problem No 3: Setting unchallenging objectives– Objectives need to be set that challenge you in a realisticmanner and take heed of resource availability Otherwiseyou are busy without any possibility of success• Use SMARTS criteria where the objectives are:– Specific– Measurable– Attainable– Realistic– Time-bound– Supported by the organization
  38. 38. 38Overwork• Overwork can have effects that may beclassified as– Psychological– Physiological• People are overloaded for two main reasons– The person or team does too much– The person or team have too much to do
  39. 39. 39Overwork• To deal with over-work, try the following– Understand your pressures– Don’t get worked up or panicked– Don’t blame everything on yourself– Walk away– Estimate time as well as possible– Agree priorities and keep them– Remind yourself that there is a limitedamount of time available to you
  40. 40. 40Urgency V Importance• Differentiating between– Urgent tasks• assume importance as they demand immediateattention– Important tasks• May become urgent if left undone• Usually have a long term effect– To judge importance v urgency, gauge tasksin terms of• Impact of doing them• Effect of not doing them
  41. 41. 41Prioritization GridImportanceUrgencyPriority 1Priority 2Priority 3Priority 4
  42. 42. 42Prioritization• The main aim of prioritization is to avoid a crisis• To do this then you mustSchedule your Prioritiesas opposed toPrioritizing your Schedule
  43. 43. 43Crisis Management
  44. 44. 44Crisis ManagementProactive V ReactiveProactive V ReactiveWhy Crises OccurWhy Crises OccurAnticipating & PreventingCrisesAnticipating & PreventingCrises
  45. 45. 45Proactive v Reactive Work• Reactive work - concentrates on getting thingsdone– Handling daily routines– Dealing with urgency– Resolving crises– Handling interruptions
  46. 46. 46Proactive v Reactive Work• Proactive work - concentrates on makingthings happen– Developing plans and schedules– Focusing on key tasks– Achieving deadlines & targets– Managing projects
  47. 47. 47Why Crises Occur• Checklist of reasons:– Failure to recognize the crisis– Underestimation of time required– No contingency plan is ready– No follow-up on delegated tasks
  48. 48. 48Anticipating & Preventing Crises• The most effective way to anticipateand prevent crises is to:– Set deadlines and stick with them– Use interim targets and milestones tobreak the task or project into manageablechunks– Build the schedule so that it is realistic
  49. 49. 49Planning
  50. 50. 50PlanningWhat is a Plan?What is a Plan?Information & PlanningInformation & PlanningTime Management SystemsTime Management SystemsGoals & Time SpansGoals & Time SpansCascadingCascadingThe Daily PlanThe Daily Plan
  51. 51. 51Planning in Time ManagementRule No 1Failing to Planis Planning to Fail
  52. 52. 52What is a Plan?A plan is a road map set inreal time to reach anobjective or set of objectivesthrough the use of definedresources
  53. 53. 53Information & PlanningEssential information:• You need to know what you have to plan• Once this is established– Break the task into manageable chunks– Gauge the time required for each chunk– Schedule each chunk into a logical sequence
  54. 54. 54Time Management Systems• There are certain key criteria that need to beapplied to a time management system:– Functional– Portable– Intelligible
  55. 55. 55Time Management SystemsPitfalls• Totally dis-organized ‘system’– Nothing can be located when required• Perfectly maintained system– Too much time is spent keeping thesystem in perfect condition as opposed toactioning the items contained within it
  56. 56. 56Time Management Systems• Key components– Appointments– Dated deadlines– Tasks - to do and work in progress– Ideas and notes– Key task identification– Personal information– Financial planning records– Crises log– Project log– Contact list
  57. 57. 57Goals & Time-spans• A time management system is ineffective if definedgoals are not available to work towards– Strategic Goals - long term goals, perhaps out to five years– Tactical Goals - medium term goals, from 3 - 12 monthsahead– Operational Goals - short term goals defining the exactaction to be taken The schedule may cover hours or days
  58. 58. 58Checklist for Goals• Checklist for Goals– Are they realistic and challenging?– Have they been agreed with the manager andlinked to the performance appraisal system?– Do you know what it will look like when you haveachieved the goal (visualization)?– Are the goals important to you?– Is there a time bound aspect to the goals?– Are the goals SMART?– What will the reward be once the goals have beenachieved?
  59. 59. 59Cascading• Planning levels should cascade as follows:– Yearly overview plan– Monthly Plan– Weekly Plan– Daily Plan• Note that in the cascade, the time span decreases whereasthe level of complexity increases
  60. 60. 60The Daily Plan• The Daily Plan should cover three mainareas:– Scheduled activities for the day showing timeallocated to each– Identification of key tasks for the day to allow themto be prioritized– Indication of who you need to contact during theday to allow you to complete tasks
  61. 61. 61The Daily Plan• When setting out the daily plan payattention to the following points:– When do you perform best, suit your bio-rhythm– Build in planning time at the start and endof the day– Prioritize actions into ‘musts, shoulds andcoulds and focus on the ‘musts’
  62. 62. 62The Daily Plan• Guidelines continued– Leave room for unexpecteds– Don’t stack meetings back to back– Batch telephone calls– Build in quality time
  63. 63. 63Tips & Techniques
  64. 64. 64Tips & TechniquesTime LogsTime LogsQuality TimeQuality TimeManaging DocumentsManaging DocumentsManaging InterruptionsManaging InterruptionsManaging WorkspaceManaging WorkspaceManaging your PhoneManaging your Phone
  65. 65. 65Time-logs• A time-log is an effective way to see where your timeactually goes to during the working day Record theinformation for about 2 weeks to get a representativepicture of time spent• By logging activities and the time taken to completethem, the time-log provides useful information thatcan identify• Accuracy of estimating time for tasks• Time stealing activities• Level of interruption• Loading during the day• Crises points / tasks
  66. 66. 66Quality Time• Quality time is where you can plan to do themost important high priority tasks• It allows for deep concentration througheliminating interruptions• It imposes a structure on work• It allows you to move away from reactivework to proactive work
  67. 67. 67Dealing with Documents• Document handling can steal a vast quantityof time from our working day• Improve your document handling by:• Handling documents only once by :– Act on what is required by the document– File the document for reference later– Dump the document
  68. 68. 68Dealing with Documents• Have a good system for handling your documentsthat allows you to:– Define what you need to keep and for how long– Allows you to file materials easily and logically– Facilitates access to materials– Purge the files on a regular basis
  69. 69. 69Managing Interruptions• Try to reduce the number of interruptions byapplying the following techniques:• Create a visual barrier at your workspace to reduce theincidence of ‘drop-in’ visits• Don’t have extra chairs in your workspace - people donot hang around as long if they must stand• For important work - move to another space so thepotential interruptors can’t find you!• Tell people that you are busy, explain why and arrangeto contact them at a more suitable time
  70. 70. 70Managing Your Workspace• How our workspace is organized has an impacton how efficient we are - try the following toimprove efficiency– De-clutter your desk by clearing it at the end of eachworking day– File documents once they have been used– Purge files regularly– Organize a work flow system in your space
  71. 71. 71Managing Your Phone• The telephone can be responsible for eating vast quantitiesof time - control the phone by using:– Batch your outward calls– Delegate calls that you don’t have to make personally to one of yourteam– Terminate calls once the business has been done– Set up a rota in your team for handling incoming calls
  72. 72. 72Summary
  73. 73. 73Summary• Have a great planning system and use it• Take on realistic goals an schedule accurately• Do not over-commit• Set and agree priorities to distinguish between urgent andimportant tasks• Build in some flexibility to cope with anything unexpected• Control your documents, workspace and phone
  74. 74. 74Summary• Don’t procrastinate – Manage Your Time Today• Define and use periods of quality time in yourschedule• Learn to say No in a professional manner• Stay away from perfectionism and aim for excellence• Build in time for personal development