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Agroforestry approach for sustainability in biofuel value chain

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Presentation by Balakrishna Gowda, Professor and Project Coordinator, Biofuel Park (India) presented at the "IFAD-ICRAF Biofuel Program" side event which took place alongside the thirty-eighth session of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA 38) in Bonn, Germany 5 June, 2013.

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Agroforestry approach for sustainability in biofuel value chain

  1. 1. AGRO FORESTRY APPROACHTO SUSTAINABILITY IN BIOFUEL VALUE CHAINBalakrishna GowdaProfessor, Bio fuel Park,University of Agricultural Sciences,Bangalore ,
  2. 2. Agro forestry modelAn approach developed at University of agriculturalsciences, BangaloreA model for sustainable agriculture practice that can builda strong foundation crop productivity and for bio fuelsVision: Food and Fuel and not Food v/s Fuel
  3. 3. Facts:Indian Agriculture system is comprehensive with treesas a part of crop productionTrees are inseparable part of farming system inproviding scope for meeting the requirements like- Agriculture implements- Leaf manure for agriculture land- shelter- plant protection- support bird population- barrier for many pests- also yield seeds with oil content
  4. 4. The viable option:• Sensitize farmers to grow trees as in the pastalong borders, Bunds, back yards, ravines etc.-that do not invade into agriculture land andaffect its productivity• Multispecies, decentralized growing of plantsto get the feed stock for bio fuels in all seasons• Collection an processing an value addition atvillage level for sustainability
  5. 5. The back groundIndia has more than 300 species of trees naturally growing indifferent agro climatic and agro ecological situations whichyield oil from their seeds ranging from 10-70% in the kernelsKarnataka state has around 100 species with oil contentranging from 10-70%There are already 5-7 species of trees grown by farmerswhich yield in different part of the yearThe seeds obtained from these are being used by them forexpelling oil for lighting Medicine and other uses.contd..
  6. 6. Contd..The process of oil expelling made in villages withtraditional communities with traditional equipmentsThe de oiled cake was used in agriculture as manure,which was discontinued long with the advent of Modernagriculture practiceThe oil, oil cake and biomass have natural chemicalsthat can check most of the agriculture pests anddiseases
  7. 7. Name Seed yield in kg/tree Oil PercentageAphanamixis polystachya 25-40 30-40%Pongamia pinnata 30-150 27-42%Azadirachta indica 20-35 30-39%Calophyllum inophyllum 25-50 45-70%Madhuca indica 30-200 28-38%Holigarna grahamii 25-40 25-35%Jatropha curcas 0.5-2.0 30-35%Madhuca neriifolia 20-30 20-30%Mimusops elengi 40-60 25-30%Palaquirum elliptium 25-50 25-35%Pterygota alata 30-40 30-40%Seleropyrum pentandrum 10-20 40-50%Saraca asoca 20-35 40-45%Sterculia guttata 30-40 30-45%Mesua ferrea 40-100 40-50%Naturally available oil yielding species
  8. 8. Name of thespeciesFlowering Fruiting Duration ofharvestPongamia pinnata May-June January to March 2-3 monthsJatropha March –SeptemberApril- May andOctober-NovemberOne month eachin two times ayearMadhuca March april July- August 1-2 monthsNeem March April June July 2-3 monthsSimarouba February April-May 1-2 monhtsAmoora September-JanuaryNovember- April 5-6 monhtsCalophyllum March - May October-November2 monhtsFlowering and fruiting period of selected species
  9. 9. UAS Bangalore – Back ground activities Concept initiated in 1995 for introduction of treeborne oil seed crops (TBO) Documented 95 non edible oil yielding species in thestate Selection of high yielders with high oil content inselected species across the state-1998 Suitability of species for distinct agro climatic regions2001 based on the performance Establishment of orchards mother plants initiated in2002
  10. 10. • Peoples participation in recognizing high yielders acrossthe state – Milk union members 2004• Establishment of first trial model at Doddaballapur –Bangalore north involving a cluster of 72 villages with milkunion groups• Success of the model in growing, collection, marketingand value addition• Development of a mega model for implementing theprogram on a large scale with District as a target
  11. 11. BIOFUEL PARK , MADENUR,HASSANUniversity of Agricultural Sciences,Bangalore
  12. 12. BIO FUEL PARK, HASSAN- A MEGAMODEL• Objective: To develop a center of excellence with capability toprovide complete information and model for production of biofuels across the state in varied agro climatic situations• Phase I - 5 years from 2007 onwardsselection of the location:•Very diverse environmentalconditions Rainfall pattern 450-7000 mm•Altitudinal range from 300 -1600 m•Varied soil types, diversecrops,•diverse vegetation types
  13. 13. Sl. No. Land utilization Area in ha Per cent1 Geographical area of Hassan district 662602 1002 Forest 58164 8.773 Not available forcultivationNot available for cultivation 77989 11.77Barren 30359 4.584 Uncultivated Cult waste 11117 1.67Per pasture 33358 5.03Tree grown 6312 0.9525 Fallow Cultivable fallow 43497 6.56Other fallow 26369 3.986 Net sown 370437 55.917 Total cropped area 414017 62.488 Area sown more than once 43580 6.58GEOGRAPHICAL AREA OF THE DISTRICT LAND THELAND RESOURCES OF HASSAN DISTRICT
  14. 14. LAND HOLDING PATTERN OF THE FARMERS IN THE DISTRICTSl.No.Farmer / land holding Extent Number /AreaPer cent1 Marginal farmersless than 1 haNumber 288279 66.11Area 119167 26.4742 Small farmers1-2 haNumber 96314 22.08Area 134317 29.833 Semi Medium farmers2-4 haNumber 38623 8.857Area 102810 22.844 Medium farmers4-10 haNumber 11362 2.60Area 63435 14.095 Large farmers 10 haand aboveNumber 1481 0.3396Area 30399 6.7536 Total Number 436059 100Area 450128 100
  15. 15. BIOFUEL PARK, HASSAN AT A GLANCEProject initiated from May, 2007Established in the district of Hassan with variety of Agroclimatic conditions -- Malnad, Transition zone, dry and semiarid hills and plains.Covering 2559 villages28,000 ha of waste lands and marginal lands of the district tobe covered without interfering in the agricultural land.Establishment of oil expelling units in each taluk.Establishment of a model Bio-diesel unit at Madenur, HassanBio-ethanol production from agricultural wastes, sugarcaneand sweet sorghum at Madenur.Establishment of bio fuel driven power generation units ofOne MW capacity in two locations
  16. 16. Interactionwith Farmers
  17. 17. Biofuel Associations
  18. 18. Jatropha curcas Pongamia pinnataMadhuca indicaSimarauba glaucaAzadirhacta indicaProminent SpeciesAphanamyxis polystachya
  19. 19. Calophyllum inophyllum
  20. 20. Mesua ferrea Garcinia indica
  21. 21. Veteria indica Sterculia urens Sterculia guttata
  22. 22. Amoora rohituka
  23. 23. SeedsSimarouba JatrophaPongamiaNeemMohua
  24. 24. Nursery Activities
  25. 25. Awareness programme in Schools
  26. 26. Planting Programme
  27. 27. Oil expeller running on single phase crushing10-15 kg seeds / hr
  28. 28. Market network• Market network on the lines of milk union- a provenmodel in the state and many parts of the country• Assured purchase and price policy• Provide linkage with user industries• Provide maximum benefits to farming community
  29. 29. Interactions at Melas
  30. 30. Achievements2050 villages covered for data inventory.14,85,000 seedlings of five bio-fuel crop species (viz.,Honge, Mohua, Neem, Jatropha and Simarouba)Planted in17500 acres equivalent (bunds, margins, wastelands, ravines, community lands etc.)1335 Awareness meetings and training programs held atvillages and at Madenur centreAbout 106500 farmers and interested people participatedin the program with 40% accounting for womenparticipants.Complete bio-fuel village with every household planted bio-fuel species – 70 villages.Market linkages being made for sale of bio-diesel feedstockwith assured price and purchase of bio-diesel by KSRTC,Southern Railways and other agencies in progress.470 Oil seeds growers & collectors associations are formed.
  31. 31. AchievementsThe district is expected to produce seeds and oil expelled wouldvalue at Rs.25-30 crores by 2013-14- evaluated by Sweedishagency at Rs.60 crores in 2012 ? Self employment generation to each house hold 15-30 mandays every year Use of by products in villages to benefit agriculture Seed processingOil : 30% for fuelCake : 65%c major by productUsed in biogas unit to producing 250 lts biogas/kguse of slurry as manurePart of the oil cake as animal feedMajor part as manure reducing use of chemicalfertilizer
  32. 32. Mini biodiesel unitBiodiesel unit
  33. 33. Model for use of Bio fuel (oil) in villagesex: village of 100 house hold with about 200 ha of land in avillage @ rate of 10 trees / ha along borders/ hedges= 2000 trees (average yield @ 10 years >30 kg /treeProduce =2000 x 15 kg seeds/ tree =30000 kg of seedsOil @30% = 9000 kgsThe oil can meet the power requirement of village for 300days in a year lighting for 5 hrs a day, drinking water forthe village, school and primary health careTrans esterification process : produce biodiesel beingused by community in all their agriculturemachineries, transport vehicles etc.