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Miyuki iiyama-charcoal-tree-based-bioenergy-icraf-may2015

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Workshop on sustainable tree-based bioenergy at ICRAF. 27-28 May 2015. Charcoal in Africa

Publicado en: Medio ambiente
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Miyuki iiyama-charcoal-tree-based-bioenergy-icraf-may2015

  1. 1. Livelihoods,  charcoal,  ecosystem…   •  Indigenous  forests  of  precious  hardwood  species,  breeding  sites  for  wild  animals     •  Lack  of  alterna9ve  livelihoods,    need  for  pasture,  promp9ng  tree  felling  for  charcoal  for   small  return   •  Difficulty  of  controlling  produc9on  and  trades  and  to  conserve    with  complex  directories   and  lack  of    clear  responsibili9es  among  ministries  in  charge  
  2. 2. Drivers of degradation across landscape Activities, actors, formal/informal multi- sectoral regulatory frameworks across different stages of value chain/landscape Rural forests, woodlands, range- lands, farmlands Production & processing Transport End-use Value chain Road networks Urban markets, settlements Retail by city traders Consumption by urban households Carbonization by farmers / charcoal burners Wood harvest by farmers Collection by middlemen Wholesale by dealers Energy Sector Local Authority, Police Forestry Sector Agricul. Sector Land, tree tenure Growing demand for charcoal along urbanization Extensive tree exploitation Poverty, income needs Unclear regulatory frameworks, room for corruption, bribes Damaged ecosystem services, loss of resilience Perceived free resources Lifestyle change Trade-offs Unaffordability of alternative energy Lack of incentives to adopt sustainable technologies Squeezed margins for charcoal producers Longer supply distance, higher footprints Charcoal  Economics  in  Landscape  Context  –  Conceptual  Framework  
  3. 3. goal  –  sustainable  charcoal  •  Compara9ve  studies  between  African  countries,  and  even  Asia/La9n  America…     Rwanda  Case   Price  (RWF)   /32kg   Price   (USD)/kg   Producer   margin   Nyungwe   4,000  RWF     0.18  $/kg       Butare  city   5,500-­‐6,000RW F   0.24-­‐0.26   $/kg   66-­‐72%   Kigali  city   7,500  RWF   0.33  $/kg   53%   Kenya  Case   Price  (KSH)   /35.7kg   Price   (USD)/kg    Producer   margin   Farm  gate  price   KFS  -­‐  438  Ksh     (Mara  -­‐  100ksh)   0.14  $/kg   (0.03$)       Nairobi  price   1,949ksh   0.61  $/kg   22%  (5%)   (casu (Keny Rwanda   •  Only  Forestry  Dep    –  Ministry  of  Natural   Resources  is  a  responsible  authority.   •  A  land  owner  to  clear  a  plot  over  0.25  ha,   transporters  obtain  permits  from  District   Gov  which  controls  all  the  revenue,  while   Na9onal  Government  does  not  interfere.         •  Charcoal  is  a  rela9vely  profitable  business   while  the  same  Eucalyptus  can  serve  mul9-­‐ purposes  –  firewood,  9mber,  bean  stakes.     •  In  sum,  the  impacts  of  centralized  policies,   decentralized  implementa9on,  higher   margins  for  landowner/producers,  mul9-­‐ purpose  trees  compa9ble  with  local  crop-­‐ livestock  systems,  are  key
  4. 4. Expected outcomes across landscape Landscape approach for sustainable charcoal Rural forests, woodlands, range- lands, farmlands Production & processing Transport End-use Value chain Road networks Urban markets, settlements Multi-stakeholder management structure to handle externalities Tree planting, regeneration Sustained income Clear regulatory frameworks, little room for corruption, bribes Enhanced ecosystem services, Improved resilience Right valuation of resources Synergies Retail by city traders Carbonization by farmers / charcoal burners Wood harvest by farmers Collection by middlemen Wholesale by dealers Inter-sectoral coordination to get the policy environment right Consumption by urban households Affordability of efficient devices Lifestyle change Shorter supply distance, lower footprints Moderate demand for charcoal along urbanization Adoption of sustainable technologies Higher margins for charcoal producers Charcoal  Economics  in  Landscape  Context  –  Conceptual  Framework  

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