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Socioeconomic and environmental
trade-offs for multifunctional
landscapes: rice-fish Bac Kan
Elisabeth Simelton
In collabo...
Rice-fish culture
RISKS

STRENGTHS
Food Security

Fish + No significant rice yield loss
Fish sells +10.000VND/kg
Socioecon...
Rice-fish
• Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHSFAO)
• Autonomous adoption: widespread without
Governmen...
Outline
• Study site, Data & methods
•
•
•
•
•
•

3 policies influencing rice fish (Bac Kan)
Who does rice-fish? Why? Why ...
Study site: Bac Kan province
• Survey I: Longitudinal study
n=23
• Focus group discussions n=12
– DISTRICTS: Na Ri, Ha Vi
...
High

PAM (Reforestation
programmes 327)
1980s- 1990s
National Food
Security Policy
PES (Decree 99-2010)

Low

SOCIO-ECONO...
Ecosystem Services Rating
Ecosystem Services

Farmers rate
5

6

Economic value

5

6

0.5

1

Clean water

0

2

Shade

0...
Household types
n=285

Rice Fish (RF-) Mono-rice (MR-)
Tot
Lúa không
Cá ruộng

Food SelfSufficient (-FSS)

53

160

213

F...
9

Non-self sufficient -- Self sufficient

8
Rice-fish

7

Farm contexts

Mono rice
hectare

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
RF - NSS MR - N...
Paddy field characteristics
RF - NSS
MR - FSS
0.4

hectare

0.3

0.2
0.1
0

Source: HH Survey II

MR - NSS
RF - FSS

• Foo...
High

PAM (Reforestation
programmes 327)
1980s- 1990s

National Food
Security Policy 2010
PES (Decree 99-2010)
Low

SOCIO-...
Ecosystem Services Rating
Farmers rate

Ecosystem Services

PES
Decree
99

Potential

X

+++

5

6

Economic value

5

6

...
High

PAM (Reforestation
programmes 327)
1980s- 1990s

National Food
Security Policy
PES (Decree 99-2010)
Low

SOCIO-ECONO...
Rice-fish: 3 knowledge gaps
• Adaptation: Reducing exposure to extreme events
– Flood risk (storm)
– Cold spell – alternat...
Lessons learned: 3 adoption principles
multifunctional farming system
• Additional component(s) add value, do not
interfer...
Conclusions
• Rice fish is an important component of food self
sufficient households
– Provides food (quantity & quality)
...
Look at The Talking Toolkit for focus group
discussions on adaptation
http://worldagroforestry.org/regions/southeast_asia/...
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Socioeconomic and environmental trade-offs for multifunctional landscapes: rice-fish Bac Kan

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Socioeconomic and environmental trade-offs for multifunctional landscapes: rice-fish Bac Kan

  1. 1. Socioeconomic and environmental trade-offs for multifunctional landscapes: rice-fish Bac Kan Elisabeth Simelton In collaboration with: Dam Viet Bac, Ngo The An, Nguyen Thi Hoa Email: e.simelton@cgiar.org Funding: FORMAS Sweden Technical workshop on Methods and Experiences in Climate Change Research and Assessments in Fisheries and Aquaculture Hanoi Sep 6, 2013
  2. 2. Rice-fish culture RISKS STRENGTHS Food Security Fish + No significant rice yield loss Fish sells +10.000VND/kg Socioeconomic & environmental synergies Biological weed control Less fertiliser (NPK) Biological pest control Less fish disease Tastier fish meat than pond Sensitive to extreme events Cold spell (tilapia) Water stress (flood/storm, drought) Adaptation? New rice varieties  Mechanisation  More ponds  less rice-fish Polluted water kills fish Theft Mitigation? Excess manure input?  Overfertilisation/methane emissions? Higher labour requirement? Source: Focus Group Discussions 2012-13; Literature review
  3. 3. Rice-fish • Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHSFAO) • Autonomous adoption: widespread without Government/project support • Multi-functional system – economic diversification (WB) – diversification of environmental functions (MEA) • Climate-Smart Agriculture (FAO, CGIAR) – Food security & livelihood improvement – Adapted for climate change – Mitigation (sequestration/reduced emission) What are the barriers for adoption of rice-fish?
  4. 4. Outline • Study site, Data & methods • • • • • • 3 policies influencing rice fish (Bac Kan) Who does rice-fish? Why? Why not? Policy recommendations Research gaps Adoption barriers - 3 lessons learned Conclusions
  5. 5. Study site: Bac Kan province • Survey I: Longitudinal study n=23 • Focus group discussions n=12 – DISTRICTS: Na Ri, Ha Vi – METHOD: Participatory ranking • Survey II: Household survey n=285 Households: – DISTRICTS: Pac Nam, Ngan Son – METHOD: Trade-off : Pairwise correlation • Households types • • Mono-rice (MR) and rice-fish (RF) Food self-sufficient (FSS) – non selfsufficient (NSS) 40 km 30 km
  6. 6. High PAM (Reforestation programmes 327) 1980s- 1990s National Food Security Policy PES (Decree 99-2010) Low SOCIO-ECONOMIC BENEFITS Viet Nam: 3 policies influencing multifunctional land use & food security Low Source: HH Survey I High ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS
  7. 7. Ecosystem Services Rating Ecosystem Services Farmers rate 5 6 Economic value 5 6 0.5 1 Clean water 0 2 Shade 0 1.5 Natural pest control 0 3.5 Resilience to extreme weather events 1 0 0.5 2 Soil water content 0 1 Prevent soil erosion 1 1 Biodiversity Regulating RF Food provision Provisioning MR 0.5 2 Landscape beauty 0.5 1.5 Fuel provision Enhance soil fertility Supporting Cultural Source: Focus group discussions 2013 (mixed gender, mixed RF/MR farmers)
  8. 8. Household types n=285 Rice Fish (RF-) Mono-rice (MR-) Tot Lúa không Cá ruộng Food SelfSufficient (-FSS) 53 160 213 Food Non-Self Sufficient (-NSS) 11 61 72 Total 64 221 Source: HH Survey II
  9. 9. 9 Non-self sufficient -- Self sufficient 8 Rice-fish 7 Farm contexts Mono rice hectare 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 RF - NSS MR - NSS MR - FSS RF - FSS Rice Area Upland Crop Intercrop Tree-Based Forest Plant Forest Natural Source: HH Survey II (n=285) • Food sufficiency is possible despite smaller total areas • Non-self sufficient HHs have large shares natural forest (no economic value), smaller forest plantation areas  implications for participation in PES? • Food self-sufficiency is associated with land use, not total area
  10. 10. Paddy field characteristics RF - NSS MR - FSS 0.4 hectare 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Source: HH Survey II MR - NSS RF - FSS • Food self-sufficiency associated with paddy area, irrigated share (2 crops/year) - not total farm area • Mono-rice households have cash crop instead of fish MR -… • RF-NSS least RF - NSS irrigation, mechanisatio n, cash crop of all
  11. 11. High PAM (Reforestation programmes 327) 1980s- 1990s National Food Security Policy 2010 PES (Decree 99-2010) Low SOCIO-ECONOMIC BENEFITS Bac Kan: 3 policies influencing household land use & food security Low Source: HH Survey I n=23 High ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS
  12. 12. Ecosystem Services Rating Farmers rate Ecosystem Services PES Decree 99 Potential X +++ 5 6 Economic value 5 6 0.5 1 Clean water 0 2 Shade 0 1.5 Natural pest control 0 3.5 Resilience to extreme weather events 1 0 0.5 2 Soil water content 0 1 Prevent soil erosion 1 1 X ++ Biodiversity Regulating RF Food provision Provisioning MR 0.5 2 X + Landscape beauty 0.5 1.5 X + Fuel provision Enhance soil fertility Supporting Cultural +++ + Source: Focus group discussions 2013 (mixed gender, mixed RF/MR farmers)
  13. 13. High PAM (Reforestation programmes 327) 1980s- 1990s National Food Security Policy PES (Decree 99-2010) Low SOCIO-ECONOMIC BENEFITS Recommendations for land use & food security policy Low Source: HH Survey I n=23 High ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS
  14. 14. Rice-fish: 3 knowledge gaps • Adaptation: Reducing exposure to extreme events – Flood risk (storm) – Cold spell – alternatives to tilapia? • Food security: consequences of national rice food security targets on integrated systems – Hybrid rice  More intensive agriculture  less rice fish • Environmental Services: Linking PES to all land uses – – – – Mitigation: Nitrogen leaching? Methane emission? Clean water: Agriculture water pollutants Soil erosion: paddy fields are sedimentation traps Ecotourism
  15. 15. Lessons learned: 3 adoption principles multifunctional farming system • Additional component(s) add value, do not interfere with current land uses on the farm or land use policies • Economic and environmental risks and benefits are well known and rational to the farmer • Flexibility. The new system generates annual outputs and enables multiple possible outcomes
  16. 16. Conclusions • Rice fish is an important component of food self sufficient households – Provides food (quantity & quality) – Generates income • Rice-fish has socio-economic and biophysical synergies – Diversifies income and land use – Negotiable within (most) current land use policies – Potential PES for all land uses • Potential trade-offs – National food security policies (intensified paddy culture) – Mitigation - Uncertain GHG-emissions? – Adaptation - Uncertain under extreme events
  17. 17. Look at The Talking Toolkit for focus group discussions on adaptation http://worldagroforestry.org/regions/southeast_asia/ vietnam/products/tools/talking-toolkit Contact: Elisabeth Simelton E.SIMELTON@CGIAR.ORG

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