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Sustainable development of alternative biofuel crops

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Presentation by Navin Sharma, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), presented at the "IFAD-ICRAF Biofuel Program" side event which took place along the sidelines of the thirty-eighth session of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA 38) in Bonn, Germany June 5, 2013.

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Sustainable development of alternative biofuel crops

  1. 1. Sustainable Development ofAlternative Biofuel CropsIFAD & ICRAF Collaborative ProgrammeNavin Sharma5 June 2013
  2. 2.  “Biofuel technologies must become more efficient interms of net lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissionreductions and be socially and environmentallysustainable. Most first-generation biofuels, with the exception ofsugarcane ethanol, will likely have a limited role in thefuture transport fuel mix”Sustainable Production of SECOND -Generation Biofuels: Potential and perspectives inmajor economies and developing countries February 2010Future Biofuels
  3. 3. Biofuels, Climate Change & Food Security• To restrict global temperature increase to 2 degrees– By 2030, Biofuels to provide 9% of total transport fueldemand (126 EJ): current level 2.7% of the worlds fuels forroad transport (World Energy Outlook 2009; IEA 2009)• Area under Biofuel crops - 1% (14 million Ha) of arableland, will occupy 2.5 – 3.8% (35-54 Million Ha) by 2030(IEA 2006)– By 2050 , 50% reduction in CO2 emissions, biofuels toprovide 26% of total transport fuel (Blue map Scenario of Energy Technology Perspective,IEA 2008)• Will need 1.5 Billion Ha - marginal land,abandoned land will need to be usedCan this be achieved with current biofuel crops or need to change the focusof biofuels for food security by local energy provisions?
  4. 4. Current Status of Biofuels• Development of Biofuel sector in various countries is influenced by themandates and subsidies provided• Considerable debate around biofuels on food vs. fuel and its impacts onfood security– source of current biofuel are edible crops ( first generation biofuel crops)• Can have positive effects on food security - provide the new sources ofincome / employment, and also provide alternative sources of energy forrural communities• Many developing countries (e.g. India) have now developed policies thatspecifically targets Biofuels from non-food / multiple use crops and use ofmarginal land.Food Security & Environment
  5. 5. What are the Real Issues?• The Crops– Exiting Approach of use of food crops in traditionalagricultural land (Food vs Fuel, LUC)• Area under Biofuel crops?– Enough land area apparently available, apart fromtraditional agricultural land (PLUC).• Sustainability– Need to identify suitable crops that can be used insustainable production of biofuels– Use of perennial trees and smart agroforestry system
  6. 6. How is this Programme Different?o Global Programme – will cover Asia, Africa and Latin America in phasedmanner. Region specific strategy will be developed and executed throughstrong partnerships.o Development of alternate and non-food crop or cropping system(Agroforestry) – use of marginal land / land not utilised in agricultureo Combinations of crops for sustainable production throughout the year based on agroclimatic / ecosystemo Covers the whole value chain : Landscape / System Approach6RiD Challenges• Selection of Appropriate Species (Ecosystem based)• Quality planting material• Short rotation crops• Remunerative to small farmers
  7. 7. Agroforestry : Use of Perennials• Less demanding in terms of inputs• Reduce erosion and improve soil properties• More energy per unit of land from these crops• Enough ‘croppable’ land available but not utilised by farmers in their field(e.g. bund and farm roads): Potential for Agroforestry
  8. 8. 838March 2009 Vienna, Austria BIOFUELSand FOOD SECURITY Implications ofan accelerate biofuels productionSummary of the OFID study preparedby IIASAPotential areas : Asia, Africa and Latin America
  9. 9. Karnataka : Perennial SpeciesMeghalaya: PongamiaTamil Nadu : Nipa palm +SalicorniaJatropha - GliciridiaTBDEMBRAPAOilpalm, MacaubaRoad MapIndia (Karnataka, Meghalaya), Sri Lanka and Brazil 9Nipa palm
  10. 10. 10Programme – Phase 1Karnataka - IndiaLinkages with Karnataka- Intensify current agroforestry systems- Identify the gaps in the programme- Develop a pilot / Centre of Excellence- GBEP’s sustainability criteria testPoliciesAppropriateCropsCooperativecollectionmodelBiofuel ParkEnd Use(Demand)Work PlanValue Chain Analysis& InterventionsImproved MarketParticipationLivelihood ImpactsAgri BusinessDevelopment
  11. 11. o In India the average cow / buffalo per farmer is 1.5 (average yield 10 litres milk per animal)o GCMMF has 2.79M members producing 8.4 million litre milk = 2.2 Billion $ turnovero Similarity of number of trees a farmer has in his back yard / field, non perishable produce,- Strong Private Partner Required to make it success, Short Rotation Crops, Higher Yield per dayDairy Model for Biofuel?
  12. 12. 12Programme Phase 2South-South Cooperation with Brazil Learn from the Brazilian experience with biodiesel:o Main challenge: overcome the excessive• dependence on soy beans and castor and• dependence on weather (rainfall). Partner with Embrapa on the development of alternate feedstocks:• Agroforestry model on Jatropha, Macaúba Palm and others.• Agro-ecological zoning in process.• Develop a model for Africa (Clean Star)
  13. 13. Summary & Conclusiono The programme looks beyond use of food cropso Focussed on improving the livelihoods of rural and marginalfarmerso Address the sustainability – economic, environmental and social13Source: Wikipedia