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Tree diversityday2012 ickowitz.pptx

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Presentation on Tree Diversity Day, 11 October 2012, at the 11th CBD Conference of Parties in Hyderabad, India

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Tree diversityday2012 ickowitz.pptx

  1. 1. Trees and Child Nutrition in AfricaAmy Ickowitz , Bronwen Powell, Terry Sunderland Tree Diversity Day COP 11 Hyderabad
  2. 2. Context for Study:Forests vs. Food? § Maybe…  forests  themselves   are  important  for  nutri&on?   § Theore6cal  Rela6onship:     §  Why  might  forests  and  nutri6on   be  nega6vely  related  ?   §  Income  Link       §  Why  might  forests  and  nutri6on   be  posi6vely  related  ?   §  Market  Imperfec&ons        
  3. 3. The StudyObjec&ve:  use  na6onally  rep.  data  from  many  countries   in  Africa  to  empirically  examine  rela6onship  between   tree  cover  and  child  nutri6on    Method:  Integrate  nutri6on  data  from  Demographic   Health  Surveys  from  21  countries  in  Africa  with  GIS   informa6on  on  %  tree  cover  (ISCGM)  to  inves6gate   whether  there  is  a  ss  rela6onship  between  measures   of  child  nutri6on  and  tree  cover    
  4. 4. Sample: Almost 140,000 children between ages13 and 59 months in about 9,400 communities (21 countries )
  5. 5. Nutritional MeasuresDietary  Diversity  Score:    •  A  diverse  diet  is  more  likely  to  contain  adequate  amounts  of  all   essen6al  nutrients    •  linked  to  growth  of  children  and  morbidity  and  mortality      Fruit  and  Vegetable  Consump&on:  •  Fruits  and  vegetables  are  important  sources  of  vitamin  A,  vitamin   C,  folate,  and  phytochemicals  •  The  WHO  ranks  inadequate  consump6on  of  fruits  and  vegetables   as  one  of  the  top  ten  global  health  problems  Animal  Source  Foods  •  Protein  •  sources  of  highly  bio-­‐available  iron,  zinc,  vitamin  A  and  vitamin   B12  
  6. 6. Regressions3  Dependent  Variables:      Dietary  Diversity  Score;  fruit  and  veg  consn;  ASF  consn  Independent  Variables:   •  %  Tree  Cover  and  %  Tree  Cover2   •  Mother’s  educa6on   •  Father’s  educa6on   •  Wealth  Index   •  Rural  Dummy   •  Child  age  &    age2    &  age3   •  Distance  to  Rd   •  Distance  to  closest  city  of  10,000   •  Aridity  Index   •  Boy  dummy   •  Month  of  interview   •  Country  dummy  
  7. 7. Result: DDS•  There  is  a  sta6s6cally  significant  non-­‐linear   rela6onship  between  %  tree  cover  and   preferred  DDS  measure  peaking  at  61%     Dietary  Diversity  Score  &  Tree  Cover   Note:  94%  of   0.07  sample  has  less   0.06   than  61%  tree   0.05   cover   0.04   Dietary  Diversity   0.03   0.02   0.01   0   0   20   40   60   80   100  
  8. 8. Result: Fruits and Veggies•  There  is  a  ss  non-­‐linear  rela6onship   between  forest  cover  and  fruit  and   veggie  consn  which  peaks  at  about   Fruit  &  Veg  Consn   48%  tree  cover   0.18   0.16   0.14   Note:    88%  of   0.12   sample  has  less   0.1   than  48%  tree   0.08   Fruit  &  Veg  Consn   cover   0.06   0.04   0.02   0   0   20   40   60   80   100  
  9. 9. Result: ASFThere  is  no  ss  rela&onship  between  tree   cover  and  Animal  Source  Food   consump6on      
  10. 10. Thank You!
  11. 11. Nutritional Indicators Used•  Dietary  Diversity  Score  :  We  construct  three  different   scores  to  match  the  literature….our  preferred  measure   includes:   •  grains,  tubers,  green  vegetables,  legumes,  orange  vegetables,   vitamin-­‐A  rich  fruits,  other  fruits  and  vegetables,  dairy,  animal   source  foods  (meat,  fish,  eggs,  and  snails),  and  fats    •  Consump6on  of  Two  Key  Individual  food  groups:     Fruits  and  veggies  and  Animal  source  foods      
  12. 12. Moving beyond the results: Our study does not explain what drives these relationshipsSome  interes6ng  ques6ons  for  future   research:     •  Are  people  ea6ng  nutri6ous  NTFPs?     •  Are  people  growing  these  foods…so  is   this  ‘agroforestry’  that  we  are  picking  up?   •  Is  it  the  agr.  crops  that  are  grown  in    forested  regions  are  more  nutri6ous?