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Trees and Child Nutrition in AfricaAmy Ickowitz , Bronwen Powell, Terry Sunderland Tree Diversity Day COP 11 Hyderabad
Context for Study:Forests vs. Food? § Maybe… forests themselves are important for nutri&on? § Theore6cal Rela6onship: § Why might forests and nutri6on be nega6vely related ? § Income Link § Why might forests and nutri6on be posi6vely related ? § Market Imperfec&ons
The StudyObjec&ve: use na6onally rep. data from many countries in Africa to empirically examine rela6onship between tree cover and child nutri6on Method: Integrate nutri6on data from Demographic Health Surveys from 21 countries in Africa with GIS informa6on on % tree cover (ISCGM) to inves6gate whether there is a ss rela6onship between measures of child nutri6on and tree cover
Sample: Almost 140,000 children between ages13 and 59 months in about 9,400 communities (21 countries )
Nutritional MeasuresDietary Diversity Score: • A diverse diet is more likely to contain adequate amounts of all essen6al nutrients • linked to growth of children and morbidity and mortality Fruit and Vegetable Consump&on: • Fruits and vegetables are important sources of vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, and phytochemicals • The WHO ranks inadequate consump6on of fruits and vegetables as one of the top ten global health problems Animal Source Foods • Protein • sources of highly bio-‐available iron, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin B12
Regressions3 Dependent Variables: Dietary Diversity Score; fruit and veg consn; ASF consn Independent Variables: • % Tree Cover and % Tree Cover2 • Mother’s educa6on • Father’s educa6on • Wealth Index • Rural Dummy • Child age & age2 & age3 • Distance to Rd • Distance to closest city of 10,000 • Aridity Index • Boy dummy • Month of interview • Country dummy
Result: DDS• There is a sta6s6cally signiﬁcant non-‐linear rela6onship between % tree cover and preferred DDS measure peaking at 61% Dietary Diversity Score & Tree Cover Note: 94% of 0.07 sample has less 0.06 than 61% tree 0.05 cover 0.04 Dietary Diversity 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 20 40 60 80 100
Result: Fruits and Veggies• There is a ss non-‐linear rela6onship between forest cover and fruit and veggie consn which peaks at about Fruit & Veg Consn 48% tree cover 0.18 0.16 0.14 Note: 88% of 0.12 sample has less 0.1 than 48% tree 0.08 Fruit & Veg Consn cover 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 20 40 60 80 100
Result: ASFThere is no ss rela&onship between tree cover and Animal Source Food consump6on
Nutritional Indicators Used• Dietary Diversity Score : We construct three diﬀerent scores to match the literature….our preferred measure includes: • grains, tubers, green vegetables, legumes, orange vegetables, vitamin-‐A rich fruits, other fruits and vegetables, dairy, animal source foods (meat, ﬁsh, eggs, and snails), and fats • Consump6on of Two Key Individual food groups: Fruits and veggies and Animal source foods
Moving beyond the results: Our study does not explain what drives these relationshipsSome interes6ng ques6ons for future research: • Are people ea6ng nutri6ous NTFPs? • Are people growing these foods…so is this ‘agroforestry’ that we are picking up? • Is it the agr. crops that are grown in forested regions are more nutri6ous?