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The benefits of native Garcinia andMangifera species in South and South East Asia showcasing integrated approach for on-farm (in situ) conservation and use in practice Biodiversity and Development COP11 11 October 2012! Hugo Lamers & Bhuwon Sthapit !
Outline presentation!• Importance and benefits of tropical fruit tree diversity• Where is diversity found; focus of the project• On-farm/in-situ conservation; why and how?• CBM approach, methods and tools• Garcinia & Mangifera in Western Ghats India• Take home message
Three type of beneﬁts from TFT diversity!""" • Fundamental source for new seedling materialGlobal" through open pollination and human & natural selection"Local" • Eco-system services (pollination, lower pest & disease pressure)"" • Risk management (economic, agronomic resilience)"Private" • Source of food items (nutritional diversity)" • Source of non-food items" • Source of income"
Context: Diverse production systems conserving tree genetic resources!! 1. Natural forest systems- " wild species" In-situ" 2. Buffer zones in protected forests" 3. Community forestry/ economic forest" On-farm" 4. Home gardens" 5. Semi-commercial orchards" 6. Commercial orchards" 7. Field gene banks" Ex-situ"Tropical Fruit Tree Diversity!
Why on-farm/in-situ conservation of PGR?!"" • Allows the evolutionary process to create new" diversity through geneﬂow and human and naturalGlobal" selection " • Enables interaction with other species and vital functions within agro-ecosystems (provision of eco-systemLocal" services like pollination)" • Conserves and updates the cultural and traditional" knowledge that is associated with the species or varieties about its uses, values and characteristics" • Recognizes farmers’ rights - farmers as breeders"Private" • Fruit tree species are recalcitrant – seeds loose germination power in cold ex-situ storage – ﬁeld gene banks always lack space"
On-farm/in-situ conservation through use!"• What are the beneﬁts of TFT for rural communities?"• Why do people maintain diversity?"• Who/what are the driving forces or threats?"• How is TFT diversity conserved on-farm/in-situ?!• How to strengthen and support these practices?! How to intervene?!
Community Biodiversity Management! Process-led approach:" • Consolidating local institutions’ and farmers’ roles" • 9 steps from site selection to value addition" Methods & tools:" • Four Cell Analysis" • Fruit Catalogue/CBR" • Diversity fair" • Community seed bank" • Participatory varietyType of Activities:" selection/breeding"• Documenting diversity" • Identify good practices"• Creating awareness" • Identify custodian• Set-up local nurseries" farmers" Ok, but how is it done in the ﬁeld?• Capacity building" ! • Diversity Fund"• Added value activities " • Rapid Market Appraisal"
Western Ghats in India one of 34 hotspots of biodiversity! 1.165 Households• Salkani Cluster!• Kuliveedu Cluster!• Kumta Cluster ! India Karnataka State U.ara Kannada dist
Mosaic of landscapes: with patches of agricultural land and forests
1. Agricultural biodiversity: Diversity assessment & introduction CBMof wild species in home gardens!
2. Network of grafting experts toCBM conserve the knowledge along unique fruit tree diversity!
3. Social & Institutional empowerment:Village forest committees, betta-land CBMregulations and the right of harvesting!
4. Livelihood beneﬁts & income: Product innovation & sales of traditional mango CBMpickle and kokum jam by local women groups!
Intermediate outcomes & impact 2012!1. Diversity and related knowledge assessed and documented; 48 mango varieties, 3 Garcinia species, ""2. Conservation action identiﬁed and put in place through grafting experts"3. Village forest committees obtained for ﬁrst time the right to join tender and won right of harvesting in buffer zone forest in 2012""4. High demand for mango appe midi saplings by local farming households, just as white type of G. indica"4. Women self help groups directly involved in the development and launch of new products like jam, pickle, candles, soap & instant powder for kokum juice"
Flyers produced Local food! culture Side grafting Thailand! Thailand! Promoting Aroi-aroi Malaysia!
Way forward and take home message!• Not everywhere - works best in diversity hotspots"• CBM is challenging & requires shift in paradigm "• CBM is long-term effort – need more research in sentinel sites "• The only holistic & community-based approach to date"• If implemented successfully, it conserves biodiversity while creating multiple beneﬁts such as increased incomes, lower income & harvest risks, enhance eco- system services, improved nutrition, strengthen local institutions, gender equality, recognition of custodianship and resilient communities"
Thank you! ! Hugo Lamers ! Socio-economics & marketing ! Bioversity International ! !With many thanks for:! www.bioversityinternational.org !Dr. Vasudeva (College of Forestry, Sirsi)! www.fruits4ever.net !Mr. Narasimha Hegde (Lifetrust, Sirsi! http://tft.atbioversity.net !Dr. Gajanana (IIHR, Bangalore)!