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Gage R&R: The key to understanding measuring systems Dilshod Achilov MBA 530, Section 1
Agenda <ul><li>What is the Measurement Systems Analyses? </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of GR&R </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits o...
Measurement Systems analyses <ul><li>We must determine the uncertainty of </li></ul><ul><li>our measurement systems before...
What is Measurement Systems analyses? <ul><li>A  Measurement System Analysis , abbreviated  MSA , is a specially designed ...
What is Measurement Systems analyses ? <ul><li>The Measurement Systems Analysis process is defined in a number of publishe...
Definition   of   GR&R <ul><li>Gauge R&R   </li></ul><ul><li>(or ANOVA Gauge Repeatability & Reproducibility) is a Measure...
Definition of GR&R <ul><li>There are four components affecting  measurement system : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement dev...
Definition of GR&R <ul><li>There are two important aspects of a Gauge R&R: </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatability -  the ability ...
Definition of GR&R 1 <ul><li>Repeatability  conditions include the same measurement procedure, the same observer, the same...
Definition of GR&R 1 <ul><li>Reproducibility  is one of the main principles of the scientific method, and refers to the ab...
Benefits of implementing Gage R&R <ul><li>Gage R&R  can improve understanding of the products that companies produce. Bett...
Benefits of implementing Gage R&R <ul><li>Gage R&R  can tell you if inconsistencies in your measurements are too large to ...
Benefits of implementing Gage R&R <ul><li>Highlight operator differences* </li></ul><ul><li>The measurements of the new hi...
Example of practical application of Gauge R&R <ul><li>Suppose we have 3 financial analysts and 7 projects. Each analyst ca...
Example of practical application of Gauge R&R <ul><li>After performing all the calculations, analysts submit their reports...
Example of practical application of Gauge R&R <ul><li>One of the ways CFO can find the source of variations is by using AN...
Example of practical application of Gauge R&R ANOVA  analyses shows gauge measurement is repeatable and reproducible
Common Misconceptions <ul><li>Misconception #1 1 : </li></ul><ul><li>Statement:  </li></ul><ul><li>Need only one GR&R per ...
Common Misconceptions <ul><li>Misconception #2: </li></ul><ul><li>Statement:  </li></ul><ul><li>The GRR will not pass usin...
Common Misconceptions <ul><li>Misconception #3: </li></ul><ul><li>Statement:  </li></ul><ul><li>Need to report on PPAP doc...
Common Misconceptions <ul><li>Misconception #4: </li></ul><ul><li>Statement:  </li></ul><ul><li>Performing a GRR is very e...
Common Misconceptions <ul><li>Misconception #5: </li></ul><ul><li>Statement:  </li></ul><ul><li>GRRs must be within 10% to...
Conducting GR&Rs <ul><li>The key to a good GR&R study lies in the upfront planning. A GR&R study can be planned using the ...
Conducting GR&Rs <ul><li>Step 1: Define the objective of the GR&R study: </li></ul><ul><li>This step involves defining bot...
Conducting GR&Rs <ul><li>Step 2: Define the components of the study: </li></ul><ul><li>The components to consider include ...
Conducting GR&Rs <ul><li>Step 3: Make the measurements: </li></ul><ul><li>It is best for each appraiser to take all the me...
Conducting GR&Rs <ul><li>Step 4: Calculate the %GR&R: </li></ul><ul><li>This is the heart of the GR&R study. There are sev...
Conducting GR&Rs <ul><li>Step 5: Take action: </li></ul><ul><li>If the measurement system is validated as “good,” addition...
Quiz <ul><li>How repeatability and reproducibility determine whether a measurement system is trustworthy? Give an example ...
Summary <ul><li>Gage R&R  is a technique used to assess measurement system </li></ul><ul><li>Gage R&R  has two important a...
Bibliography <ul><li>Design and Analysis of Gauge R&R Studies, Author: Michael J Mazu Journal: Technometrics ( Alexandria ...
Bibliography <ul><li>Managing quality, S.Thomas Foster, BYU;  Pearson, third edition </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Gag...
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Dilshod Achilov Gage R&R

  1. 1. Gage R&R: The key to understanding measuring systems Dilshod Achilov MBA 530, Section 1
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>What is the Measurement Systems Analyses? </li></ul><ul><li>Definition of GR&R </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of implementing GR&R </li></ul><ul><li>Example of practical application of Gauge R&R </li></ul><ul><li>Common Misconceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting GR&Rs </li></ul><ul><li>Quiz </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
  3. 3. Measurement Systems analyses <ul><li>We must determine the uncertainty of </li></ul><ul><li>our measurement systems before we </li></ul><ul><li>can compare, control or optimize our </li></ul><ul><li>manufacturing processes. </li></ul><ul><li>- Cerprobe 1 </li></ul>1 Hank Scutoski & Chander Sekar, Ph.D. CERPROBE CORPORATION; Gilbert, Arizona
  4. 4. What is Measurement Systems analyses? <ul><li>A Measurement System Analysis , abbreviated MSA , is a specially designed experiment that seeks to identify the components of variation in the measurement. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Measurement Systems analyses ? <ul><li>The Measurement Systems Analysis process is defined in a number of published documents including the AIAG's MSA (Measurement Systems Analysis) Manual, which is part of a series of inter-related documents the AIAG controls and publishes. These manuals include: </li></ul><ul><li>The FMEA and Control Plan Manual </li></ul><ul><li>The SPC (Statistical process control) Manual </li></ul><ul><li>The MSA (Measurement Systems Analysis) Manual </li></ul><ul><li>The Production Part Approval Process (PPAP) Manual </li></ul>
  6. 6. Definition of GR&R <ul><li>Gauge R&R </li></ul><ul><li>(or ANOVA Gauge Repeatability & Reproducibility) is a Measurement Systems Analysis technique which uses Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to assess a measurement system. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Definition of GR&R <ul><li>There are four components affecting measurement system : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement devices (machine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement instructions (method) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Definition of GR&R <ul><li>There are two important aspects of a Gauge R&R: </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatability - the ability of the device to provide consistent results. </li></ul><ul><li>Reproducibility - the variability created by the operators </li></ul>
  9. 9. Definition of GR&R 1 <ul><li>Repeatability conditions include the same measurement procedure, the same observer, the same measuring instrument used under the same conditions, the same location and repetition over a short period of time. </li></ul>1 The Chart comes from Quality America Inc web-site, free quality encyclopedia
  10. 10. Definition of GR&R 1 <ul><li>Reproducibility is one of the main principles of the scientific method, and refers to the ability of a test or experiment to be accurately reproduced, or replicated , by someone else working independently. </li></ul>1 The Chart comes from Quality America Inc web-site, free quality encyclopedia
  11. 11. Benefits of implementing Gage R&R <ul><li>Gage R&R can improve understanding of the products that companies produce. Better understanding leads to a reduction in the unnecessary scrapping of finished product. </li></ul><ul><li>Gage R&R study can help identify problems with measurement system, allowing us to trust our data and affect real improvements in our business processes. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Benefits of implementing Gage R&R <ul><li>Gage R&R can tell you if inconsistencies in your measurements are too large to ignore—whether due to a faulty tool or to inconsistent operation of a tool. </li></ul><ul><li>Reveal an inconsistent tool* </li></ul><ul><li>Although the average measurements </li></ul><ul><li>are not far apart, the spread of the </li></ul><ul><li>measurements is huge! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Benefits of implementing Gage R&R <ul><li>Highlight operator differences* </li></ul><ul><li>The measurements of the new hires </li></ul><ul><li>do not agree with the measurements </li></ul><ul><li>of more experienced operators. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Example of practical application of Gauge R&R <ul><li>Suppose we have 3 financial analysts and 7 projects. Each analyst calculates NPVs 1 for all 7 projects independently. </li></ul>1 Net Present Value of future cash flows
  15. 15. Example of practical application of Gauge R&R <ul><li>After performing all the calculations, analysts submit their reports to a CFO. </li></ul><ul><li>CFO carefully examines each report and notices that all three reports yield different results </li></ul><ul><li>Before taking next step, CFO needs to know, where these variations come from: the projects, method of calculation, or the analysts </li></ul>
  16. 16. Example of practical application of Gauge R&R <ul><li>One of the ways CFO can find the source of variations is by using ANOVA analyses. </li></ul><ul><li>Performing ANOVA (analyses of variability) using Excel: </li></ul><ul><li>Enter all the data into an Excel spreadsheet </li></ul><ul><li>Click on Tools; Choose Data analyses Tool-Pak </li></ul><ul><li>Specify input range; put 2 for rows per sample </li></ul><ul><li>Press Ok </li></ul>
  17. 17. Example of practical application of Gauge R&R ANOVA analyses shows gauge measurement is repeatable and reproducible
  18. 18. Common Misconceptions <ul><li>Misconception #1 1 : </li></ul><ul><li>Statement: </li></ul><ul><li>Need only one GR&R per family of gauges </li></ul><ul><li>Why false?: </li></ul><ul><li>It is usual to say &quot;There is an acceptable GRR for this caliper&quot;. This statement is false, as a GRR is for the measurement system, which includes the part, specification, operator and method. </li></ul>1 These misconceptions come from Wikipedia, free encyclopedia
  19. 19. Common Misconceptions <ul><li>Misconception #2: </li></ul><ul><li>Statement: </li></ul><ul><li>The GRR will not pass using parts, so it has to be done with standard weights and blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Why false?: </li></ul><ul><li>The GRR done on this way will assess the precision while measuring standard weights. The device might not be suitable to measure that specific type of parts. If the part &quot;changes&quot; while being measured, this has to be counted as a measurement system error. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Common Misconceptions <ul><li>Misconception #3: </li></ul><ul><li>Statement: </li></ul><ul><li>Need to report on PPAP documentation GRR results for everything that is measured </li></ul><ul><li>Why false?: </li></ul><ul><li>This is not necessarily a requirement. The Quality Engineer usually makes an educated assessment. If the characteristic is critical to safety, a valid GRR is required. Instead, if there is enough understanding that some particular part is easy to measure with acceptable precision, a formal GRR is not required. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Common Misconceptions <ul><li>Misconception #4: </li></ul><ul><li>Statement: </li></ul><ul><li>Performing a GRR is very expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Why false?: </li></ul><ul><li>In order to perform a GRR usually a number of parts (sometimes between 5 to 10) is required to be measured by 2 to 3 operators 2 to 3 times. So the measurement costs are the ones associated with those additional measurements </li></ul>
  22. 22. Common Misconceptions <ul><li>Misconception #5: </li></ul><ul><li>Statement: </li></ul><ul><li>GRRs must be within 10% to pass </li></ul><ul><li>Why false?: </li></ul><ul><li>There are AIAG guidelines for GRR errors relative to the specification, and what to report on a PPAP process. The final call is between the supplier and customer, and it is a function of the critically of the characteristic and the assessed measurement error. GRR is a tool that helps making this assessment, but it does not gives you the answer. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Conducting GR&Rs <ul><li>The key to a good GR&R study lies in the upfront planning. A GR&R study can be planned using the following 5 steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Define the objective of the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the components of the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Make the measurements. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the %GR&R. </li></ul><ul><li>Take action to improve the measurement process . </li></ul>
  24. 24. Conducting GR&Rs <ul><li>Step 1: Define the objective of the GR&R study: </li></ul><ul><li>This step involves defining both what instrument (or family of instruments) will be studied as well as the product or product features to be studied. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Conducting GR&Rs <ul><li>Step 2: Define the components of the study: </li></ul><ul><li>The components to consider include the people (testers or appraisers), the (test) method, the materials (or samples to test), the (testing) equipment, and the environment (such as conditioning requirements and the ambient temperature). </li></ul><ul><li>Use 2 or 3 people who routinely conduct the test as the appraisers; do not replace the typical users with engineers or quality professionals. </li></ul><ul><li>The test method used should be exactly as documented. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not add new steps or precautions. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Conducting GR&Rs <ul><li>Step 3: Make the measurements: </li></ul><ul><li>It is best for each appraiser to take all the measurements (including replicate measurements) for the study before having the next appraiser start taking measurements. </li></ul><ul><li>The samples measured should be randomly selected and preferably “anonymous” to the appraiser to reduce bias. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Conducting GR&Rs <ul><li>Step 4: Calculate the %GR&R: </li></ul><ul><li>This is the heart of the GR&R study. There are several techniques for calculating the %GR&R. Part of the planning involves deciding what type of analysis technique will be used. </li></ul><ul><li>R&R Analysis techniques include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis for Non-Destructive Measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis using ANOVA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis for Destructive Measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis for Attribute Measurements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis Using Graphical Techniques </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Conducting GR&Rs <ul><li>Step 5: Take action: </li></ul><ul><li>If the measurement system is validated as “good,” additional action may not be necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>If it is “poor,” action to improve the measurement system is needed. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Quiz <ul><li>How repeatability and reproducibility determine whether a measurement system is trustworthy? Give an example from your work experience of how Gage R&R can improve data reliability. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Summary <ul><li>Gage R&R is a technique used to assess measurement system </li></ul><ul><li>Gage R&R has two important aspects: Repeatability & Reproducibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeatability : the ability of the device to provide consistent results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproducibility : the variability induced by the operator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gage R&R can improve understanding of the products companies produce and help identify problems with measurement system </li></ul><ul><li>Gage R&R can be planned using 5 steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the objective of the study. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Define the components of the study. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the measurements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculate the %GR&R. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take action to improve the measurement process. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Bibliography <ul><li>Design and Analysis of Gauge R&R Studies, Author: Michael J Mazu Journal: Technometrics ( Alexandria ), Pub.: 2006-05 </li></ul><ul><li>Gage R&R IMPROVES QUALITY AND PROFITABILITY Author: William D Kappele, John Raffaldi; Journal: Quality ( Troy ) </li></ul><ul><li>Improve Gage R&R Results, Author: Merwan Mehta, Paul Kauffmann, Journal: ASQ Six Sigma Forum Magazine MilwaukeePub.: 2006-08 </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gage_R%26R </li></ul><ul><li>Isixsima; http://www.isixsigma.com/dictionary/Gage_R&R-147.htm </li></ul>
  32. 32. Bibliography <ul><li>Managing quality, S.Thomas Foster, BYU; Pearson, third edition </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Gage R&R Studies, Hank Scutoski & Chander Sekar, Ph.D. CERPROBE CORPORATION; Gilbert, Arizona </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.swtest.org/swtw_library/1998proc/PDF/T1_Hank.PDF </li></ul>
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