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lecture 5.pptx

  1. Prof. Aida Mohey Head of Community Medicine department Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University
  2. The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Personality is a pattern of stable states and characteristics of a person that influences his or her behavior toward goal achievement
  3. Personality ● Individual differences in behavior ● Consistency across different situations
  4. •Personality is like fingerprints. •It emphasizes how we are unique, special and are different from each other. •Our personalities can be very complicated and many-sided. •A person’s personality should be seen as on-going development process.
  5. A relatively stable set of characteristics that influences an individual’s behavior
  6. PERSONALITY TRAITS • A personality trait is a permanent personality characteristic that lasts over time and across different situations • Trait theories of personality focus on measuring, identifying and describing individual differences in personality in terms of traits • Focus is on what is different-not what is the same • Can be used to predict behaviour based on traits
  7. • Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior. PERSONALITY TRAITS
  8. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI) A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types. 1.Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I) 2.Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or I) 3.Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F) 4.Perceiving vs Judging (P or J)
  9. Myers - Briggs Sixtee n Primar y Traits
  10. Type A people have the following characteristics: • Highly competitive. • Workaholic. • Highly organized. • Ambitious • Impatient • Highly aware of time management, dislike wasting time • Goal-oriented • Tendency to multi-task • Experience stress when faced with delays or other challenges that affect success
  11. Type B people have the following characteristics: • Flexibility. • Even-tempered. • Relaxed attitude. • Adaptability to change. • Laid-back. • A tendency to procrastinate. • Patience. • Low-stress levels.
  12. •According to the theory of Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman, Type A people are more likely to get heart disease, because of their high- stress lifestyle, than other Type B people. •The former always want to win, while the latter is more focused on the journey and not the destination.
  13. Personality Types 1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly 2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place; 3. strive to think or do two or more things at once; 4. cannot cope with leisure time; 5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. TYPE A TYPE B 1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience; 2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments; 3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost; 4. can relax without guilt.
  14. Proactive Personality: Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs. Creates positive change in the environment, regardless or even in spite of constraints or obstacles.
  15. 4– 12 Extroversion This trait includes characteristics such as excitability, sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness, and high amounts of emotional expressiveness. Sociable, gregarious, and assertive I love excitement and am a cheerful person Big Five Personality Traits  Agreeableness • This personality dimension includes attributes such as trust, altruism, kindness, affection, and other prosocial behaviors. Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting. • People find me warm and generous and selfless Conscientiousness Common features of this dimension include high levels of thoughtfulness, with good impulse control and goal-directed behaviors Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized. People find me reliable and I keep my house clean
  16. Emotional Stability Individuals high in this trait tend to experience emotional instability, anxiety, moodiness, irritability, and sadness. calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative). am very moody I often feel sad and down Openness to Experience This trait features characteristics such as imagination and insight, and those high in this trait also tend to have a broad range of interests. I am a very curious person & enjoychallenges Imaginativeness, artistic, sensitivity, and intellectualism.
  17. Main assumptions of theories • One: that personality traits are relatively stable and therefore predictable over time • Two: Personality traits are relatively stable across different situations • Three: trait theories take into account that personality consists of a number of different traits, and that some people have ‘more’ or ‘less’ of each trait than others • Four: some traits are more closely interrelated than other traits and tend to occur together
  18. • Personality traits are described on a continuum – showing either end of the trait. • I.e. Confidence continuum
  19. Strengths and Limitations of trait theories • Provide useful descriptions of personality and its structure • Provided the foundation of valid and reliable personality devices • Can lead people to accept and use oversimplified classifications and descriptions • Underestimate socio-cultural influences on behaviour