Strategies and Methods of
Prof. Aida Mohey
Head of community Medicine department
1. Describe the categories of health
education strategies: community
organization, training, and
2. Identify methods used in each of the
three categories of strategies.
3. Identify the criteria of selecting the
appropriate strategy and method
Strategies used in health education
I. Communication strategy
Each strategy has its own methods or channels
Method of health education are
the technique or ways in which
series of activities are carried out
to communicate ideas,
information and develop
necessary skills and attitude.
Communication strategy is used to deal
Predisposing factors to build awareness,
change beliefs and attitudes and clarify
The three first phases in the process of
changing behavior namely: unawareness
(pre contemplation), thoughtful thinking
and intention to act (contemplation) and
1. Educational methods that influence predisposing factors will only have short term
2. Methods that influence reinforcing factors will have an intermediate effect. They are
more expensive than communication methods. They are applied when the change of
behavior has occurred.
3. Health education interventions that are designed to influence predisposing,
reinforcing and enabling factors will produce long-term behavioral change.
4. Strategies addressed to enabling factors are most expensive
5. Some methods have to be pretested before being used as posters, songs, films, puppet
1. Print material
Pamphlets, books and brochures……etc.
Posters, calendars, wall-calendars, wall
Flip charts, flash cards, comics, and
2. Folk media
Theatre, plays, puppet shows, role plays,
Songs, dance and poems
Messages printed on cloth
3. Mass media
Newspapers and magazines
Radio and televisions announcement,
advertisements , dramas
4. Visual electronic media
Videos, films and internet… etc.
5. Personal communication
Personal consultations and instructions
6. Special events
7. Mixture of methods
There are seven types of methods/channels used in communication strategy.
A poster is a large sheet of paper (60 cm X 90cm) that portray a message using words and
pictures or familiar symbols. Posters can be used effectively to provide information or
advice. It reinforces messages delivered by other channels. Posters can be used to give
directions and instructions as well as to announce events
They are used with individuals, small groups and large ones. They should be placed
in place where the target audience can see them. Posters require pretesting to ensure
that the message is well understood by the target population.
Rules in making posters
Only one idea should be portrayed.
All words should be in the local language.
Words should be few and simple.
Symbols should be understood by the target audience.
Color should be used to attract attention.
2. Flip chart
A flip chart is formed of a number of charts joined
together at the top that are meant to be shown one after
another. Each chart present one message. The charts are
arranged in order. In this way several steps of a certain
task (e.g. preparing oral rehydration salt) or aspects of a
central topic (e.g. food groups) are presented. They are
also used to record information. They are best used with
1. One to one consultation
One-to one consultation can be used when:
a) An individual has a special health problem which is sensitive that cannot be dealt with
in a group setting as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or child abuse.
b) A person has a problem that is not shared by the group or is not the focus of the
discussion or health.
c) A resistant person refuses to join group activity in relation to certain health behavior.
Counseling means choice and not force or advice.
Counseling is a process that involves helping people to make decisions, and giving them
confidence to put their decisions into practice. It is done to help individuals and families to
understand their problems and decide how to solve them.
Counselling is discussed in details in Step IV communication skills.
3. Health Talk
A health talk is a talk with or without illustrations or
demonstrations. The participants listen and watch the
verbal presentation of information given by the educator.
The educator shares information and facts with audience.
Health talks are the most common way for sharing
knowledge and facts with groups or individuals. A health
talk is similar to a lecture but it is of short duration (20-30
minutes). It must be followed by a group discussion of at
least 15 minutes for responding to questions.
Talk alone is much like giving advice. To make a talk more
educational, it must be combined with other methods as
posters, slides, flip charts, data show etc. It should be tied
into local setting by the use of proverbs. The health
educator can also use discussions, demonstrations and
stories to make his talk more interesting use etc.
. Health talk is one- way method. It is speaker centered.
How to plan a health talk?
a- Know the group you will meet and find their needs and interests.
b- Select a single topic that is appropriate to the group.
c- Write your objectives.
d- Be sure that you have the correct and up-to-date information.
II- Prepare your content
Most talks are divided into introduction, body, conclusion and discussion guide.
A- Start by writing the body
1-Use a simple statement related to the topic (“I
will explain why the topic is important”).
2- Cover the major points only.
3- Evaluate each point in terms of whether it
will contribute to the main purpose or not.
4- Exclude unnecessary points.
5- Organize your talk in sequence.
6- You can use different patterns.
Examples of patterns that can be used in organizing health talks
1-The topical pattern: The information selected and arranged according to its importance.
Certain points are given a priority for example if you are discussing management of
dehydration focus on oral rehydration and breast feeding.
2- The time pattern: The organisation is based upon the chronological relationship between
the main points for example if you are giving a health talk on preparing ORS, you should
explain steps in the order in which they happen.
3-The comparison pattern: This pattern will permit the speaker to compare say between
breast feeding versus artificial feeding.
4-The classification pattern: This pattern is used when you classify events, causes or
people for example food groups.
5-The cause and effect pattern: Here you view causes and their effects as related to each
other for example Smoking, diet, stress and lack of exercise and CHD.
6-The solving pattern: In this pattern you analyse the problem, then discuss how it is solved
for example diarrhoea and how to prevent and treat it.
B- Write down your introduction
B- Write down your introduction
Prepare the introduction carefully. It should attract attention. You can use a proverb, a story
or a recent event. In writing your introduction do not use ideas stated in the body.
C- Prepare the conclusion carefully.
It should remind the audience with the purpose of the talk and important points covered.
D- Develop the discussion guide.
It should be related to your objectives. It should cover questions related to important ideas
stated. Also be prepared to receive other questions.
How to deliver successfully a health talk?
1. First know your audience.
2. Introduce the subject.
3. State your objectives clearly at the beginning of the health talk.
4. Focus on what the learners are expected to accomplish.
5. The health talk should have an introduction, body of content and conclusion.
6. Break the material into short sections.
7. At the end of each section ask the learners questions and give them immediate feedback.
8. Repeat and restate frequently.
9. Go from:
- Simple to complex.
- Known to unknown.
- Concrete to abstract.
10. Use audio-visuals whenever needed.
11. Use examples and current information.
12. At the end of the talk invite questions and ask questions and give feedback.
Tips for effective health talking
A. Opening the talk
o Avoid a cold start.
o Minimize nervousness.
o Grab audience attention.
o Establish rapport with your audience.
o Show the link between your talk and previous methods used.
B- During the talk
o Convey your enthusiasm for the material.
o Pronounce words clearly.
o Speak at a suitable volume not too loud or too soft.
o Speak at a suitable tempo neither too slowly nor too quickly.
o Make the pitch of your voice appropriate neither too high or too low.
o Use body language.
o Make eye contact with audience.
o Pace your presentation.
o Keep your sense of humour.
o Feel the atmosphere.
o Get feedback from the audience.
C. Closing the talk
o Draw some conclusions.
o Round out your presentation and tie up loose ends.
o Link to next health talks.
Utilities of health talk
1. Give knowledge and facts.
2. Allow for direct personal tailoring of messages to specific group.
3. Allow for immediate response to questions and answers.
Limitations of health talk
1. Its success depend entirely on the communication skill of the speaker and his accurate knowledge about the subject.
2. Audience must come to speaker.
3. It provides information only.
You have to prepare several health talks and deliver them in your practical classes. You will select topics related to reproductive
health, family planning and child care.
The method where receiver of message is
single individual and health education
providers also single or in sometimes may
be more then one individual.
This method involves person to person or
face to face communication which
provides maximum opportunity of two way
flows of ideas, knowledge and
Interview is to meet and talk each other
and collect information and ideas.
Facial expression, gesture, body
language, eye contact, personal space
and other non verbal forms should equally
important as verbal responses.
Procedure of interview
1. Preparation for interview
Decide the topic and objective of interview
Collect sufficient information about the topic
Decide the interviewee
Decide place and time of interview
Take consent by interviewee
Organized arrangement for interview eg room
arrangement, tea or water if required,
stationary to note down
Procedure of interview
2. Beginning of interview
Establish rapport with interviewee
State the purpose and importance of interview
and realize interviewee about the responsibility
Askquestionpolitely, listen carefullyand
maintain eye contact
Don’t comment during the interview
Provide enough time for think and response
Keep on the subject and keep control of the
Keep the interview like the healthy conversation
rather then making it question answer or quiz
Avoid anything disturbing the interview
Procedure of interview
3. Conclusion, suggestion and report
Discuss with interviewee to reach
the conclusion regarding the
Give suggestion according to need
Close interview in a friendly manner by
thanks and greeting
Make written report of the interview result
to know individual’s
knowledge, feelings and
practice in particular
Exchange of ideas and feeling
Helpful to reach better conclusions of
Easy to conduct with less cost and
Even illiterate persons can be interviewed
If proper rapport is not build and trust
cannot be achieved interview may refuse
to answer or may not give true answer
It takes more time and will be difficult to
cover wide range of target population
Counseling is the process of encouraging
and helping an individual in identifying
problem, exploring cause of problem and
identify the way of its solution
The decision of action strategies is
made on Client's own choice with least
of advice from the counselor
1. Rapport building
2. Identifying Client need or problems
3. The counselor should help the Client in
finding ways to solve the problem by
encouraging in discussion and develop
problem solving strategies based on the
4. Maintaining patience
5. Keep secret
6. Return follow up counseling
GATHER in Family Planning
G – Greet the Client respectfully
A – Ask them about their family planning
needs T – T
about different contraceptives
options and methods
H – Help them to make decisions about
choices of methods
E – Explainand demonstrate how to use
R – Return visit and follow up
It is helpful in dealing with individual Clint
and motivate to take necessary action to
solve health problems by himself
It maintain two way communication
It is not required to be literate for counseling
Clint can understand the positive and
negative point of particular subject matter
Help to solve the complicated and