Más contenido relacionado


Lecture 7.pptx

  1. Strategies and Methods of Health Education Prof. Aida Mohey Head of community Medicine department
  2. Learning Objectives 1. Describe the categories of health education strategies: community organization, training, and communication. 2. Identify methods used in each of the three categories of strategies. 3. Identify the criteria of selecting the appropriate strategy and method
  3. Strategies used in health education I. Communication strategy II.Training strategy III.Organization strategy Each strategy has its own methods or channels
  4. Method of health education are the technique or ways in which series of activities are carried out to communicate ideas, information and develop necessary skills and attitude.
  5. I. Communication strategy
  6. Communication strategy is used to deal with: Predisposing factors to build awareness, change beliefs and attitudes and clarify values. The three first phases in the process of changing behavior namely: unawareness (pre contemplation), thoughtful thinking and intention to act (contemplation) and trials.
  7. Methods of health education 1. Individual method 2. Group method 3. Mass method
  8. Remember  1. Educational methods that influence predisposing factors will only have short term effects. 2. Methods that influence reinforcing factors will have an intermediate effect. They are more expensive than communication methods. They are applied when the change of behavior has occurred. 3. Health education interventions that are designed to influence predisposing, reinforcing and enabling factors will produce long-term behavioral change. 4. Strategies addressed to enabling factors are most expensive 5. Some methods have to be pretested before being used as posters, songs, films, puppet show…. etc.
  9. Methods/channels 1. Print material  Pamphlets, books and brochures……etc.  Posters, calendars, wall-calendars, wall chart…etc.  Flip charts, flash cards, comics, and photographs….etc. 2. Folk media  Theatre, plays, puppet shows, role plays, story–telling  Songs, dance and poems  Messages printed on cloth 3. Mass media  Newspapers and magazines  Radio and televisions announcement, advertisements , dramas 4. Visual electronic media  Videos, films and internet… etc. 5. Personal communication  Personal consultations and instructions  Consultation  Counseling  Group discussion  Health talks 6. Special events  Awareness days  Competitions 7. Mixture of methods  Displays There are seven types of methods/channels used in communication strategy.
  10. Health education methods frequently used in Family health facilities
  11. 1. Posters A poster is a large sheet of paper (60 cm X 90cm) that portray a message using words and pictures or familiar symbols. Posters can be used effectively to provide information or advice. It reinforces messages delivered by other channels. Posters can be used to give directions and instructions as well as to announce events They are used with individuals, small groups and large ones. They should be placed in place where the target audience can see them. Posters require pretesting to ensure that the message is well understood by the target population.
  12. Rules in making posters  Only one idea should be portrayed.  All words should be in the local language.  Words should be few and simple.  Symbols should be understood by the target audience. Color should be used to attract attention.
  13. 2. Flip chart A flip chart is formed of a number of charts joined together at the top that are meant to be shown one after another. Each chart present one message. The charts are arranged in order. In this way several steps of a certain task (e.g. preparing oral rehydration salt) or aspects of a central topic (e.g. food groups) are presented. They are also used to record information. They are best used with small groups.
  14. Personal Communication
  15. 1. One to one consultation One-to one consultation can be used when: a) An individual has a special health problem which is sensitive that cannot be dealt with in a group setting as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or child abuse. b) A person has a problem that is not shared by the group or is not the focus of the discussion or health. c) A resistant person refuses to join group activity in relation to certain health behavior.
  16. 2. Counseling Counseling means choice and not force or advice. Counseling is a process that involves helping people to make decisions, and giving them confidence to put their decisions into practice. It is done to help individuals and families to understand their problems and decide how to solve them. Remember  Counselling is discussed in details in Step IV communication skills.
  17. 3. Health Talk A health talk is a talk with or without illustrations or demonstrations. The participants listen and watch the verbal presentation of information given by the educator. The educator shares information and facts with audience. Health talks are the most common way for sharing knowledge and facts with groups or individuals. A health talk is similar to a lecture but it is of short duration (20-30 minutes). It must be followed by a group discussion of at least 15 minutes for responding to questions. Talk alone is much like giving advice. To make a talk more educational, it must be combined with other methods as posters, slides, flip charts, data show etc. It should be tied into local setting by the use of proverbs. The health educator can also use discussions, demonstrations and stories to make his talk more interesting use etc. Remember  . Health talk is one- way method. It is speaker centered.
  18. How to plan a health talk? I- Prerequisite a- Know the group you will meet and find their needs and interests. b- Select a single topic that is appropriate to the group. c- Write your objectives. d- Be sure that you have the correct and up-to-date information.
  19. II- Prepare your content Most talks are divided into introduction, body, conclusion and discussion guide. A- Start by writing the body 1-Use a simple statement related to the topic (“I will explain why the topic is important”). 2- Cover the major points only. 3- Evaluate each point in terms of whether it will contribute to the main purpose or not. 4- Exclude unnecessary points. 5- Organize your talk in sequence. 6- You can use different patterns.
  20. Examples of patterns that can be used in organizing health talks 1-The topical pattern: The information selected and arranged according to its importance. Certain points are given a priority for example if you are discussing management of dehydration focus on oral rehydration and breast feeding. 2- The time pattern: The organisation is based upon the chronological relationship between the main points for example if you are giving a health talk on preparing ORS, you should explain steps in the order in which they happen. 3-The comparison pattern: This pattern will permit the speaker to compare say between breast feeding versus artificial feeding. 4-The classification pattern: This pattern is used when you classify events, causes or people for example food groups. 5-The cause and effect pattern: Here you view causes and their effects as related to each other for example Smoking, diet, stress and lack of exercise and CHD. 6-The solving pattern: In this pattern you analyse the problem, then discuss how it is solved for example diarrhoea and how to prevent and treat it. Remember
  21. B- Write down your introduction B- Write down your introduction Prepare the introduction carefully. It should attract attention. You can use a proverb, a story or a recent event. In writing your introduction do not use ideas stated in the body. C- Prepare the conclusion carefully. It should remind the audience with the purpose of the talk and important points covered. D- Develop the discussion guide. It should be related to your objectives. It should cover questions related to important ideas stated. Also be prepared to receive other questions.
  22. How to deliver successfully a health talk? 1. First know your audience. 2. Introduce the subject. 3. State your objectives clearly at the beginning of the health talk. 4. Focus on what the learners are expected to accomplish. 5. The health talk should have an introduction, body of content and conclusion. 6. Break the material into short sections. 7. At the end of each section ask the learners questions and give them immediate feedback. 8. Repeat and restate frequently. 9. Go from: - Simple to complex. - Known to unknown. - Concrete to abstract. 10. Use audio-visuals whenever needed. 11. Use examples and current information. 12. At the end of the talk invite questions and ask questions and give feedback.
  23. Tips for effective health talking A. Opening the talk o Avoid a cold start. o Minimize nervousness. o Grab audience attention. o Establish rapport with your audience. o Show the link between your talk and previous methods used. B- During the talk o Convey your enthusiasm for the material. o Pronounce words clearly. o Speak at a suitable volume not too loud or too soft. o Speak at a suitable tempo neither too slowly nor too quickly. o Make the pitch of your voice appropriate neither too high or too low. o Use body language. o Make eye contact with audience. o Pause. o Pace your presentation. o Keep your sense of humour. o Feel the atmosphere. o Get feedback from the audience. C. Closing the talk o Draw some conclusions. o Round out your presentation and tie up loose ends. o Link to next health talks.
  24. Utilities of health talk 1. Give knowledge and facts. 2. Allow for direct personal tailoring of messages to specific group. 3. Allow for immediate response to questions and answers. 4. Inexpensive. Limitations of health talk 1. Its success depend entirely on the communication skill of the speaker and his accurate knowledge about the subject. 2. Audience must come to speaker. 3. It provides information only. Remember  You have to prepare several health talks and deliver them in your practical classes. You will select topics related to reproductive health, family planning and child care.
  25. Individual method The method where receiver of message is single individual and health education providers also single or in sometimes may be more then one individual. This method involves person to person or face to face communication which provides maximum opportunity of two way flows of ideas, knowledge and information.
  26. Individual method contd…. There are two example of individual method of health education - Interview - Counseling
  27. Intervie w Interview is to meet and talk each other and collect information and ideas. Facial expression, gesture, body language, eye contact, personal space and other non verbal forms should equally important as verbal responses.
  28. Interview Contd… Types of interview There are various type of interview they are:- Structured interview Unstructured interview Formal interview Informal interview In-depth interview
  29. Interview Contd… Procedure of interview 1. Preparation for interview  Decide the topic and objective of interview  Collect sufficient information about the topic  Decide the interviewee  Develop questionnaire  Decide place and time of interview  Take consent by interviewee  Organized arrangement for interview eg room arrangement, tea or water if required, stationary to note down
  30. Procedure of interview contd…. 2. Beginning of interview Establish rapport with interviewee State the purpose and importance of interview and realize interviewee about the responsibility Askquestionpolitely, listen carefullyand maintain eye contact Don’t comment during the interview Provide enough time for think and response Keep on the subject and keep control of the interview Keep the interview like the healthy conversation rather then making it question answer or quiz session Avoid anything disturbing the interview
  31. Procedure of interview contd…. 3. Conclusion, suggestion and report Discuss with interviewee to reach the conclusion regarding the problem Give suggestion according to need Close interview in a friendly manner by thanks and greeting Make written report of the interview result
  32. Advantage and Disadvantage of intervie w Advanta ge It helps attitude, subject to know individual’s knowledge, feelings and practice in particular Exchange of ideas and feeling Helpful to reach better conclusions of certain problems Easy to conduct with less cost and limited facilities Even illiterate persons can be interviewed and taught
  33. Disadvantage of interview If proper rapport is not build and trust cannot be achieved interview may refuse to answer or may not give true answer It takes more time and will be difficult to cover wide range of target population
  34. Counseli ng Counseling is the process of encouraging and helping an individual in identifying problem, exploring cause of problem and identify the way of its solution The decision of action strategies is made on Client's own choice with least of advice from the counselor
  35. Procedure of Counseling 1. Rapport building 2. Identifying Client need or problems 3. The counselor should help the Client in finding ways to solve the problem by encouraging in discussion and develop problem solving strategies based on the situation 4. Maintaining patience 5. Keep secret 6. Return follow up counseling
  36. GATHER in Family Planning Counseling G – Greet the Client respectfully A – Ask them about their family planning needs T – T ell them about different contraceptives options and methods H – Help them to make decisions about choices of methods E – Explainand demonstrate how to use the method R – Return visit and follow up
  37. Advantage and Disadvantage of Counseling Advantage It is helpful in dealing with individual Clint and motivate to take necessary action to solve health problems by himself It maintain two way communication It is not required to be literate for counseling Clint can understand the positive and negative point of particular subject matter Help to solve the complicated and serious problems
  38. Disadvanta ge It takes more time It is difficult to cover wide range of people There may be need of privacy to explore problem