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Common errors in citations

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common errors, citations, research writing,

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Common errors in citations

  1. 1. Common Errors in Citations
  2. 2. Citing an I Statement I used purposeful sampling to ensure my participants were instructors most familiar with ELL strategies (Smith, 2010). http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence
  3. 3. try separating your actions from what the research has suggested According to Smith (2010), purposeful sampling helps researchers gain qualified participants who meet a set of criteria; therefore, I used this sampling technique to select the instructors most familiar with ELL strategies. http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence
  4. 4. Or Because purposeful sampling helps researchers gain qualified participants who meet a set of criteria (Smith, 2010), I used this sampling technique to select the instructors most familiar with ELL strategies. http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence
  5. 5. Citing a Paraphrase From a Previous Paper Jones stated that the nursing shortage has led some government officials to propose recruiting nurses from other countries, including Mexico and Canada (Thompson, 2012). http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence
  6. 6. Jones (as cited in Thompson, 2012) stated that the nursing shortage has led some government officials to propose recruiting nurses from other countries, including Mexico and Canada. http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence
  7. 7. Citing the speaker on a video • Sample sentence In the video, West (2011) said that to appeal to visual learners, educators should use pictures, video, and bright colors in their mathematics lessons. http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence
  8. 8. Correct In a taped interview, West (Laureate Education, Inc., 2011) stated that educators should use pictures, video, and bright colors in their mathematics lessons. • Or According to West (Laureate Education, Inc., 2011), educators should use pictures, video, and bright colors in their mathematics lessons. http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence
  9. 9. When using citations • Introduce • Integrate • Explain
  10. 10. Paraphrased Citations: • Paraphrased material must be cited. • Citations for paraphrased material should always include both the author and the year. In-text citation can be placed within the sentence or at the end: Yes: According to Johnson (2012), mirror neurons may be connected with empathy and imitation. Yes: Mirror neurons may be connected with empathy and imitation in human beings (Johnson, 2012).
  11. 11. Direct Quotations Yes: Christensen (2010) regarded the "infiltration of only red light" (p. 32) as a success in the experiment. No: Christensen (2010) regarded the "infiltration of only red light" as a success in the experiment (p. 32). http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence
  12. 12. Problems with dropped quotes • Dropped quotes are quotations with no lead ins or introductions. http://jeanneguerin.com/1b/MLAerrors.htm
  13. 13. http://jeanneguerin.com/1b/MLAerrors.htm
  14. 14. Paragraph with direct quotations not integrated: • Teachers in ESL classrooms need more access to professional development. According to Grant (2009), "The percentage of ESL students in high schools has gone up 75% in the last ten years" (p. 338). Gramber (2010) said, "The scope of ESL education is changing rapidly" (p. 2834). Judes (2008) suggested, "ESL teachers often do not have updated certification." A study found that "Non-native English speakers require a different pedagogy than native speakers" (Bartlett, 2004, p. 97). http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence/integrate
  15. 15. Integrate • Paragraph with direct quotations not integrated: Teachers in ESL classrooms need more access to professional development. According to Grant (2009), "The percentage of ESL students in high schools has gone up 75% in the last ten years" (p. 338). Gramber (2010) said, "The scope of ESL education is changing rapidly" (p. 2834). Judes (2008) suggested, "ESL teachers often do not have updated certification." A study found that "Non-native English speakers require a different pedagogy than native speakers" (Bartlett, 2004, p. 97). http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence/integrate
  16. 16. Paragraph with direct quotations revision (revisions in bold): Teachers in ESL classrooms need more access to professional development. According to Grant (2009), "The percentage of ESL students in high schools has gone up 75% in the last ten years" (p. 338). This increase has caused a shift in the tradition training of ESL educators. Speaking of this shift, Gramber (2010) said, "The scope of ESL education is changing rapidly" (p. 2834). With such a fast change in training and requirements, districts often neglect to keep their teachers up to date. Judes (2010) suggested, "ESL teachers often do not have updated certification" (p. 33). However, teachers must have up-to-date techniques and be familiar with the most recent theories in the field of ESL education. A recent study found that "Non-native English speakers require a different pedagogy than native speakers" (Bartlett, 2011, p. 97), thus showing the need for teachers to be current in their training and pedagogy. One of the best ways to accomplish this update and keep educators aware of currents trends and theories in their fields is through professional development. http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence/integrate
  17. 17. Paragraph with paraphrased materials not integrated http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence/integrate
  18. 18. Better version The causes of childhood obesity are various. Greg (2005) found that children need physical activity to stay healthy. However, children's inactive lifestyles and the time they spend in front of a screen seem to consume the time they could otherwise spend playing outdoors or involved in physical activities. In fact, this lack of physical activity has a direct effect on body fat index (BMI). One study found that the amount of time spent in front of the television or computer had a direct correlation to an individual's BMI (Stephens, 2003). While screen time is correlated with high BMI, Parsons (2003) still debated whether nature or nurture affects childhood obesity more. Though Parsons admitted that scientists have linked genetics to obesity, he also explains that parents often reinforce bad lifestyle habits (Parsons, 2003). http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence/integrate
  19. 19. Unexplained Quotation Embryonic stem cell research uses the stem cells from an embryo, causing much ethical debate in the scientific and political communities (Robinson, 2011). "Politicians don't know science" (James, 2010, p. 24). Academic discussion of both should continue (Robinson, 2011). http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence/integrate
  20. 20. Explained quotation Embryonic stem cell research uses the stem cells from an embryo, causing much ethical debate in the scientific and political communities (Robinson, 2011). However, many politicians use the issue to stir up unnecessary emotion on both sides of the issues. James (2010) explained that "politicians don't know science," (p. 24) so scientists should not be listening to politics. Instead, Robinson (2011) suggested that academic discussion of both embryonic and adult stem cell research should continue in order for scientists to best utilize their resources while being mindful of ethical challenges. http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence/explain
  21. 21. Explained Paraphrase Trow (1939) measured the effects of emotional responses on learning and found that student memorization dropped greatly with the introduction of a clock. Errors increased even more when intellectual inferiority regarding grades became a factor (Trow, 1939). The group that was allowed to learn free of restrictions from grades and time limits performed better on all tasks (Trow, 1939). Therefore, negative learning environments and students' emotional reactions can indeed hinder achievement. http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcenter/evidence/explain
  22. 22. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/930/10/
  23. 23. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/930/10/
  24. 24. More examples of in-text citations https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/930
  25. 25. References • Evidence, http://academicguides.waldenu.edu/writingcen • Quote or paraphrase, http://www2.elc.polyu.edu.hk/cill/refchoice.htm • Problems with dropped quotes, http://jeanneguerin.com/1b/MLAerrors.htm

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