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  1. 1. Everything on the Internet is Free, Right? A Crash Course on Digital 🔌 Copyright #PSEWEB Presented by Andrea Karpala & Heather Martin University of Guelph
  2. 2. ABOUT US Heather Martin University of Guelph Copyright Officer & Manager of E-Learning and Reserve Services Andrea Karpala Communications Manager & Social Media Lead, University of Guelph Library @heat13her AndreaKarpala #PSEWEB
  3. 3. #PSEWEB We’re here to help Digital copyright can be intimidating…
  4. 4. 1. Yes, copyright applies to content on the internet #GoldenNugget #PSEWEB
  5. 5. Copyright protects ORIGINAL WORKS in all formats Copyright DOES NOT protect facts or ideas- only their expression Works are protected when they ARE CREATED – no registration required Copyright lasts for LIFE OF AUTHOR + 50 years (in Canada) #PSEWEB
  6. 6. Copyright Act amendments in 2012 brought Canada’s legislation INTO THE DIGITAL AGE #PSEWEB
  7. 7. #PSEWEB CREATOR RIGHTS • Economic rights Sole right to reproduce, publish, communicate to the public, perform, translate, create derivative works…(and to authorize others to do so) • Moral rights Right of attribution, integrity, association Balance between CREATOR and USER rights USER RIGHTS • Limitations and exceptions to the rights of creators • Allow for some uses without permission or payment • Fair dealing for certain purposes: Research, private study, education, criticism, review, parody, satire and news reporting Image courtesy of
  8. 8. 2. Not all uses of copyrighted material require PERMISSION #GoldenNugget #PSEWEB
  9. 9. GREY AREA How you USE the work = copyright exception available MORE FAIR • Small excerpts • Few copies • Private use (small audience) • Non- profit/education • News reporting LESS FAIR • Large exerpts or entire works • Many copies • Publicly distributed • Corporate, commercial use • Entertainment • Non-copyrighted alternatives exist Fair Dealing? Fair Use? #PSEWEB
  10. 10. If FAIR DEALING isn’t an option • Insubstantial amounts (e.g. quotes) • Public domain materials • Content with notice that permits use (these slides from • Creative Commons licensed content • Other licensed content #PSEWEB
  11. 11. You can GOOGLE images easily, so can lawyers #PSEWEB Image courtesy of
  12. 12. 3. Do Your RESEARCH #GoldenNugget #PSEWEB
  13. 13. Where to find COPYRIGHT Information on Webites • Google search • “Copyright” section • Website - Terms of use • “Rights and Permissions” • Contact Us #PSEWEB
  14. 14. 4. Assess the RISK Think: Is it Disney? Peanuts? A meme? An image from a TV show? Who owns the image rights? #GoldenNugget #PSEWEB
  15. 15. #PSEWEB
  16. 16. 5. Read the FINE PRINT #GoldenNugget Think: Terms of use on websites Licence terms & conditions #PSEWEB
  17. 17. #PSEWEB
  18. 18. 6. Creative Commons is your FRIEND #GoldenNugget #PSEWEB Always attribute the SOURCE
  19. 19. Sources of CC Images Flickr Creative Commons Search ativecommons Creative Commons Search: https://search.creativeco Wikimedia Commons https://commons.wikimed #PSEWEB
  20. 20. How it’s DONE 1. Name of creator 2. CC license 3. Link back to photo Another Summer Day in Paris by Trey Ratcliff. CC BY NC SA #PSEWEB
  21. 21. How it’s DONE 1. Name of creator 2. CC license 3. Link back to photo #PSEWEB
  22. 22. Royalty Free & Public Domain Content (CC0 – no attribution required) Corbis Images Public Domain collections: -Wellcome Images -British Library -New York Public Library Unsplash Open Music -Free Music Archive -Jamendo -CCMixter Paid options: -Shutterstock Video -CC video collections on YouTube & Flickr #PSEWEB
  23. 23. 7. Don’t be afraid to SEEK PERMISSION #GoldenNugget #PSEWEB
  24. 24. 8. Value and RESPECT CREATIVITY Give credit Where IS DUE!! Credit Diagram featured by #GoldenNugget #PSEWEB
  25. 25. #GoldenNugget 9. Get to know the COPYRIGHT SPECIALIST at your institution #PSEWEB
  26. 26. Cease & desist… What to DO! • Connect with your institution’s copyright specialist + legal counsel • Know your rights! Some takedown notices are fraudulent • Statutory damages for non-commercial infringement in Canada capped at $5,000
  27. 27. RECAP Consider FAIR DEALING Link to content or EMBED it rather than copying it Use content with an OPEN LICENSE PURCHASE/LICENSE content #PSEWEB
  28. 28. 10. When in doubt, create YOUR OWN brilliant content #PSEWEB#GoldenNugget
  29. 29. THANKS! Any questions? #PSEWEB
  30. 30. CREDITS Special thanks to all the people who made and released these awesome resources for free: ▸ Presentation template by SlidesCarnival ▸ Photographs by Death to the Stock Photo (license) #PSEWEB


    Introduce you to the basic principles of copyright
    Provide guidance on using copyrighted materials on web sites, in social media and other public online venues (in other words, copyright in the digital world).
    Bust some copyright myths
    Provide you with some strategies for using content without infringing copyright
    Point you to sources of copyright-free, public domain, and free-to-use content
    Take the fear and anxiety out of using copyrighted works
    Leave you with 10 golden nuggets of copyright wisdom

    Disclaimer - this presentation is truly a crash course. We have a lot of material to cover in a short time, and we have focused on some key points.
    If there’s something we haven’t covered, we’ll hopefully have some time at the end for a few questions.
    One of the best things about the Internet is that you can find all kinds of cool content there, and it is very easy to download, copy and use.
    And if there is a meme, or an image, that is going viral, of course everyone wants to capitalize on its popularity.

    But being publicly accessible is not the same as being in the public domain.
    There is a myth that materials on the internet were put there to be widely distributed, and to a certain extent that is true.
    But even works that everyone else in the world is copying and sharing are most probably protected by copyright.
    Even if there is no copyright symbol, no “all rights reserved” – the material you wish to use still has a copyright owner somewhere.
    It may be that this person wants to freely disseminate his/her work, and is happy for you to use it, but you can’t assume that.
    Also, because your work is the public face of your institution, you are going to want to be more cautious than an individual sharing content online.

    Let’s start with some basic info about copyright law in Canada
    Copyright protects original works in all formats and genres: books, articles, films, sound recordings, computer software, artistic works, performances, broadcast signals, photographs, maps, charts, and more – all are protected by copyright
    This includes materials that you find on the Internet. While it’s true that much of the content on the internet is intended to be widely shared, that doesn’t mean it is not protected by copyright
    Copyright does not protect facts or ideas – only their expression
    Copyright protection in Canada lasts for the life of the author plus 50 years (different in other countries, and if TPP is passed)
    Copyright laws are different in other jurisdictions – means that you can’t assume everything you hear/read about copyright applies in Canada. The law of the country you are in is what applies (e.g. posting on a US server, such as YouTube).

    Since amendments made in 2012, Canada’s Copyright Act is one of the most progressive in the world.
    It has been updated to recognize new technologies and to ensure that it is technologically neutral.
    It also recognizes that in the internet age, we are all both creators and consumers of copyrighted works, and that these rights need to be balanced.
    There are specific exceptions that permit Canadians to use copyrighted works in certain ways.
    The 2012 Copyright Act amendments, as well as a few key Supreme Court Decisions, have strongly affirmed the balance between user rights and creator rights in Canada.
    [describe creator rights and user rights as defined in the Act]

    Exceptions such as fair dealing permit the use of copyrighted materials for specific purposes, without obtaining permission or paying copyright fees (list the purposes)
    Whether fair dealing is an option depends on how “fair” your use is – Supreme Court has provided some guidance re how to determine what is fair.

    The challenge, though, is determining whether your use falls under an exception in the Copyright Act.
    Whether fair dealing is an option depends on how “fair” your use is – Supreme Court has said you need to consider factors such as these.

    So, in some cases, you may be able to use fair dealing to post content online – especially if you are using it for a purpose such as parody, satire, criticism or even news reporting. But you also have to weigh the fairness factors. Many uses will fall into a grey area in the middle, where it is not exactly clear whether fair dealing is applicable or not. You will need to weigh the risks.
    [Briefly run through – more explanation of some of these later]
    So, now we know about Canadian copyright law, and about some user exceptions that you might be able to take advantage of in some circumstances.
    But when you find the perfect image, meme, or video that you want to use, how do you know whether or not it is OK to include on your website, or to post in a social media account?
    You are going to need to assess it on a case by case basis.
    Try to determine the source of the material you wish to use
    Get a sense as to whether it is going to be something that is straightforward or complicated
    Where to find copyright information on a website
    Using a reverse image tool such as TinEye, RevEye, or Google Image Reverse Search to locate the source of an image.
    Upload your photo, or enter the URL of the site you found it on, and you will get a list of locations where the image is found. Sort in date order to find the oldest.
    Not foolproof, but can be helpful.
    Is it Disney? Peanuts? Dr. Seuss? Owned by a corporate entity vs. created by an individual?
    Figuring out what to avoid.
    In general, there’s a greater risk in using content owned by the entertainment industry, and corporations in general.
    Known litigators: Disney, Warner Bros, Sony, Peanuts, Dr. Seuss
    A google search for the name of the company and “copyright infringement” or “lawsuit” or “takedown notice” will give you a sense of how aggressively the company protects its copyright.

    And remember that many companies troll the web for content being used without their permission. If you post something on a public site, they will find it.
    Terms of use on web sites
    Licence terms and conditions
    Some uses may be fine (e.g. educational) while others are not
    Example of terms and conditions of using material on a website [read and highlight the pertinent sections]
    If there is time, maybe also read some relevant sections from the BrainyQuote site:

    … accepting this Agreement, you can use our stuff for legitimate academic, research, and reporting projects, but you can't use it to just copy and paste a bunch of our stuff on your own website. That hurts our search engine rankings, not to mention our feelings.

    Also, all photographs published on BrainyQuote, and on our 'Quote of the Day' social media pages on Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, and Google+, are protected by copyright. Our photographs are so awesome, we've watermarked each and every one of them. You agree not to copy, distribute, display, disseminate, or otherwise reproduce BrainyQuote photographs, without our prior written permission. That said, there is one exception: You can share our photographs via social media as long as, and only if, they link back to BrainyQuote or the Site. If you steal our images, publish them and link them back to your own website, we will find you... and that won't be good! Share our photographs, enjoy them, be inspired by them - do not infringe on them, and we will remain friends.
    [Explain what a CC license is and how it works]
    Over 1 billion works on the internet with a CC license – from articles to images to video to music to entire books.

    Always attribute the source – exception CC0

    Follow the terms set out in the license
    No derivatives?
    Share alike?
    Example of CC licensed photo from Flickr.
    Point out license info in bottom right hand corner. Informs user exactly what they can and can’t do with the image.
    Attribution should include the name of the creator, the CC license used, and a link back to the photo, if possible.
    Example of CC licensed photo from Flickr.
    Point out license info in bottom right hand corner. Informs user exactly what they can and can’t do with the image.
    Attribution should include the name of the creator, the CC license used, and a link back to the photo, if possible.
    …if the material is not available with a CC license, or you can’t find any information about how it can be used.
    Sometimes as easy as a phone call or quick email
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