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Beyond the Cold War<br />1945-2001<br />The ABRIDGED VERSION<br />European Politics and Economics<br />
Western Renaissance<br />A divided and economically weak Europe made a huge turn-around within a generation after 1945. <br />The postwar challenge <br />Effects of WWII<br />New leaders take charge<br />Fourth Republic<br />Labour Party<br />West Germany leads the way to economic recovery by 1963<br />
Western Renaissance continued<br />Toward European unity<br />Not ready for political unity, but make inroads toward economic unity<br />European Coal and Steel Community (reduce tariffs)<br />European Economic Community (Common Market)<br />Treaty of Rome (1957) – coordinate the development atomic energy and eliminate tariffs<br />Hopes of further unity was spoiled by France.<br />de Gaulle wants France to lead the Common Market<br />Withdraws from NATO and vetoes Britain’s admittance to the Common Market<br />
Western Renaissance continued<br />Decolonization<br />Causes<br />Weaken Europe after the war<br />Self-determination<br />Nations in Africa and Asia begin to fight for independence to various success<br />India (Britain)<br />Palestine/Israel (British Mandate)<br />Vietnam (France)<br />Algeria (France)<br />Britain include many former colonies into the Commonwealth<br />Neocolonialism<br />
Economic Uncertainty 1968-1985<br />Troubled economy<br />Economic crisis of the 1970s<br />OPEC oil embargo on the U.S. caused the world’s economy to collapse.<br />Western Europe most severely effected<br />Society in a time of economic uncertainty<br />Welfare system provided political stability<br />Government increased budget leading to higher deficits<br />Thatcher (Britain) slows government spending and privatizes state-owned industries, with moderate success.<br />Mitterrand (France) attempts to move toward more government ownership of industry, but fails<br />
Building a new Europe in the 1990s<br />German unification<br />East Germans feared unification – “Third way”<br />Gorbachev’s approval was key to unification<br />Germany unified in 1993<br />Still major differences existed between the former East and West Germamy<br />Common patterns and problems<br />Many European nations adopt the American model<br />Poland and Hungary<br />Liberal democracy united Europe in a common political-cultural ideology.<br />Most European nations desired to become member of the Economic Community.<br />
Building a new Europe in the 1990s continued<br />Recasting Russia<br />Yeltsin drove Russia to economic liberalization<br />Private ownership increased<br />Inflation increases<br />Gap between rich and poor increases<br />Life expectancy fell<br />Criminal organizations had a more prominent role<br />Russian politics<br />Weak political parties<br />Inefficient court system<br />Intervention into Chechnya<br />
Building a new Europe in the 1990s continued<br />Rise of ethnic nationalism <br />Progress and tragedy in east central Europe (Poland, Hungary, Czech Rep.)<br />Market economies<br />Western-style political structure<br />Social/economic inequality increased<br />Slovakia, Romania, and Bulgaria lagged behind<br />
Building a new Europe in the 1990s continued<br />The tragic post-communist experience in Yugoslavia<br />Nation split following the fall of Communism<br />Serbia, Slovenia, and Croatia<br />Serbia and leader Slobodan Milosevic were the aggressors<br />Bosnia declares independence<br />War develops between Serbs, Croats, and Bosnians<br />Nasty war of destruction and ethnic cleansing<br />U.S. and NATO intervenes and eventually brings an end to the war.<br />
Building an new Europe in the 1990s continued<br />Unity and identify in Western Europe<br />Single European Act (1986)<br />Set the groundwork for a single market, which develops in the European Union<br />Maastricht Treaty (1992) officially creates the European Union and led to the creation of a single currency (euro).<br />Some nations were apprehensive on joining and later apprehensive in allowing some countries as members.<br />