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“Statistics is the collection, classification, analysis
and presentation of numerical data”
-CROXTON AND COWDEN
“Statistics are numerical statements of facts in any
department of enquiry placed in relation to each
Statistics means the various methods adopted for the
collection, analysis and interpretation of the figures.
Further, in singular sense ,The concept of statistics is
described as statistical methods. The Statistical
method is “A Telescope through which we can study
a large terrain that would be accessible to our unaided
Vision”.Thus it may be stated that statistics is a
science of collection, presentation, analysis, and
interpretation of data.
It means a collection of numerical facts. It is in this
sense that the public usually think of statistics as
figures concerned with population or production of
wheat in different years or number of man-hours lost
in specific year. Secondary Statistics eg-
percentages, averages and coefficients derived from
numerical facts, are also included in the term
“Statistics” in this sense.
• Aggregates of Facts: Single height 5’6 or 6’0 is not
statistics but a series relating to the height of a group of
persons is called statistics.
• Affected by multiplicity of causes: Statistics are
affected by large number of factors. Ex: Prices are affected by
conditions of demand, supply, money supply, imports, exports
• Numerically Expressed: Qualitative expressions like
young, old, good, bad, etc are not recognized. so, a numerical
value like 932 females per 1000 males in India and 1170
females per 1000 males in USSR.
• Collected in a systematic Manner-For Accuracy and
reliability of data, the figures should be collected in a systematic
• Collected for pre-determined purpose-Data should be
collected with some pre determined purpose. Figures should be
collected with some objective in mind.eg-if we want collect data on
prices, then we must be clear whether we have to collect wholesale or
• Placed In relation to each other-collection of data is done with a
motive to compare. Figures collected should be comparable Eg-It does
not make any sense if we compare height of a person and rent he pays
for his accommodation.
• Collection of Data- It is the first step in statistical enquiry.
The technique depends upon the objective of the study. They
should be collected carefully so as to fulfill the basic objective
of the purposed study.
• Organization of Data- After collection, the data are
organised in a proper form which involves editing(removing
errors),classification(arranging) and tabulation(columns and
• Presentation of Data-Now the data is presented in a suitable
manner- either by diagrams or graphs.
• Analysis of Data- Analysis follows the presentation of data.
simple mathematical techniques are applied in analysis. These
include central tendency, measures of dispersion, correlation and
regression etc. The main purpose of analysis is to draw some
•Interpretation- It is the last step in the statistical methodology. To
derive meaning from analysed data is called interpretation of data. It
involves statistical thinking, skill and experience. It provides final
SUBJECT –MATTER OF STATISTICS
NATURE OF STATISTICS
It deals with methods which help in estimating the characteristics of
a population or making decisions concerning a population on the
basis of the sample results. Sample and population are the two
relative terms. A Population is treated as universe and a sample is
fraction or segment of the universe.
It means to describe the data and consists of the methods and
techniques used in the collection, organisation, presentation
and analysis of data in order to describe the various features
and characteristics of such data. These can either be graphical
or computational. In this, nothing can be inferred from the data
nor can decision be made or conclusion drawn.
The nature of statistics is to find out whether it
is a science or Art. As a science, Statistics
studies numerical data in a systematic manner
and as an art, it makes use of the data to solve
the problems of real life.
Expression of Facts in Numbers
Enlarges Individual Knowledge and Experience
It Compares Facts
It Facilitates Policy Formulation
It Helps Other Sciences in Testing their Laws
It Establishes Relationship between Facts- Statistics also
establishes relationship between two or more than two facts.
Enlarges individual Knowledge & Experience.
Study of Numerical facts only.
Study of Aggregates only.
Not the only Method.
Homogeneity of Data.
Results are true only on an Average.
Without reference result may prove wrong.
Can be Used only by Experts.
Misuse of Statistics is possible.