Más contenido relacionado


Presentation (1).pptx

  1. Third Gender in India
  2. Concept of Sex and Gender The concept of Sex and Gender is distinct from each other. Sex is the biological differences between Males and Females, identified by two characteristics. The primary characteristic of sex is the reproductive system, and the secondary characteristics of sex are such as height and muscularity. On the other hand, Gender is the degree of femininity and masculinity exhibited by a person. The characteristics of gender may vary between different societies. A person's sex is identified by his/her biological trait whereas the gender identity is the individual's self-conception of being male or female based on his/her association with masculine or feminine gender roles. Therefore, the terms sex and gender are not interchangeable.
  3. Homosexuality and Sexual Orientation Homosexuality is referred to the attraction towards the individuals of one's own sex .It is a sub-category of Sexual orientation, which is a person's physical, romantic and emotional attraction to a particular sex, whether it may be male or female. There is a term called Gender role, which is the society's concept of how men and women should act and behave. But when the persons act and behave opposite to their prescribed gender role they are marked as Homosexuals by the society. This class of homosexuals is collectively referred to as LGBTQ, which stands for " Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgendered and Queer".
  4. Who are Transgenders? • Transgendered individuals are those whose gender identity does not match with their sexual identity. Transgendered males exhibits a strong emotional and psychological connection to the feminine identity and consider themselves as of female gender. Same goes with the transgendered females who identify themselves as of male gender. They are the people who transgress social gender norms and are marked as different and less worthy by the dominant cultural patterns of interpretation and valuation. Their sexuality is interpreted as "Deviant" and devalued.
  5. Discriminatory Treatment of Third Gender in India •face mocking, ignorance, shaming and assault •low-status ethnic groups •sexuality is interpreted as deviant and devalued •kept aside from the general society •clubbing into community of LGBTIQ •Heterosexism and Transphobia •exclusion from the educational and health care systems •lack of education and access to job opportunities •livelihood by singing and dancing and prostitution •denied the full rights and protections of citizenship •curbs on their rights of expression and association •absence of sexual autonomy •face police brutality
  6. Supporting the Third Gender: Bringing Social Change • To be supportive of the transgender community, it is imperative to understand their plight especially, in India, where they have been portrayed with abnormal differentness and therefore, robbed of their basic human dignity. • The thing to understand, first and foremost, is what is meant by “transgender”. It indicates a transgression, of general social gender norms — to be "transgender" is to defy rigid, binary constructions of gender and to live beyond gender roles expected by society. • Another measure is to de-stigmatize transgender sexuality. This is the most essential step in harboring their dignity, and ending their ending a long term in social exclusion. • Labels are the real enemy here. Perceiving of members of a certain gender, in turn, initiates the process of formation of social stereotypes. • Transgenders, have treated by the society, with a combination of "fascination, revulsion, and fear“. Societies, as a whole, have never been tolerant of alternative sexualities, and have always conformed to patriarchy, seeking refuge from social change and generative actors.
  7. Landmark Judgements • •On April 15, 2014, the Supreme Court of India gave a historic judgement in the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) vs Union of India case, declaring transgender people to be the “third gender” in India. According to this judgement, transgender people had the right to be treated equally under the Constitution of India, they had the right to self-identification (identifying one’s gender as male, female, or third gender), and, most importantly, they were to be recognized as socially and economically backward classes, thereby making them eligible for reservations in jobs and educational institutions. • •In K.S. Puttaswamy v. UOI (2017), the court addressed the denial of privacy rights to transgenders. • •In Navtej Singh Johar v. UOI (2018), the five-judge bench of the Indian Supreme Court unanimously held that Section 377 of the IPC, which criminalized ‘carnal intercourse against the order of nature’, was unconstitutional. With this, the Court overruled its decision in Suresh Koushal v. Naz Foundation, that had upheld the constitutionality of Section 377. • •These judgements ensured the fundamental rights of LGBT+ community under article 14, 15, 16, 21 and 23.
  8. Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019 •Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019 codifies the laws dealing with prohibition of discrimination against a transgender person, including denial of service or unfair treatment in relation to education, employment, healthcare, access to or enjoyment of goods/facilities, right to movement, right to reside, opportunity to hold public/private office and access to a government or private establishment. •The bill states that relevant government will take measures to ensure the full inclusion and participation of transgender persons in society. •Under the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, National Council for Transgender Persons is established by the central government. •The council is to advise the central government as well as monitor the impact of policies, legislations and projects with respect to transgender persons. It is also supposed to redress the grievances of transgender persons. •Though there are no provisions in the act regarding transgender marriage, the Madurai Bench of the Madras High Court in Arun Kumar v. Inspector General of Registration upheld that the term ‘bride’, as mentioned in Section 5 of the Hindu Marriage Act includes transgender persons as well.
  9. Inclusive Planning (There is nothing wrong with you there is a lot wrong with the world you live in) • In April 2014, in a landmark judgement, the Supreme Court of India allotted the ‘third gender’ status to transgenders. The judgement was aimed at providing employment opportunities to the socially- backward community and help ease access to educational institutes. • While this was a huge victory, we still have a long way to go, as far as their acceptance in society is concerned. That, however, is something that will come gradually. • In an effort to help the transgender community, the Centre is considering opening shelter homes for them. The project will run for an year in three to five states, and each shelter home will accommodate 25 people. • The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment will soon put out a formal notice for the NGOs for running shelter homes. • In these shelter homes, they will supposedly have access to skill training programs for professional courses, that they can choose to pursue. The ministry is also planning to tie up with the National Institute of Social Defense, and National Backward Classes Finance & Development Corporation, in order to impart skills to transgenders.