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HEAT EXCHANGERS

this ppt is made with the reference of heat exchangers that have been used in NHFI, it almost covers their every aspect that is their working, maintenance, and safety !!
so please suit yourself!!!

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HEAT EXCHANGERS

  1. 1. Analysis of Heat exchangers Efficient heat exchange comes in various forms Akshay Kr Mishra Sharda University MECH , 4 YR.
  2. 2. Types of heat exchanger Parallel flow Diagonal flow Acc. To fluid flow Counter flow Cross flow
  3. 3. Counter flow Cross flow Diagonal flow
  4. 4. RadiatOR tyPe HX’s (RHe)  AIR to WATER heat exchanger.  Uses fans to circulate air and cool the fluid inside tubes of HX’s.  Cooling medium is “AIR”.  Radiator is made via Al alloy. Working of a radiator type HX
  5. 5. HOw tO MaiNtaiN RHe’s  Feed the oil from inlet only.  Flush clean the radiator with pressurized air once in a week, to maintain proper air flow.  Don’t keep any obstacle in front of radiator which may obstruct the air flow.
  6. 6. DAIKIN 90507; TRACTOR PLANT( M/C SHOP) DAIKIN 80017; TRACTOR PLANT( M/C SHOP)
  7. 7. DSL 50; AXLE PLANT(STEERING KNUCKLE LINE) HH5C-PLC; AXLE PLANT( STEERING KNUCKLE L
  8. 8. #50604 HELLER MCH300; BKW HX; TRACTOR PLANT( M/C
  9. 9. Applications of RHE  Forced air heating & cooling  Indoor & outdoor wood furnaces/stoves/boilers  Heat pumps  Chilled water cooling  Permanent aluminum fin to copper coil bond ensures superior heat transfer properties
  10. 10. Cooling towers  Heat withdrawn from water via contact between the water and the air.  Heat exchange is b/w air and water and through the evaporation of a small part of the water that needs to be cooled.  It allows to cool down to a temperature lower than the ambient temperature, which is an important advantage compared to dry coolers.  A regular maintenance will also minimize the risk of legionella.
  11. 11. Cooling tower, utility area
  12. 12. Plate type HX’s (PHE)  Constitutes of 2 plates – fix frame plate and pressure plate(movable).  Pack of corrugated metal plates with portholes for passage of 2 fluids b/w which Heat transfer takes place.  These plates are fitted with gasket which seals the inter plate channel and directs the fluids into alt. channels.
  13. 13. Principle of PHE  Channels are formed b/w the plates & corner ports are arranged so that the media flows through alt. channels.  Heat transferred via plate b/w channels & complete concurrent flow is made for highest possible efficiency.  Corrugation of plates provides passage b/w plates, support each plate against adjacent one and enhances the turbulence, resulting in efficient heat transfer.
  14. 14. CHESSISE PHE; AM 10 FM1; TRACTOR PLANT (PAINT SH
  15. 15. defects Leakage in plate heat exchanger
  16. 16. CALCIUM SULPHATE SCALING IRON FOULING
  17. 17. HOw tO MaiNtaiN PHe’s  Back flush the PHE once a week.  check the PHE for leaks, especially during intense running periods.  Check Regularly the gaskets as soon as possible for softness & elasticity, as brittle gaskets are no good.  Install a water cleaning system. It will soften the water & will prevent hard scaling and fouling from coating the plates. Even chlorination should be proper.
  18. 18.  Effective Heat Transfer- Large surface areas and     corrugated plates allow Plate heat exchangers to transfer heat very efficiently. Easy Maintenance Compact Design Cost-efficient- PHE are smaller and use less material to produce. Materials- PHE are available in a wide variety of materials. Plates are available in: Stainless Steel, Titanium, Titanium-Palladium, Nickel etc. as per our requirement.
  19. 19. Types of PHE Gasketed PHE Semi-welded PHE Welded PHE
  20. 20. 1.Gasketed PHE -use high quality gaskets and design to seal plates together and protect against leaks. Plates can easily be removed for cleaning. expansion, or replacing purposes, drastically reducing maintenance costs. Applications include - Chemical, HVAC etc. 2.Welded PHE - Here plates are welded together. Extremely durable, ideal for transferring fluids with high temperatures or corrosive materials.  Mechanical cleaning of plates is not an option as with PHE due to welding. Applications include- Hazardous liquids , oil cooling
  21. 21. 3.Semi-welded PHE – A mixture of welded and gasketed plates.  Contains pairs of two plates welded together which are then gasketed to other pairs  Easy to service on one side and able to transfer more intense fluids on the other.  They are perfect for transferring expensive materials since they have a very low risk of fluid loss.
  22. 22. limitations  Extreme temperature difference b/w 2 fluids-it’s generally more cost efficient to use a Shell & Tube heat exchanger . As in a Plate heat exchanger, there can be a high pressure loss due to the large amount of turbulence created by the narrow flow channels.  Gasketed Plate Heat Exchangers are limited in high fluid temperatures, by the temperature limitations of the gasket.
  23. 23. BHE  BHE is a compact variation of PHE but does not have carbon steel frame, gaskets or tightening bolts.  It simply has AISI 316 stainless steel corrugated channel plates and the heat exchangers are brazed in a vacuum furnace and helium pressure tested to ensure leak-free performance.  No pressure retaining parts such as shell of a shell and tube type etc.  This combination with maximum heat transfer and high efficiency make it the most efficient HX.
  24. 24. WORKING OF BHE EXPLODED VIEW OF BH
  25. 25. GEA MAKE BHE;AXLE PLANT Top view of BHE; GEA MAKE; AXLE PLA
  26. 26. OPERATING PRINCIPLE  Based on the plate and nozzle orientation, each fluid passes through alternative channels within the heat exchanger. All plate material and nozzles are of Stainless Steel 316.  An extremely high heat transfer coefficient is attained due to the flow characteristics in each channel. A specially designed and tested chevron pattern causes a turbulent flow of the fluid resulting in higher heat transfer.
  27. 27. TYPES OF BHE  TPL SERIES- In case of media with average viscosity and high viscosity. The TPL unit has special turbulators placed between the flow of gaps and by diagonal media flow together with large diameter connections very high heat exchangers rates are reached.  GPL SERIES- Heat transfer plates with V-corrugation for universal application in case of media with low velocity. GPL series has thermally optimized plate corrugation which produces highly turbulent flow even in case of low mass flow.
  28. 28. TPL SERIES GPL SERIES
  29. 29. CB-COPPER BRAZED HX  These heat exchangers from the smallest unit CB14, to the largest unit CB300, are brazed with 99.9 % copper.  This forms a self-contained unit that can handle both high pressures and high temperatures.  The exceptional heat transfer efficiency makes all CB units very compact. As a result, they can tackle large-capacity duties even though there is only limited installation space available.
  30. 30. CB- COPPER BRAZED HX
  31. 31. Fusion bonded PHE  AlfaNova, the world’s first 100% stainless steel AND fusion brazed plate heat exchanger,  Extreme temperature and pressure fatigue conditions that would destroy a conventional brazed heat exchanger are no match for the rugged AlfaNova.  compact, high-performance AlfaNova offers levels of hygiene and corrosion-resistance unmatched by any other BHE or any HX.
  32. 32. ALFANOVA- FUSION BONDED PHE
  33. 33. ADVANTAGES OF BHE  High corrosion resistant- All plates uses SUS316 material.  High pressure resistant  High thermal efficiency  High working temperature- Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger's SUS316 material structure offers higher working temperature range up to 200℃.  Compactness  Low maintenance- The corrugated plates are designed to achieve turbulence flow at a low flow rate, thus decreasing the need for frequent maintenance.
  34. 34. HOw tO MaiNtaiN BHe’s  For heavier fouling use chemicals such as formic acid, citric acid in concentration compatible with copper.  Use CIP(cleaning in place) systems to chemically remove calcium deposits and other forms of scaling from different plate surfaces.  Do not leave the unit on standby after cleaning.  Do not use liquids that are corrosive to stainless steel or brazing material(Cu or Ni).
  35. 35. sHeLL & tuBe tyPe HX’s  Water to water heat exchanger  consists of a shell (a large pressure vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it. One fluid runs through the tubes, and another fluid flows over the tubes (through the shell) to transfer heat between the two fluids.
  36. 36.  Tube pitch- The shortest distance between centers of two adjacent tubes is called the tube pitch, should not be less than 1.25 times the tube diameter.  Baffles- Responsible for obstructing and redirecting the flow of fluid in the shell side of an exchanger.  Situated normal to the walls of the shell and force the liquid to flow at right angles to the axis of the tubes Thus increasing turbulence resulting in greater heat transfer.
  37. 37. Exploded view of shell and tube heat exchanger
  38. 38. Yantra make HX ; shell and tube type; TRACTOR PLANT( ENGINE SHO
  39. 39. Shell and tube type HX in diesel generators; utility area
  40. 40. How to Maintain shell & tube HX  At regular intervals , an examination should be made of internal as well as external of HX.  Intervals b/w cleaning should not inc. because difficulty of cleaning will inc., as scaling or deposits on tubes will inc.  Before disassembly, make sure that unit has been depressurized, vented and drained of all hazardous materials purged.  Circulate hot wash oil and hot water with high vel. to remove sludge and salt deposits from tubes.
  41. 41. Forced draft ventilation  Controls indoor air quality.  Excess humidity, odors & contaminants controlled via dilution or replacement with outside air.  Ventilation includes both the exchange of air to the outside as well as circulation of air within the building.
  42. 42. Analysis of HX’s used in CNH(Case New Holland) 4 types of HX’s are being used in CNH RHE PHE Shell & Tube type BHE
  43. 43. MACHINE SHOP RADIATOR type HX’s PAINT SHOP PLATE type HX’s ENGINE SHOP SHELL & TUBE type NEW DRIVE LINE (NDL) BRAZED HX’s MACHINE SHOP BRAZED HX’s TRACTOR PLANT CNH DIFFERENTIAL LINE AXLE PLANT STEERING KNUCKLE LINE PLANET CARRIER LINE RADIATOR type HX’s
  44. 44. 4% RHE 9% PHE BHE 7% SHELL & TUBE COOLING TOWER 12% 68% PIE CHART SHOWING HX DISTRIBUTION
  45. 45. TOTAL NO. OF HEAT EXCHANGERS IN CNH- 71  NO. OF RADIATOR TYPE HX - 46     TRACTOR PLANT -27 AXLE PLANT – 16 UTILITY AREA- 3 NO. OF PLATE TYPE HX- 8 COOLANT TOWER- 6 NO. OF BRAZED TYPE HX- 5 NO. OF SHELL &TUBE TYPE HX- 6 TRACTOR PLANT- 2 UTILITY AREA - 4
  46. 46. TYPE OF HX’s PLANT LINE/SHOP M/C NAME MAKE OF HX’s RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #533 MAKINO A77 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #682 MAKINO A77 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #615 MAKINO A81 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #534 MAKINO A77 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #683 MAKINO A77 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE # 195 MAKINO A81 DAIKIN TRACTOR MACHINE #50437 HELLER BKW MODEL/TY PE OF HX’s 90507 40807
  47. 47. TYPE OF HX’s PLANT LINE/SHOP M/C NAME MAKE OF HX’s RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #441 MAKINO A81 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #352 MAKINO A77 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #685 MAKINO A77 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #485 MAKINO A77 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #351 MAKINO A81 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #456 MAKINO A77 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #533 MAKINO DAIKIN MODEL/TY PE OF HX’s 80017
  48. 48. TYPE OF HX’s PLANT LINE/SHOP M/C NAME MAKE OF HX’s RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #440 MAKINO A77 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #485 MAKINO A77 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #634 MAKINO A77 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #684 MAKINO A77 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #456 MAKINO A77 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #607 MAKINO A81 DAIKIN RHE TRACTOR MACHINE #352 MAKINO DAIKIN MODEL/TY PE OF HX’s
  49. 49. TYPE OF HX’s PLANT LINE/SHOP M/C NAME MAKE OF HX’s MODEL/TY PE OF HX’s SHELL AND TUBE TYPE TRACTOR ENGINE SHOP ENGINE YANTRA ASSEMBLY TEST CELL 4 RHE TRACTOR MACHINE SHOP #50604 HELLER MCH 300 BKW WRK10/2R2 8-CH2 RHE TRACTOR MACHINE SHOP #50603 HELLER MCH 300 BKW WRK10/2R28 -CH2 RHE TRACTOR MACHINE SHOP #50437 HELLER MCH 300 BKW WRK10/2R28 -CH2 RHE TRACTOR MACHINE SHOP #50239 HELLER MCH 300 BKW WRK10/2R28 -CH2 RHE TRACTOR MACHINE SHOP #50240 HELLER MCH 300 BKW WRK10/2R28 -CH2
  50. 50. TYPE OF HX’s PLANT LINE/SHOP M/C NAME MAKE OF HX’s MODEL/TY PE OF HX’s PHE TRACTOR PAINT SHOP CHESSISE PHE Alfa laval AM 10 FM1 PHE TRACTOR PAINT SHOP PRE DEGREASIN G TANK NO.1 Alfa laval P2FL1 (OLD) PHE TRACTOR PAINT SHOP DEGREASIN G-1 TANK NO. 2 Alfa laval P2FL1 PHE TRACTOR PAINT SHOP DEGREASIN G-2 TANK NO. 3 Alfa laval P2FL1 PHE TRACTOR PAINT SHOP PHOSPHATE TANK NO. 7 Alfa laval P2FL1 (OLD) PHE TRACTOR PAINT SHOP PHOSPHATE TANK NO. 7 Alfa laval M6-MFG (NEW) PHE TRACTOR PAINT SHOP CED BATH Alfa laval TANK NO. 11 P2FL1 PHE TRACTOR PAINT SHOP PRE M6-mfg Alfa laval
  51. 51. TYPE OF HX’s PLANT LINE/SHOP M/C NAME MAKE OF HX’s BRAZED HX’s TRACTOR NDL (NEW DRIVE LINE) NDL M/C 1 FUNKE BRAZED HX’s RHE TRACTOR NDL (NEW NDL M/C 2 DRIVE DIFFERENT BEMCO LINE) IAL LINE FUNKE RHE AXLE DIFFERENTI HIND GK ENGG. AL LINE HH473-11797 HH5C-PLC RHE AXLE STEERING KNUCKLE LINE BEMCO 20Ton WARKIN DSL 50 RHE AXLE STEERING KNUCKLE LINE HIND 5Ton GK ENGG. HH5C-PLC RHE AXLE STEERING KNUCKLE LINE BEMCO 20Ton WARKIN DSL 50 RHE AXLE STEERING KNUCKLE LINE BEMCO 20Ton WARKIN DSL 50 AXLE MODEL/TY PE OF HX’s WARKIN
  52. 52. TYPE OF HX’s PLANT LINE/SHOP M/C NAME MAKE OF HX’s MODEL/TY PE OF HX’s RHE AXLE PLANET CARRIER LINE BEMCO 40Ton WARKIN DKL 307 RHE AXLE PLANET CARRIER LINE BEMCO 40Ton WARKIN DKL 307 RHE AXLE MACHINE SHOP MAC 6290 MAKINO A100E YUKEN RHE AXLE MACHINE SHOP MAC 11173 MAKINO A100E YUKEN RHE AXLE MACHINE SHOP MAC 6291 MAKINO A100E YUKEN RHE AXLE MACHINE SHOP MAKINO A81 YUKEN RHE AXLE MACHINE SHOP MAKINO A81 YUKEN
  53. 53. TYPE OF HX PLANT SHOP RHE TRACTOR RHE MACHINE NAME MAKE MODEL DRIVE LINE #50525 HELLER MCH 300 BKW WRK10/2R2 8-CH2 TRACTOR DRIVE LINE #50237 HELLER MCH 300 BKW WRK10/2R2 8-CH2 RHE TRACTOR DRIVE LINE #51276 HELLER MCH 300 BKW WRK10/2R2 8-CH2 BHE AXLE M/C SHOP FAMAR ERGO 500 GEA WP 1-24E BHE AXLE M/C SHOP FAMAR ERGO 500 GEA WP1-24E BHE AXLE M/C SHOP FAMAR ERGO 500 GEA WP 1-24E
  54. 54. Contingency plans Radiator type HX MODES OF FAILURE 1. Radiator gets choked/jammed 2. Fan of RHE stops working. CONSEQUENCES 1.No proper air flow , oil will take time to get cooled, leading to accumulation of heat & eventually m/c will go down. PRECAUTIONS 1. Make sure that radiator is cleaned once in 2-3 months. 2. Keep the fan as a spare part with you.
  55. 55. Radiator type HX
  56. 56. BRAHMASTRA FOR PHE  When the level of problem is at a level where above written precautions don’t work then use “ BRAHMASTRA” that is contact the vendor. And here it’s “ALFA LAVAL”. NAME: ALFA LAVAL INDIA LTD. ADDRESS: 704-705,Ansal bhavan,16, Kasturbha Gandhi Marg , Delhi PHONE NO: 01141293300 EMAIL ID: india.info@alfalaval.com
  57. 57. Brahamastra for BHE well it does not have any modes of failure except that it stops working, so in that case is contact the vendor. And here it’s ”FUNKE” and “GEA”. NAME: Funke heat exchangers India pvt ltd. ADDRESS:14, Hadapsar Industrial estate, Hadapsar, Opposite Kwality bakery,Pune. CONTACT PERSON: Ashish B Kale PHONE NO:02066047894,9403961354 EMAIL ID: info@funke.co.in
  58. 58. NAME: GEA Ecoflex India Pvt Ltd. ADDRESS: R-493, MIDC, TTC Industrial Area, Rabale 400701 Navi Mumbai India CONTACT PERSON: Virendra Jhamb FAX: +91 22 27693797 EMAIL ID: virendra.jhamb@geagroup.com
  59. 59. Knowing danger Ways to eliminate danger Safety
  60. 60. Universal
  61. 61. HAZARDS INVOLVED PHE • While cleaning the plates; scaled or fouled deposits may come flying right into ones eyes. • Hot gases may leak while cleaning which forms CO when mixes with surroundings. PREVENTIVE METHODS • Use Goggles • Use protective masks
  62. 62. SHELL & TUB
  63. 63. THANK YOU

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