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RoboticsRoboticsHistoryRoboticsTechnology Types of Robots
First use of work “Robotics”Three law of RoboticsThe First Robot “ Ultimate”
The acclaimed Czechplaywright Karel Capek (1890-1938) made the first use of theword ‘robot’, from the Czechword for forced labor or serf.Capek was reportedly severaltimes a candidate for the Nobelprize for his works and veryinfluential and prolific as awriter and playwright.
Asimov also proposed his three "Laws ofRobotics", and he later added a zeroth law.Law Zero: A robot may not injurehumanity, or, through inaction, allow humanityto come to harm.Law One: A robot may not injure a humanbeing, or, through inaction, allow a human beingto come to harm, unless this would violate ahigher order law.Law Two: A robot must obey orders given it byhuman beings, except where such orders wouldconflict with a higher order law.Law Three: A robot must protect its own existenceas long as such protection does not conflict with ahigher order law.
The first Unimate was installed at aGeneral Motors plant to work with heateddie-casting machines. In fact mostUnimates were sold to extract die castingsfrom die casting machines and to performspot welding on auto bodies, both tasksbeing particularly hateful jobs for people.Both applications were commerciallysuccessful, i.e., the robots worked reliablyand saved money by replacing peopleUnimation is still in production today, withrobots for sale.
Robotics TechnologyMost industrial robots have at least the following five parts:
Most robots of today are nearly deafand blind. Sensors can provide somelimited feedback to the robot so it cando its job.The sensor sends information, in theform of electronic signals back to thecontroller. Sensors also give the robotcontroller information about itssurroundings and lets it know theexact position of the arm, or the stateof the world around it.
An effector is any device thataffects the environment.Robots control theireffectors, which are alsoknown as end effectors.Effectors includelegs, wheels, arms, fingers, wings and fins. Controllers causethe effectors to producedesired effects on theenvironment.
Actuators, also known as drives, aremechanisms for getting robots tomove. Most actuators are powered bypneumatics (air pressure), hydraulics(fluid pressure), or motors (electriccurrent). Most actuation useselectromagnetic motors and gears butthere have been frequent uses of otherforms of actuation includingNiTinOL"muscle-wires" andinexpensive Radio Control servos.
The robot connects to acomputer, which keeps thepieces of the arm workingtogether. This computer is thecontroller. The controllerfunctions as the "brain" of therobot. The controller can alsonetwork to other systems, sothat the robot may worktogether with other machines,processes, or robots
The robot arm comes in all shapesand sizes and is the single mostimportant part in roboticarchitecture. The arm is the partof the robot that positions theEnd Effector and Sensors to dotheir pre-programmed business.Many (but not all) resemblehuman arms, and haveshoulders, elbows, wrists, evenfingers. This gives the robot a lotof ways to position itself in its
Mobile robots are able tomove, usually they perform tasksuch as search areas. A primeexample is the MarsExplorer, specifically designed toroam the mars surface . Mobilerobots are a great help to suchcollapsed building for survivorsMobile robots are used for taskwhere people cannot go. Eitherbecause it is too dangerous ofbecause people cannot reach thearea that needs to be searched.
Rolling robots have wheelsto move around. These arethe type of robots that canquickly and easily searchmove around. Howeverthey are only useful in flatareas, rocky terrains givethem a hard time. Flatterrains are their territory.
Robots on legs are usuallybrought in when the terrain isrocky and difficult to enter withwheels. Robots have a hardtime shifting balance and keepthem from tumbling. That’swhy most robots with have atleast 4 of them, usually theyhave 6 legs or more.
Robots are not only used toexplore areas or imitate ahuman being. Most robotsperform repeating taskswithout ever moving aninch. Most robots are‘working’ in industrysettings and are stationary
Autonomous robots are selfsupporting or in other wordsself contained. In a way theyrely on their own ‘brains’. Autonomous robots run aprogram that give them theopportunity to decide on theaction to perform dependingon their surroundings. Attimes these robots even learnnew behavior.
An autonomous robot is despite itsautonomous not a very clever orintelligent unit. The memory andbrain capacity is usually limited, anautonomous robot can be comparedto an insect in that respect . In case arobot needs to perform morecomplicated yet undetermined tasksan autonomous robot is not the rightchoice.
Virtual robots don’t exits inreal life. Virtual robots are justprograms, building blocks ofsoftware inside a computer. Avirtual robot can simulate areal robot or just perform arepeating task. A special kindof robot is a robot thatsearches the world wide web.
BEAM is short forBiology, Electronics, Aesthetics and Mechanics.BEAM robots are madeby hobbyists. BEAMrobots can be simpleand very suitable forstarters.