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Face of Scotland

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Talk given to Lanark Rotarians. A Daunder with the Geographer.

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Face of Scotland

  1. 1. .5 I _ . ._ . /.. wiv. i _ 1 , but LIV . r»dd an _ 4 IV. lM. r. U7 J. .v . . at i. . . e . . A - 2 HM Shotts Prison Football Team, 1990
  2. 2. JAMES HUTTON JOHN PLAYFAIR CHARLES LYELL 1726-1797 1748 -1819 1797 -1875 I
  3. 3. IGNEOUS ROCKS SEDIMENTARY ROCKS METAMORPHIC ROCKS Molten rocks which cool down at or near the surface Weathering produces sediments. Compaction and Nearly all metamorphic rocks form from preexisting are called volcanic rocks. If they cool down deep cementation binds sediments into a variety of rocks deep within the earth's crust. Pressure and below the surface, they are called plutonic rocks. rocks. Crystallization is another way that these heat are the main agents of change. Transformations rocks can be formed. occur in the solid state. . WT METAMORPHISM slung _ igneous ntaw rocks . V '"°ta'“°'I’h'° old ed 7
  4. 4. NORTH-WEST HIGHLANDS Highland Boundary i A Faun post-Devonian '”0o, , T MIDLAND . , -9)0 ‘— VALLEY Devonian sediments and lavas SOUUIGFHI ll] '3fld8 7 — E fl 7 _ igneous tools emplaced during Caledonian Orogeny au j L, * ~——— ( J 5 ) -. rocks delonned and metamorphosed dunng Caiedoman Orogeny ‘ I ‘ — ‘ Siccar Point _ -. j' * -. Ordovician and Silurian sedimentary rocks I 7 / , 3 J‘ SOUTHERN Precambrian Basement ‘- T ' » = ;/ "; UPLANDS -—: a.m . x, /u ' W ‘V’? lhrusl ui 100 km from Jones K. 8. Blake S_, Mountain Building in Scotland, Open Univéi§iiyT20UZ{'
  5. 5. . converging plates spreading ridge diverging plates continental crust
  6. 6. enrmdl lirrcoliennucéi W 7 _ afler British Geological Survey 1996, aid Woodcock & Slrachan, ‘Geological History of Britail and Irelmdi 2012
  7. 7. M EON ERA PERIOD million years Va before present ° PHANERQZOIC ‘ Cenozoic gg; g;“, ,agv soo ("'5'b'° "lei Palaeogene 1ooo Cretaceous 1500 Jurassic CRYPTOZOIC I I 2000 (hidden life) i y Triassic 2500 "also referred to as Permian 3000 _the PRECAMBRIAN V Palaeozoic CaFb0n| fer0US It includes the Prot- , Devonian 3500 erozoic, Archaen and -1] A ‘ I 4000 _the Hadean eras. Ordovician 4500 _ Cambrian relative scale expanded scale
  8. 8. 580 mya Scotland lay near the South Pole on the margin of the Laurentian plate as the supercontinent, Pannotia, began to break up. ‘vs GN DANA after Gordon J. , E. , The Geological Foundations and Landscape E volition ofscofland, Scottish Geographical Journal, Vol 128, Number 1, March 2010.
  9. 9. 540 mya The outlines of the present day continents - «flu show the location of their basement rocks at . ,, . . . the start of the Cambrian Period. LAu§E‘N1-"A . _ Extraordinary geographical transformations g § were taking place in mainly in the southern S _. » . _ SIBERIA hemisphere. The pattern here developed from the break-up of the oldest supercontinental clustering, Rodinia. afler Redlern, R (2002) O! -?lGlNS, the Evolution of Continents, Oceans and Life, Weidenfield & Nicolson
  10. 10. 460 mya Avalonia breaks away from Gondwana. As Avalonia and Baltica drifts northwards, the lapetus Ocean gradually closes and the Rheic Ocean widens. The Midland Valley Arc (now central Scotland) collides with Laurentia - a Grampian orogenic event. after Redfern, R (2002) ORIGINS, the Evolution of Continents, Oceans and Life, Weidenfield & Nicolson
  11. 11. ‘K, *1 . ‘ -5 i. :~ ’-. § «. .., '.- . . 9“ " ‘Vi __ _ ‘, ,. A. _, -2" i ‘i ‘ i ‘ L jib "> 1' V ‘. ' if " "‘ J ’ t ‘ “N J , I —. A M11:-“i': :i A ‘V ~ iVl"l| ElHli§. !‘~. 2 e l at $ 3 _~. _', ‘ q '2' ‘ p 2]. v ‘ ; l3l: {VlP'; . ‘r - . I? ~ I. i T. 1. V (A. .. r_ l W,
  12. 12. t‘““"7’""'l Major slideorthmst Major fault plane Dava and Glen Bardfur successions Plulons - nany omitted for darillr
  13. 13. 425 mya Baltica had collided with Laurentia (Scandian orogenic event), followed by the soft docking of Avalonia. The terranes of Scotland were assembled and as the lapetus Ocean closed, they were joined with southern Britain. The newborn British Isles was assembled south of the Equator. vfirffiordon J. , E. , (2010), The Geological Foundations and Landscape Evolution of Scotland, Scottish Geographical Joumal, Vol 126, Number 1.
  14. 14. 340 mya after Redfern, R. (2002) ORJGJNS, the Evolution of Continents, Oceans and Life, Weidenfield 8: Nicolson
  15. 15. CARBONATE ROCKS I CAMBRIAN I SILURIAN I CARBONIFEROUS I PERMIAN 3 JURASSIC 1 CRETACEOUS
  16. 16. 250 mya after Redfern, R. (2002) ORLGLNS, the Evolution of Continents, Oceans and Life, Weidenfield & Nicolson
  17. 17. Efioirtmoefioot @ti Gino
  18. 18. D'3@r? Utoa1iBD@Ln I My @iCt one B fl*kiEU&1L”rDf§fl@ ©@g 5,. Q 35,. .. I ' R 1@@ million years ago
  19. 19. fioirimofaion oft Gino g All-elonfale ©@*». a vast! ‘ 50 million years ago
  20. 20. TERTIARY VOLCANIC PROVINC Tertiary Central Complexes m Tertiary dyke swarm I Tertiary lava fields after Emeleus and Gyopan, British Tertiary Volcanic Province, GCR, 1992
  21. 21. r. : fr #4. ‘Ivy 1
  22. 22. ifiomnnagfiiom H oil Gino ' oiosoni day siinolio Aialonoio @@o. I A I O
  23. 23. . . . . ) warm shallow current . . . .) cold salty deep current “A ‘logo for climate change’: . _ Broecker’s diagram of the ocean conveyor, """" ' ' which takes surface water from the arctic on a thousand—year submarine odyssey, ending in the Atlantic Gulf Stream (the North Atlantic Drift) that warms Europe. The conveyor appears to switch abruptly on and off, and, in the process may dictate the planets climate. ” Fred Pearce, "The Last Generation”, 2006
  24. 24. Thormohallno clrculatlon THE OCEAN CONVEYOR Salinity (PS8) 32 34 36 38
  25. 25. 1 ,7 /1“ D, ' gaff» Glaciation ill BI‘I'CaI. IIZ ‘7 - as , 24, About 2.4 million years ago the Earth’s climate cooled, 11’ 6”’ :9 .221» . / . . . A 4 , I allowing the development of glaciers and ice 5:; .. .- / ; sheets which, at their maximum covered 5%, - ‘ . . . J "1 *' ' most of mainland Britain. re '7 These cold episodes were . &, called glacials and were - ' &’ 1' separated by +. as warmer interg| acia| s~ .5 Lu‘/ ,— -/ ‘', .r——-’'47/-K’ supporting broad| eayed forests. It is believed that there may have’ been as many as 3 10 such climatic oscillationsfxfi/ “lf , v_/ 1 I '
  26. 26. c in (.7 is lot Or is” is El
  27. 27. / Du‘nd§lf. Linn / / . -'/ i / / K/ '| / " ‘ iiieii{/ g.97ARK ‘ ’ Ax 3 / —~
  28. 28. Peregrine Watch Sltet / oinganiinn , .-/ / //
  29. 29. , Kaunas and Kettle I-lolos cant: rs Eslur complex - 4 .
  30. 30. D l-iighland Till D Southern Upland Till E) Mixture of both MAP OF THE GLACIATION
  31. 31. Moltwater Drainage may be. .. G ACIER ICE If
  32. 32. 1 ‘ . /‘L siuoa. i>. .iiiTT‘ ‘ L i‘ snodunii , ., i~i. ii ’, ‘,f, M,, Ni Hon r . . l , , ‘ V Kaixciiiaw / ‘ i V ) I : L “ 2 n F’ i’‘’’ / / Clydesdale ' ’ ' / ‘V _ I l‘ Forest Dralnag ~ . ‘w. .u§7rr——. _., __ . .__, ‘ 7 i Bridge K‘ , Rydln Hon . Blackpu l» Hots . Ionlballn Cd)! ”‘ (rem: -Iu of-_3/‘,5 . s o“ Wu! End rfl: I ix‘) It W’ »tI. a . ‘E’/ I ‘ . / ‘ i r); (:, .{‘'’7‘v<ii: §Ho. n:‘ / Tu» 1*) K’
  33. 33. I V’. Uadlnetninfli _t . -, , fl . no
  34. 34. 'o_ . " ‘ . yr‘ 1 " I‘ . 5''§''‘J’" } _. ’ ~-'. i, - ' ‘ JR? ’-U. :1‘; .1 ‘: "" 1 O _; ‘o; “ I _V , .’. ”_-~. .-$zee". ?"' _i ‘. %’f‘ . i'_"l; T
  35. 35. S0 Location of ‘Ra’ an Tinto Hi" $3 > fij 7/4/1aurice’s‘7’: ‘V_: . 7.. . . —,, ... .,. ._, _r V Martingill V, C/ eucfi Tinto Hill ” 600," S 3‘: ._ I‘ I’ I ,1.» > Cliffs S Main areas ol sorted stripes Contours at ; Summnr 500 Somintervals 711 heights — W paths in metres ' ‘ Stream : | 36,99 To Wuston; 1 from Anderson, David, (2004), Glacial and Periglacial Environments
  36. 36. gt’ . .. o . _ n x. x . _ , . _ I 4 V . .. . x . .m Z. V . , . . _ z. . . . r 4 . - _ . s , , M, . . . V . . V . . . .
  37. 37. [, ., . L. "0 : 1. .7 rs.
  38. 38. 3.; re. V A L_. =§! .“! coarse debris finer debris coarse debris finer debris coarse debris finer debris 15-35 cms 1-2cms 15-35 cms 1-2cms 15-35 cms 1-2cms frost susceptible frost susceptible frost susceptible
  39. 39. coarse debris finer debris coarse debris finer debris coarse debris finer debris 15-35 cms 1-2cms 15-35 cms 1-2cms 15-35 cms 1-2cms frost susceptible frost susceptible frost susceptible This process maintains the process of lateral sorting - frost thrust - as larger stones will settle in the coarse debris furrows.
  40. 40. K-‘£"C“4t 'g~. -",2.-‘: .‘ ‘-r= ;.. - . < -‘:2? era. vi Q
  41. 41. ‘ V» . v xi 1 _. o., 1 I. /4/ll vv/ ,V urtllll K. » . ..aI1.. .I aw, r. . . >, /K __, I ri JV

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