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The Italian Renaissance► Renaissance rebirth► Italian Renaissance rebirth of ancient Greek & Roman worlds► Characteristics Secular Urban society (City-states) Age of Recovery New view of human ability & worth
Origins of the Renaissance► European trade with Asia increased during the 1300s.► 2. Italian merchants organized much of this trade.► 3. Trade cities in Italy grew wealthy.► 4. They competed to create works that would increase the prestige of their cities. Genoa Milan Venice
Origins of the Renaissance (cont)► 5. Florence became a center for banking, art, culture, and literature.► 6. Cosimo de’ Medici wanted to make Florence the most beautiful city.► 7. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread throughout Europe.
Important City-States of the Renaissance Palazzo ► Florence Contarini del Bovolo, ► Rome Venice ► Venice ► GenoaGenoa Towers, ► MilanFaçade andbell tower, ComuneSanta Maria gi Milano,del Fiore, MilanFlorence
Italian City States – Not yet the nation of ITALYEach Italiancity-state hadits own wealthyruler. Italian Trade Routes – Notice the impact on Italy
Florence► Center of art, literature, and culture.► Florence became wealthy from the manufacturing of wool.► Later Florence became the banking center of Italy.► The Medici family were the greatest bankers in Florence.
Florence► The Renaissance started in Florence and spread throughout Europe.► Competition between the Italian city-states led to advances in literature, architecture, art, music, science, and education.
Medici Family► Ruled Florence, 13th 17th Centuries► Aimed to make Florence the most beautiful city in the world – Became Patrons of the Arts. Commissioned artist (incl. da Vinci, Raphael & Michelangelo)► Lorenzo (The Magnificent) – created peace among Italian states, ended w/his death, 2 years later FR invades
Rome► Home of the Catholic Church► Popes commissioned famous artists and architects to beautify Rome. Michelangelo, Raphael, and Botticelli all produced major works in Rome.
► The popes employed the best artists Rome and architects of the Renaissance to build and decorate the most opulent churches in in the world.► Michelangelo designed the finest example of Renaissance architecture in Rome, the Piazza del Campidoglio (bottom left). He also designed the dome of St. Peter’s Basilica (bottom right).
Venice► Venice was the wealthiest city- state of the Renaissance.► It was a port city on the Mediterranean.► Venice maintained hundreds of merchant ships and warships, and thousands of sailors.
Genoa► Genoa is located on the Mediterranean.► Genoa was one of two main port cities in Italy during the Renaissance.► Genoa was one of the wealthiest city-states of the Renaissance.► Dominated trade in the Mediterranean Genoa Harbor
► Milan dominated the inland trade routes because it was the Milan gateway to Italy from the north.► Milan is the site of Santa Maria delle Grazie, the cathedral where Leonardo da Vinci painted The Last Supper in the dining hall.
Niccolo Machiavelli► IT philosopher, diplomat, poet, musician, playwright..► Best known for The Prince – realist politics Rulers should behave like a lion (aggressive and powerful) and at other times like a fox (cunning and practical) “The Ends Justify the Means” “It was better to be feared than to be loved” All this done to keep peace and stabilize power► 1st to publicly suggest immoral behavior for govt stability
Renaissance Society► Strict Class society Nobility – most powerful, but smallest group ►Strict rules and expectations ►Born not made or earned Townspeople ►Wide range of wealth, from rich to poor ►Provide goods & services Peasants – weakest, but largest group ►More freedoms as serfdom decreased ►Mainly lived in rural areas, so were least impacted by Renaissance
Italian Renaissance Humanism► Stressed that man was the center of the universe and had dignity and value► Humanism – intellectual movement based on the classics Study – grammar, rhetoric (debate), poetry, philosophy & history (the Humanities)► Ren Educations – based on humanism Goal – create complete citizens► Vernacular Literature – written in common lang Dante, Chaucer, Pizan
Petrarch: “Father of Humanism”► Petrarch was a scholar and poet who was responsible for the recovery of manuscripts and works of Greek and Roman writers.► He traveled throughout Europe recovering manuscripts of Cicero and other Roman authors that had been lost in monastery libraries.► Petrarch, like other writers of Francesco the time, wrote in Latin. Petrarch
Dante Alighieri► “Fatherof the Italian Language”► Wrote The Divine Comedy.► The Divine Comedy is considered one of the greatest works of Italian and world literature.► Dante was first to write in the vernacular, the language used in everyday life. Until his time, all European literature was Dante written in Latin. Alighieri
The Artistic Renaissance in Italy► Rome became the center of Renaissance art in the 1500s. Pope Alexander VI: most notorious of the Renaissances popes; spent huge sums on art patronage.► 3 Masters of the High Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo Raphael► Sculpture & Architecture are include in Renaissance Art, both drew from Greek & Roman influenences
New Artistic Techniques► Fresco – watercolor on fresh plaster► Law of Perspective► Study of human anatomy► GOAL – imitate nature From Michelangelo’s Sketch Book
Leonardo da Vinci► Master of realism & perspective► Studied human anatomy (cadavers) to be as accurate as possible► Sculptor, painter, astronomer, inventor – a true “Renaissance Man”
Leonardo da Vinci The Last SupperA page from one of da Vinci’snotebooks, he “coded” his workby writing backwards. He couldread it, but most other peoplewould need a mirror to read it.
Raphael Santi►1 of the top Renaissance painters► Especially known for his “Madonnas” – paintings of Mary the mother of Jesus► A major artist in the Vatican Madonna of the Meadows Madonna del Granduca
Raphael Santi School of Athens - fresco in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican. Thought to be Raphael’s masterpiece .
Raphael SantiThe bracketed names are the contemporary characters from whom Raphael is thoughtto have drawn his likenesses. 6: Pythagoras? 7: Alexander the Great? 12: Socrates?13: Heraclitus (Michelangelo) 14: Plato holding the Timaeus (Leonardo da Vinci)15: Aristotle holding the Ethics? 16: Diogenes of Sinope? 17: 18: Euclid or Archimedeswith students 20: Ptolemy? R: Apelles (Raphael)
Michelangelo Buonarroti► Painter,sculptor and architect► Most famous for work in Vatican City Vatican City St. Peter’s Bascillica (large domed building) – designed by Michelangelo (St. Peter’s Square – designed by Bernini)
Michelangelo Well known for his frescoes in the Sistine Chapel. The ceiling illustrates the stories of the Book of GenesisThe Creation of Adam The Last Judgement On the Alter Wall of the Sistine Chapel.
Michelangelo, the sculptor The Pieta – marble statue of a crucified Jesus being held by his mother Mary. In St. Peter’s Basilica.
Michelangelo, the sculptor David – carved from one piece of marble from 1501 to 1504. Said to be proportionally perfect, though David is 17 feet tall
Northern Italian Renaissance► Centered in Low Countries – Belg, Lux, Neth► Due to weather- few frescoes Stained glass, wooden panels, canvas► Janvan Eyck – Flemish, perfected use of oil paints Oils allow greater variety of color & detail Portrait of a Man in a Turban , probably a self-portrait, painted 1433
Albrecht Durer► German►1 of greatest Northern Renaissance artists► Revolutionized woodcuts► Studied in Italy on several different occasions
Architecture► Architectural design returns to the classical styles of Rome and Greece.► Public buildings, homes and villas are designed using Greek and Roman architectural styles.► Renaissance buildings feature columns, domes, and vaulted ceilings.► Brunelleschi designs the first domed building.► Perspective becomes important in architecture.
Donato BramanteSt. Peter’s Basilicain Vatican City.Started in 1506;Completed in 1626.
The Printing Press► Johannes Gutenberg was a German goldsmith and printer.► Gutenberg was the first to develop movable type. This allowed for mass production of books.► Gutenberg’s invention revolutionized book-making in Europe.► Gutenberg was the key figure in spreading the Renaissance.► His invention of movable type is still considered the most important invention in history.
IMPACT► Much easier to publish books► Increased literacy► 1450-1500, 20 million books printed covering 35,000 topics► Vernacular Literature – written in common language Dante, Chaucer, Shakespeare
Writers of the Renaissance► With the printing press. books become more affordable and more people (mostly wealthy) learn to read► Dante, Petrarch and Machiavelli were all important writers of the time► But there were more…
Miguel de Cervantes► Cervantes was a Spanish novelist, poet, painter, and playwright. He was born in La Mancha, Spain.► Cervantes wrote the novel Don Quixote, the most influential work of literature to come out of the Spanish Golden Age.► Cervantes was a man of adventure. It was said that he left Castile because of a duel.► Cervantes got the idea for Don Quixote while serving one of two prison terms for irregularities in his bookkeeping as a tax collector and purchasing agent.
New Words Abound…Alligator Laughingstock WorthlessCritical Lonely ZanyEquivocal LuggageEyeball ManagerEyesore PukeGloomy TortureBut where did they come from?
William Shakespeare ► Shakespeare is considered the greatest writer and dramatist of all time. ► Shakespeare wrote Romeo and Juliet, Merchant of Venice, Julius Caesar, A Midsummer’s Night Dream, Henry IV, Henry V, Much Ado About Nothing, Twelfth“All the world’s a stage, Night, Hamlet and more.and all the men andwomen merely players ► Shakespeare wrote 38 plays, 154there, they have their exitsand their entrances, and sonnets, two narrative poems,one man in his time playsmany parts….” and other poems.William Shakespeare
Shakespeare► William Shakespeare (1564-1616)– Elizabethan era Greatest of English Renaissance authors His work reflected the Renaissance ideas of classical Greek and Roman culture, individualism and humanism Wrote comedies, tragedies, histories and sonnets Known for the “timelessness” of his work Close to 300 movies and TV adaptations have been made of Shakespeare’s work (e.g. Ten Things I Hate About You, a rendition of The Taming of the Shrew)
Contributions of the Renaissance► Invention of the Gutenberg Press► The banking industry► Exploration, colonization of world► Expansion of trade► Humanism, individual is the center of the universe► Reintroduction of Greek and Roman knowledge and philosophy► Gateway to modern art forms► Expansion of Greek and Roman architecture and sculpture► Increased scientific knowledge, and desire to know more
The Italian Wars (1494-1559)► Powerful IT monarchs & foreign countries (SP, FR, HRE, Ott Emp…) vied for control► Charles I (SP) allowed sack of Rome (May 5, 1527) Pope Clement forced to flee Aftermath: ►End of Roman Renaissance ►Damaged Papal prestige ►SP dominant power in IT ►Charles V given freedom to act on Reformation in Germany FYI – In commemoration, all new Swiss Guard members are sworn in on May 6 of each year.
THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION► Religious reforms dividing western Christianity► Roman Catholic Church criticized for abuse of power and corruption► Christian Humanists–wanted to reform Church Believed through reason, and studying the classics one could become more pious(Christ-like) Desiderius Erasmus–father of Christian Humanism ►Suggested reforming from within the Church
Desiderius Erasmus ► Erasmus was a Dutch scholar, humanist, and theologian. ► Erasmus was ordained a Catholic priest, but never practiced priestly duties. ► Instead, he studied theology and classical Greek at the universities of Paris and Cambridge. ► Erasmus was critical of some of the practices and doctrines of theDesiderius Catholic Church. Erasmus ► Erasmus sought to reform the Catholic Church.
Calls to Reform the Church► In Praise of Folly - by Erasmus Best-seller (only the Bible sold more by 1550) Erasmus was a devout Catholic who sought to reform the Church, not destroy it Criticized immorality and hypocrisy of Church leaders and the clergy The book inspired renewed calls for reform, and influenced Martin Luther
Why reform?► Popes corrupted by power & lose focus of spiritual leadership► Scientific advances contradicted the Church► People wanted to know how to save souls► Indulgences –a release of a soul from purgatory for monetary donation – a HUGE abuse of Church power!
What was the Protestant Reformation?► Priorto the Reformation all Christians were Roman Catholic► The [REFORM]ation was an attempt to REFORM the Catholic Church► People like Martin Luther wanted to get rid of the corruption and restore the people’s faith in the church► In the end the reformers, like Luther, established their own religions► The Reformation caused a split in Christianity with the formation of these new Protestant religions
MARTIN LUTHER► German Priest► Saw problems in the Church► Church believed salvation gained from faith + good work Luther thought faith alone gained salvation► Oct 31, 1517 – Posted 95 Theses on church door in Wittenburg, Ger His criticisms of Church 1000s of copies distributed through Germany
The Reformation Begins► By 1521 Luther moving toward spilt from Church► Wanted Ger princes to overthrow Papal power in Germany & est a German Church► By Jan 1521 – Luther excommunicated Summoned by Imperial Diet of HRE to Worms Called by Emperor Charles V, wanted Luther to change his ideas, Luther – “NO” Edict of Worms issued, making Luther an outlaw Luther kept in hiding by his prince
Lutheranism► Followersof Luther’s religious practices► Gained support of many German princes► 1524, German peasants revolted & hoped Luther would support them, because Luther needed the princes’ support, he did not help the peasants► Germany in turmoil – Catholic? Lutheran? To achieve peace HRE Emperor Charles V accepted the Peace of Augsburg (allowed Ger princes to choose the faith of their region)
Protestantism Spreads - Zwingli► UlrichZwingli – priest in Zurich, Switzerland► Zwinglian Reformation Banned all religious relics & images Whitewashed all church interiors No music in church services Does note merge w/Luther b/c can’t agree with the meaning of communion
Protestantism Spreads - Calvin► John Calvin replaces Zwingli (killed in rel war)► French, fled for safety to Switzerland► 1536 – began reforming Geneva, Switz. Created a church govt of elect & laity Used consistory (moral police)► Sent missionaries thru Eur to convert Cath.► Ideas spread FR, Neth, Scot…► Mid 16th C – Calvinism more pop than Lutheranism
Reformation in England► Political, not religious motives for reform► Henry VIII – King of England Needs a male heir to carry on the Tudor Dynasty Married Catherine of Aragon (Aunt of Charles V,HRE Emperor) Have a daughter, Mary No son, so Henry wants a divorce! In the Catholic Church, you need an annulment, granted by the Church. The Pope grants it for a King.
Reformation in England (cont)► The Pope refused to grant the annulment, too political (King of Eng vs. HRE Emperor)► After a long argument, Henry decided to break from Catholic Church► Archbishop of Canterbury granted divorce► Act of Supremacy(1534) est Church of Eng King control over doctrine, appointments, etc Dissolves Cath claims, sells land & possessions Remained close to Cath teachings
Henry & his wives► Henry was desperate for a son. So much so he married 6 times!!► The saying goes… Divorced, Beheaded, Died Divorced, Beheaded, SurvivedHorrible Histories
The Church of England► 1547 – Henry died His 9 year old son, Edward VI, took the throne► The Church of England- aka Anglican Church Became more Protestant Angering Catholics► 1553 – Edward dies His half-sister Mary (Catholic) takes throne She wants to restore Catholicism “Bloody Mary” has 300+ Prot burned as heretics Increases tensions btw Cath & Prot
The Catholic Reformation► Protestantismspreading rapidly through Eur► Church sees need to reform Raises the standards of the clergy Inspired the Church with a renewed zeal and morale Contributed significantly to producing the Catholic Church as we know it today.► Pillars of Catholic Reformation 1. Reform of Papacy 2. Society of Jesus (Jesuits) 3. Council of Trent
The Papacy► Corruption had to be addressed► Pope Paul II led papal reform Oversaw the creation of the Jesuit order Opened the Council of Trent Revived the Inquisition
The Jesuits ► Most significant agency of Catholic reform ► Founded by Ignatius of Loyola Spanish soldier Injured in battle ►Had a conversion during recovery, dedicated himself to the Church
Role of Jesuits► Missionaries Convert former and non- Catholics► Urged the religious education of children► Devoted to religious and secular education Secondary schools Colleges/Universities Seminaries
Council of Trent► Met over 18 year period (1545-63)► Reaffirmed Catholic teaching Including 7 sacraments Maintained salvation was gained through faith and good works► More strict rules for clergy Incl more education for priests ►Each diocese established a seminary► Banned indulgences!!
The Inquisition ► Church’s way to suppress heresy ► Infamous for its cruelty ► Followed strictly in Spain, Portugal and Rome ► Some countries, like France, refused